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From a sociological perspective, explanations for Essay

criminal- ity are found in two levels which are the
subculture and the structural explanations. The sociological explanations emphasize aspects of
societal arrangements that are external to the actor and compelling. A sociological explanation is
concerned with how the structure of a society or its institutional practices or its persisting cultural
themes affect the conduct of its members. Individual differences are denied or ignored, and the
explanation of the overall collective behavoir is sought in the patterning of social arrangements that
is considered to be both outside the actor and prior to him (Sampson, 1985). That is, the social
patterns of power or of institutions which are held to be determinative of human action are also
seen as having been in existence before any particular actor came on the scene.

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In lay language,
sociological explanations of crime place the blame on something social that is prior to, external to,
and compelling of any particular person. Sociological explanations do not deny the importance of
human motivation. However, they locate the source of motives outside the individual and in the
cultural climate in which he lives. Political philosophers, sociologists, and athropologists have long
observed that a condition of social life is that not all things are allowed. Standards of behavior are
both a pro- duct of our living together and a requirement if social life is to be orderly. The concept
of a culture refers to the perceived standards of behavior, observable in both words and deeds, that
are learned, transmitted from generation to generation and somewhat durable.

To call such behavior
cultural does not necessar- ily mean that it is refined, but rather means that it is cultured–
aquired, cultivated, and persistent. Social scientists have invented the notion of a subculture to
describe variations, within a society, upon its cultural themes. In such circumstances, it is assumed
that some cultural prescrip- tions are common to all members of society, but that modifica- tions
and variations are discernible within the society. Again, it is part of the definition of a subculture, as
of a culture, that is relatively enduring. Its norms are termed a style, rather than a fashion, on
the grounds that the former has some endurance while the latter is evanescent. The quarrel comes,
of course, when we try to estimate how real a cultural pattern is and how persistent.

The
standards by which behavior is to be guided vary among men and over time. Its is in this change
and variety that crime is defined. An application of this principle to crimin- ology would find that
the roots of the crime in the fact that groups have developed different standards of appropriate
behavior and that, in complex cultures, each individual is subject to competing prescriptions for
action. Another subcultural explanation of crime grows readily out of the fact that, as we have seen,
social classes experience different rates of arrest and conviction for serious offenses. When
strata within a society are marked off by categories of income, education, and occupational prestige,
differences are discovered among them in the amount and style of crime. Further, differences are
usually found between these social classes in their tastes, interests, and morals.

Its is easy to
describe these class-linked patterns as cultures. This version of the subcultural explanation of
crime holds that the very fact of learning the lessons of the subculture means that one aquires
interests and preferences that place him in greater or lesser risk of breaking the law. Others argue
that being reared in the lower class means learning a different culture from that which creates the
criminal laws. The lower- class subculture is said to have its own values, many of which run
counter to the majority interests that support the laws against the serious predatory crimes. One
needs to note that the indicators of class are not descriptions of class. Proponents of subcultural
explanations of crime do not define a class culture by any assortment of the objective indicators or
rank, such as annual income or years of schooling.

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The subcultural theorists is interested in
pattern- ed ways of life which may have evolved with a division of labor and which, then, are called
class cultures. The pattern, however, is not described by reference to income alone, or by
reference to years of schooling or occupational skill. The pattern includes these indicators, but it is
not defined by them. The subcultural theorist is more intent upon the variet- ies .

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From a sociological perspective, explanations for Essay
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criminal- ity are found in two levels which are the subculture and the structural explanations. The sociological explanations emphasize aspects of societal arrangements that are external to the actor and compelling. A sociological explanation is concerned with how the structure of a society or its institutional practices or its persisting cultural themes affect the conduct of its members. Individual differences are denied or ignored, and the explanation of the overall collective behavoi
2019-02-12 08:18:36
From a sociological perspective, explanations for Essay
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