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Chapter 13 Renaissance Terms

Italian Renaissance
The period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world; cultural period
Jacob Burckhart
19th century cultural Renaissance historian; claimed was in distinct contrast to the Middle Ages
City-States
A city and the area surrounding it that is independently governed; (Northern Italy) Genoa, Venice, Milan and Florence developed international trade
Signori
(despots); One person in total charge
Oligarchies
A political system governed by a few people
Commenda System
A “merchant-adventurer” took the goods to the destination for the merchant for 1/3 of the profit; system of trust
Condottieri
Mercenary generals of private armies that were hired by cities for military purposes
Republic of Florence
Center of the Renaissance during the 14th and 15th
centuries; Dominated by the Medici family; Banking center of Italy
Medici Family
aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century
Cosimo de’ Medici
Allied with other powerful families of Florence and became unofficial ruler of the republic and most powerful of the Medici rulers.
Lorenzo de’ Medici
Significant patron of the arts (son of Cosimo)
Duchy of Milan
Ruled by Sforza family after 1450; major enemy of Venice and Florence until Peace of Lodi
Sforza Family
The family that ruled the Duchy of Milan after 1450.
Republic of Venice
Longest lasting of Italian states; greatest naval and trading powers of it’s time
Papal States
Popes served both as religious and political leaders; controlled much of central Italy
Naples (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies)
Included southern Italian region of _____ and the island of Sicily; Only Italian city-state to officially have a “king”; Controlled by France between 1266-1435; Controlled by Spain after 1435
Charles VIII
Milan’s despot, Ludovico “the Moor,” encouraged French King _______ to invade Naples, the traditional enemy of Milan.
Girolamo Savonarola
Unofficial leader of Florence between 1494 and 1498; Anti-Renaissance Man (burned books); burned at the stake
Niccolò Machiavelli “The Prince”
The quintessential political treatise of the 16th century; “the ends justify the means”; “better to be feared than to be loved”; the ruler’s handbook for centuries in Europe
Cesare Borgia
Son of Pope Alexander VI; Ambitions of uniting Italy while in control
Sack of Rome 1527
Armies of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V attacked Rome which symbolized the end of the Renaissance
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor and king of Spain at the same time; carried of Sack of Rome
Humanism
Revival of antiquity in philosophy, literature and art.
Virtù
“The quality of being a man”; idea of excelling in all of one’s pursuits
Civic Humanism
Idea that education should prepare leaders who would be active in civic affairs
Petrarch
The “father of humanism”; Considered the first modern writer; Claimed that the Middle Ages were the “Dark Ages”; He was perhaps the first to use critical textual analysis to ancient texts; used Italian vernacular literature.
Bocaccio “Decameron”
Consisted of 100 earthy tales that comprise a social commentary of 14th century Italy; Aimed to impart wisdom of human character and
behavior (especially sexual and economic misbehavior); he made encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology
Leonardo Bruni
First to use the term “humanism”; One of the most important of the civic humanists; Served as a chancellor in Florence; Wrote a history of Florence, perhaps the first modern history, and wrote a narrative using primary source documents and the division of historical periods
Lorenzo Valla “Elegances of the Latin Language”; “On the False Donation of Constantine”
Claimed the Donation of Constantine as fraud; expert of Latin language; devote Catholic; served under Pope Nicholas V
“Latin Vulgate”
The authorized version of the Bible for the Catholic Church
Marsilio Ficino
Influential humanist philosopher of 15th century; Founded the Platonic Academy (spread works of Plato throughout Europe); translated Plato’s works into Latin for European access
Pico Della Mirandola “Oration on the Dignity of Man”
Member of Platonic Academy; Most famous Renaissance work on human nature; Humans created by God so we’re given potential for greatness and union with God; free will to choose your direction
Baldassare Castiglone “Book of the Courtier”
Most important Renaissance work on education; must read to be a Renaissance man
Johnann Gutenberg
Created the movable printing press (one of most important inventions of humankind); allowed humanistic literature to be spread through Europe at fast speed
Quattrocento
The 1400s; Florence was the art center of the Renaissance.
Giorgio Vasari “The Lives of Artists”
Contemporary Renaissance art historian who left valuable information about Renaissance artists and their works
Cinquecento
The 1500s; Rome was the art center of the Renaissance
Pope Alexander VI
Most notorious of the Renaissance popes; spent lots on art patronage
Perspective
Artistic technique that shows three dimensions on a flat surface
Chiaroscuro
The use of light and dark in a work of art to give an illusion of depth.
Stylized Faces
More generic faces; used in Middle Ages
Sfumato
Developed by da Vinci; technique of blurring and softening sharp outlines; smoky
Contrapposto
Placing the weight to one leg more than the other; popular on sculptures
Greek Temple Architecture
Triangular pediments; Greek columns; Roman arches and domes
Giotto
Considered the first Renaissance painter; used chiaroscuro
Brunelleschi “Il Duomo”
Dome builder; built the Santa Maria Dome; considered the “father of perspective”
Lorenzo Ghiberti “Gates of Paradise”
Sculptor; won contest against Brunelleschi; one of the greatest sculptures of all time; bronze doors in the Florentine baptistery
Donatello “David”
Sculptor; bronze statue (first since antiquity); first Renaissance artist to use nude figure in a sculpture
Masaccio “Expulsion of Adam & Eve”
First Renaissance painter to paint nude figures in 3D; painting shows tremendous emotion
Sandro Botticelli ” Birth of Venus”
Painter; good example of humanism painting because the subject is the Roman goddess of love
High Renaissance
Centered in Rome and the Popes provided tremendous patronage to the arts. Characteristics- balance, harmony, and restraint
Bramante
Architect; His “Tempietto” marked the start of the High Renaissance; main architect of rebuilding of St. Peter’s cathedral
Leonardo da Vinci “Mona Lisa”
The Renaissance Man; paintor, sculptor, architect, engineer, writer, scientist; greatest masterpieces of all time; “Last Supper”
Raphael “School of Athens”
Many “Madonna and child” paintings; depicted the perfect picture of Humanism
Michelangelo “David”
Painter; Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; dome on St. Peter’s basilica; “Pieta” (Jesus’s body in Mary’s arms; sculpture glorifies the human body
Titian
Greatest painter of the Venetian school; used vivid colors and movement
Mannerism
An artistic reaction against the Renaissance ideals of balance, symmetry, and realistic use of color. Works were done with unnatural colors and elongated or exaggerated features.
El Greco
Greek artist; one of the greatest Mannerists; “Burial of Count Orgaz”; “Toledo”
Northern Renaissance
Still connected to the Church; not in Italy; Fuggar family
Christian Humanism
Emphasis on early Church writings that provided answers on how to improve society and reform the Church
Erasmus “In Praise of Folly”
Most celebrated of all nothern humanists; made new translations of the Greek and Latin versions of New Testament; Best seller; critized immortality and hypocrisy of Church leaders; influenced Martin Luther; encouraged reform
Thomas More “Utopia”
Example of civic humanist; highest postion of any civic humanist; mixed civic humanism with realigious ideas- perfect society on imaginary island; collection of property was the problem of society
Jacques Lefevre d’Etables
Produced 5 versions of the Pslams that challenged a single authoritative version of the Bible; French humanist and example Northern Christian
Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
Spanish humanist that reformed the Spanish clergy; went after Muslims and Jews; “Complutensian Polyglot” Bible (Hebrew, Greek, Latin versions of Bible in parallel columns
Francois Rabelais
“Gargantua” and “Pantrgruel” (for entertainment; not church); secular writings gave faith in humanity
Michel de Montaigne
Developed essay form; Skepticism- doubt that true knowledge could be uptained; thus one must be tolerant of others’ views
William Shakespeare
Greatest early Renaissance author; wrote comedies, tragedies, history, sonnets; reflected Renaissance ideas
Miguel de Cervantes
Don Quixote (Picking on chivalry and old ways); one of the greatest pieces of Spanish literature
Flemish Style
Characteristics- influenced by Italian Renaissance, detailed paintings, use of oil paints, emotional, preoccupied with death
Jan Van Eyck
Most famous and inovated flemish painter; “Ghent Altarpiece” and “Arnolfini and his Wife”
Bosch
Focused on death, torment and Hell; master of symbolism and fantasy; looked surealistic; “Death and the Miser”
Peter Brueghel the Elder
Not influenced by Italian Renaissance; Focused on lives of ordinary people; “Peasant Dance” “Peasant Wedding”
Albrecht Durer
Foremost nothern Renaissance artist; wood cut work; “St. Jerome” “Knight Death”; self portraits
Hans Holbein the Younger
Portrait artist; “The Ambassadors”; many portraits of Henry VII
Fugger Family
Significant in patronizing arts; Jaco Fuggar; international banking
Christine de Pisan
“The City of Ladies”; “The Book of Three Virtues”; renaissance wonem’s survival manual; feminist; well educated
Isabella d’Este
“First Lade” of the Renaissance; inspirired to break away from traditional roles; ruled Mantua after her husband died; founded school for young women; wrote political letters; paron of the arts
Artemesia Gentileschi
One of the first female artists to gain recognition; painted historical and religious scenes; “Judith”

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Chapter 13 Renaissance Terms
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Italian Renaissance The period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world; cultural period Jacob Burckhart 19th century cultura
2017-09-06 05:41:01
Chapter 13 Renaissance Terms
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