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    Chapter 13 Renaissance Terms

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    Italian Renaissance
    The period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world; cultural period
    Jacob Burckhart
    19th century cultural Renaissance historian; claimed was in distinct contrast to the Middle Ages
    A city and the area surrounding it that is independently governed; (Northern Italy) Genoa, Venice, Milan and Florence developed international trade
    (despots); One person in total charge
    A political system governed by a few people
    Commenda System
    A “merchant-adventurer” took the goods to the destination for the merchant for 1/3 of the profit; system of trust
    Mercenary generals of private armies that were hired by cities for military purposes
    Republic of Florence
    Center of the Renaissance during the 14th and 15th
    centuries; Dominated by the Medici family; Banking center of Italy
    Medici Family
    aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century
    Cosimo de’ Medici
    Allied with other powerful families of Florence and became unofficial ruler of the republic and most powerful of the Medici rulers.
    Lorenzo de’ Medici
    Significant patron of the arts (son of Cosimo)
    Duchy of Milan
    Ruled by Sforza family after 1450; major enemy of Venice and Florence until Peace of Lodi
    Sforza Family
    The family that ruled the Duchy of Milan after 1450.
    Republic of Venice
    Longest lasting of Italian states; greatest naval and trading powers of it’s time
    Papal States
    Popes served both as religious and political leaders; controlled much of central Italy
    Naples (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies)
    Included southern Italian region of _____ and the island of Sicily; Only Italian city-state to officially have a “king”; Controlled by France between 1266-1435; Controlled by Spain after 1435
    Charles VIII
    Milan’s despot, Ludovico “the Moor,” encouraged French King _______ to invade Naples, the traditional enemy of Milan.
    Girolamo Savonarola
    Unofficial leader of Florence between 1494 and 1498; Anti-Renaissance Man (burned books); burned at the stake
    Niccolò Machiavelli “The Prince”
    The quintessential political treatise of the 16th century; “the ends justify the means”; “better to be feared than to be loved”; the ruler’s handbook for centuries in Europe
    Cesare Borgia
    Son of Pope Alexander VI; Ambitions of uniting Italy while in control
    Sack of Rome 1527
    Armies of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V attacked Rome which symbolized the end of the Renaissance
    Charles V
    Holy Roman Emperor and king of Spain at the same time; carried of Sack of Rome
    Revival of antiquity in philosophy, literature and art.
    “The quality of being a man”; idea of excelling in all of one’s pursuits
    Civic Humanism
    Idea that education should prepare leaders who would be active in civic affairs
    The “father of humanism”; Considered the first modern writer; Claimed that the Middle Ages were the “Dark Ages”; He was perhaps the first to use critical textual analysis to ancient texts; used Italian vernacular literature.
    Bocaccio “Decameron”
    Consisted of 100 earthy tales that comprise a social commentary of 14th century Italy; Aimed to impart wisdom of human character and
    behavior (especially sexual and economic misbehavior); he made encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology
    Leonardo Bruni
    First to use the term “humanism”; One of the most important of the civic humanists; Served as a chancellor in Florence; Wrote a history of Florence, perhaps the first modern history, and wrote a narrative using primary source documents and the division of historical periods
    Lorenzo Valla “Elegances of the Latin Language”; “On the False Donation of Constantine”
    Claimed the Donation of Constantine as fraud; expert of Latin language; devote Catholic; served under Pope Nicholas V
    “Latin Vulgate”
    The authorized version of the Bible for the Catholic Church
    Marsilio Ficino
    Influential humanist philosopher of 15th century; Founded the Platonic Academy (spread works of Plato throughout Europe); translated Plato’s works into Latin for European access
    Pico Della Mirandola “Oration on the Dignity of Man”
    Member of Platonic Academy; Most famous Renaissance work on human nature; Humans created by God so we’re given potential for greatness and union with God; free will to choose your direction
    Baldassare Castiglone “Book of the Courtier”
    Most important Renaissance work on education; must read to be a Renaissance man
    Johnann Gutenberg
    Created the movable printing press (one of most important inventions of humankind); allowed humanistic literature to be spread through Europe at fast speed
    The 1400s; Florence was the art center of the Renaissance.
    Giorgio Vasari “The Lives of Artists”
    Contemporary Renaissance art historian who left valuable information about Renaissance artists and their works
    The 1500s; Rome was the art center of the Renaissance
    Pope Alexander VI
    Most notorious of the Renaissance popes; spent lots on art patronage
    Artistic technique that shows three dimensions on a flat surface
    The use of light and dark in a work of art to give an illusion of depth.
    Stylized Faces
    More generic faces; used in Middle Ages
    Developed by da Vinci; technique of blurring and softening sharp outlines; smoky
    Placing the weight to one leg more than the other; popular on sculptures
    Greek Temple Architecture
    Triangular pediments; Greek columns; Roman arches and domes
    Considered the first Renaissance painter; used chiaroscuro
    Brunelleschi “Il Duomo”
    Dome builder; built the Santa Maria Dome; considered the “father of perspective”
    Lorenzo Ghiberti “Gates of Paradise”
    Sculptor; won contest against Brunelleschi; one of the greatest sculptures of all time; bronze doors in the Florentine baptistery
    Donatello “David”
    Sculptor; bronze statue (first since antiquity); first Renaissance artist to use nude figure in a sculpture
    Masaccio “Expulsion of Adam & Eve”
    First Renaissance painter to paint nude figures in 3D; painting shows tremendous emotion
    Sandro Botticelli ” Birth of Venus”
    Painter; good example of humanism painting because the subject is the Roman goddess of love
    High Renaissance
    Centered in Rome and the Popes provided tremendous patronage to the arts. Characteristics- balance, harmony, and restraint
    Architect; His “Tempietto” marked the start of the High Renaissance; main architect of rebuilding of St. Peter’s cathedral
    Leonardo da Vinci “Mona Lisa”
    The Renaissance Man; paintor, sculptor, architect, engineer, writer, scientist; greatest masterpieces of all time; “Last Supper”
    Raphael “School of Athens”
    Many “Madonna and child” paintings; depicted the perfect picture of Humanism
    Michelangelo “David”
    Painter; Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; dome on St. Peter’s basilica; “Pieta” (Jesus’s body in Mary’s arms; sculpture glorifies the human body
    Greatest painter of the Venetian school; used vivid colors and movement
    An artistic reaction against the Renaissance ideals of balance, symmetry, and realistic use of color. Works were done with unnatural colors and elongated or exaggerated features.
    El Greco
    Greek artist; one of the greatest Mannerists; “Burial of Count Orgaz”; “Toledo”
    Northern Renaissance
    Still connected to the Church; not in Italy; Fuggar family
    Christian Humanism
    Emphasis on early Church writings that provided answers on how to improve society and reform the Church
    Erasmus “In Praise of Folly”
    Most celebrated of all nothern humanists; made new translations of the Greek and Latin versions of New Testament; Best seller; critized immortality and hypocrisy of Church leaders; influenced Martin Luther; encouraged reform
    Thomas More “Utopia”
    Example of civic humanist; highest postion of any civic humanist; mixed civic humanism with realigious ideas- perfect society on imaginary island; collection of property was the problem of society
    Jacques Lefevre d’Etables
    Produced 5 versions of the Pslams that challenged a single authoritative version of the Bible; French humanist and example Northern Christian
    Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
    Spanish humanist that reformed the Spanish clergy; went after Muslims and Jews; “Complutensian Polyglot” Bible (Hebrew, Greek, Latin versions of Bible in parallel columns
    Francois Rabelais
    “Gargantua” and “Pantrgruel” (for entertainment; not church); secular writings gave faith in humanity
    Michel de Montaigne
    Developed essay form; Skepticism- doubt that true knowledge could be uptained; thus one must be tolerant of others’ views
    William Shakespeare
    Greatest early Renaissance author; wrote comedies, tragedies, history, sonnets; reflected Renaissance ideas
    Miguel de Cervantes
    Don Quixote (Picking on chivalry and old ways); one of the greatest pieces of Spanish literature
    Flemish Style
    Characteristics- influenced by Italian Renaissance, detailed paintings, use of oil paints, emotional, preoccupied with death
    Jan Van Eyck
    Most famous and inovated flemish painter; “Ghent Altarpiece” and “Arnolfini and his Wife”
    Focused on death, torment and Hell; master of symbolism and fantasy; looked surealistic; “Death and the Miser”
    Peter Brueghel the Elder
    Not influenced by Italian Renaissance; Focused on lives of ordinary people; “Peasant Dance” “Peasant Wedding”
    Albrecht Durer
    Foremost nothern Renaissance artist; wood cut work; “St. Jerome” “Knight Death”; self portraits
    Hans Holbein the Younger
    Portrait artist; “The Ambassadors”; many portraits of Henry VII
    Fugger Family
    Significant in patronizing arts; Jaco Fuggar; international banking
    Christine de Pisan
    “The City of Ladies”; “The Book of Three Virtues”; renaissance wonem’s survival manual; feminist; well educated
    Isabella d’Este
    “First Lade” of the Renaissance; inspirired to break away from traditional roles; ruled Mantua after her husband died; founded school for young women; wrote political letters; paron of the arts
    Artemesia Gentileschi
    One of the first female artists to gain recognition; painted historical and religious scenes; “Judith”

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