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    Ch 21 Late Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

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    What distinguishes Monticello from the classical architecture of Rome and Renaissance Italy?
    the function as private residence
    What term describes the philosophical shift toward more rational and scientific thought in the late eighteenth century?
    the enlightenment
    Why did jacques-Louis David prefer Nooclassism over Rococo art?
    he believed it could better serve a social purpose
    What distinguishes Angelica Kauffman’s “Cornelia Pointing to Her Children as Her Treasures” as an example of Neoclassicism?
    its message of civic virtue
    What is the subject matter of Francisco Goya’s “The Third of May, 1808?
    the Napoleonic invasion of Spain
    What shared characteristic of Romanticism can be seen in Eugene Delacroix’s “Death of Sardanapalus ” and Joseph Mallord William Turner’s “The Burning of Houses of Lords and Commons”
    loose painterly brushwork
    Who founded the Hudson River School?
    Thomas Cole
    What aspect of Romantic though contributed to the Hudson River School’s choice of subject matter?
    the celebration of nature
    Which Romantic Painter wrote about the potential benefits of photography?
    Eugene Delacroix
    Who produced the first aerial photographs?
    Henry Ossawa Tanner’s Painting “The Banjo Lesson” was intended to demonstrated
    the need for dignified images of black people
    Which earlier artist most directly inspired Edouard Manet in the composition of “Le Dejeuner sur I’herbe?
    What detail of Jean-Leon Gerome’s Pygmalion and Galatea indicates it to be a mythological scene?
    the inclusion of the cupid figure
    What distinguishes the art of Gustave Courbet from that of Eduard Manet?
    Courbet’s art was attacked as a socialistic
    What feature of “The Horse Fair” is characteristic of Rosa Bonheur’s work?
    the realistic rendering of animals
    Who inspired the figure in Auguste Rodin’s “The Thinker”
    All of the following are typical characteristics of Impressionists except…
    expression of political theme
    Which American painter befriended Edouard Manet and Edgar Degas, and exhibited with the French impressionists?
    Mary Cassatt
    Who coined the term Impressionism?
    a critic of Claude Monet
    Academic Art
    Art governed by rules, especially works sanctioned by an official institution, academy, or school. Originally applied to art that conformed to standards established by the French Academy regarding composition, drawing, and color usage. The term has come to mean conservative and traditional art.
    Art Nouveau
    An art movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Europe and the United States. Flourishing especially in the decorative arts and architecture, the Art Nouveau style emphasized curving, expressive lines based on organic shapes of flowers or vegetation.
    A term from military theory that was applied to modern art, meaning the advance guard of troops that moves ahead of the main army. Avant-garde artists work ahead of the general public’s ability to understand.
    A style of painting that originated in France about 1870. (The first Impressionist exhibit was held in 1874.) Paintings of casual contemporary subjects were executed outdoors using divided brushstrokes to capture the light and mood of a particular moment and the transitory effects of natural light and color.
    New classicism. A revival of classical Greek and Roman forms in art, music, and literature, particularly during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in Europe and America. It was part of a reaction against the excesses of Baroque and Rococo art.
    Optical Color Mixture
    Apparent rather than actual color mixture, produced by interspersing brushstrokes or dots of color instead of physically mixing them. The implied mixing occurs in the eye of the viewer and produces a lively color sensation.
    Painting characterized by openness of form, in which shapes are defined by loose brushwork in light and dark color areas rather than by outline or contour.


    1. A type of representational art in which the artist depicts as closely as possible what the eye sees. 2. Realism: The midnineteenth- century style of Courbet and others, based on the idea that ordinary people and everyday activities are worthy subjects for art.
    A literary and artistic movement of late-eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe, countermovement to the often cold formulas of Neoclassicism, characterized by intense emotional excitement, and depictions of powerful forces in nature, exotic lifestyles, danger, suffering, and nostalgia
    An official art exhibition in France, juried by members of the official French academy. See academic art.
    Divisionism is also known as
    What is a central concern in Paul Cezanne’s “Mont Sainte-Victoire”
    the formal structure of the painting
    What characteristic of Art Nouveau can be seen in Victor Horta’s stairway of the Tassel House
    an expressive, organic use of line
    Paul Gaugin’s use of line, color, and non-western subject matter to communicate spiritual meaning through this painting link him to
    What was the intent of Ant Farm’s 1975 performance “Media Burn”
    It was a critique of television news practices
    Why are artists such as Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, and Paul Gauguin sometimes called avant-garde
    they worked outside traditional channels of advancement in the art word
    How do the Romantic paintings of Enlishman Joseph Mallord William Turner differ from paintings by the impressionists in France
    his emphasis on emotional impact
    Which of the following reflects neoclassism ideas of Roman Civic virtue
    the federal style
    What feature of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec’s “At the Moulin Rouge” reveals the influence of Edgar Degas?
    the cropping and usual perspective
    Which artist is known for pointillist paintings that feature optical color mixing?
    George Seurat
    The loose brushwork and sketch-like quality of the room in Henry Ossawa Tanner’s “The Banjo Lesson” suggests which artistic influence on the artist?
    French Impressionist
    Eugene Delacroix’s expressive use of line, color, and exotic subect matter in “The Death of Saradanpalus” might be interpreted as a precursor to which movement?
    What features of Edgar Degas’s “The Balleet Class” Distinguishes his approach from that of many impressionist artists?
    its innovative composition
    How is Timothy O’Sullivan’s “Iceberg Canyon”, “Colorado River”, “Looking Above” similar Thomas Cole’s painting “The Oxbow”
    Both Consider man’s place within the grandeur of the American landscape

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