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Ch 18 art hist

1. List 3 means by which 16th century German artists became aware of the developments in Italian art
a. Catholic Italy and the Protestant Holy Roman empire engaged in economic and cultural trade
b. Humanism filtered up from Italy and spread throughout northern Europe
c. Through trade and visits to Italy, Northern humanists cultivated knowledge of classical culture, art, and literature
2. To what period of Italian art does the most brilliant period of German 16th-century art correspond?
Italian Renaissance
idealized and naturalistic portraiture
palazzo architecture
3. Who painted the Isenheim Altarpiece (Fig 18-2)?
Matthias Grunewald
Ch 18 art hist

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List 3 characteristics of Matthias Grunewald’s style
a. Religious message
b. Intense emotionalism and themes of horror and hope
c. Subtle tones and soft harmonies with a shocking dissonance of color
4. What is the subject of the praedella in Isenheim Altarpiece?
The Lamentation: the dead Christ being put into his coffin. It provided a way for patients in the hospital suffering from terrible diseases to identify with Christ; presented a common suffering. If one side of the praedella is opened, it looks like Christ’s legs have been amputated. Amputation was common among those afflicted with Saint Anthony’s Fire, a disease prevalent at the time. Saint Anthony is one of the main subjects of the triptych.
What is the subject of the central panel of the closed altarpiece?
The Crucifixion: Christ on the cross. A lamb symbolically bleeds into a chalice at Christ’s feet. Opening the left side makes it look like Christ has an amputated arm.
What is the subject of the central panel of the closed altarpiece?
The Crucifixion: Christ on the cross. A lamb symbolically bleeds into a chalice at Christ’s feet. Opening the left side makes it look like Christ has an amputated arm.
In what regard does Grunewald’s painting reflect the earlier work of Flemish painter van der Weyden?
Intense sorrow, grief and anguish in the figures’ faces and body language
5. Name the important work by Raphael that was done about the same time as the Isenheim Altarpiece. what are the differences?
School of Athens in the Apostolic Palace, Vatican City. Raphael’s work is set in architecture, has a secular subject, and is idealized (dignitas), not emotional
6. Which german artist is generally considered to have been the first to fully understand the basic aims of the Italian renaissance?
Albrecht Durer. he is the first german to become an international celebrity
Name two Renaissance masters whose works Durer copied
Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael
Durer’s interest in scientific illustration and artistic theory resembles that of
Leonardo da Vinci
7. The poses of Durer’s Adam and Eve are similar to the figures of
Apollo Belvedere by Marcantonio Raimondi and Medici Venus -classical antique sculpture he would have seen in his visits to Italy
8. Which Italian renaissance works does Durer’s Knight, Death, and the Devil (Fig 18-5) reflect?
Donatello’s Gattamelata equestrian statue; Leonardo’s horse. Accuracy in horse’s anatomy, poised horseman
Where did Durer first encounter the technique of engraving?
from his father in his goldsmith shop; when he visited Italy
What aspects of Durer’s Knight, Death, and the Devil are traditional and northern European?
Meticulous detail and realism; cross-hatching technique; natural arcadian landscape, religious subject with disguised symbolism
9. Point out those characteristics of Durer’s Four Apostles (Fig 18-6) that it shares with Italian renaissance works
Nanni di Banco’s Four Saints—. The figures have volume from the technique of chiaroscuro. similar semicircular arrangement
Which features of Durer’s Four Apostles are essentially Germanic and protestant and thus set apart from Italian art?
Germanic/Northern European: Realism instead of idealized figures–very specific; each figure has portraitlike, individualized features and are of different ages to represent the 4 dispositions and ages of man
Protestant: Durer was a follower of Martin Luther, and arranged the figures to demonstrate his Protestant allegiance. He paints Saint Peter, representing the Pope, behind St. John the Evangelist because St. John was important to Luther. John and Peter read from the first passage of the Bible, the authoritative source of religious truth. Luther’s German translations of the four apostles’books are written on the bottom of the scenes.
10. In what type of painting did Holbein specialize?
Why is Holbein believed to have left Basel for England?
Erasmus of Rotterdam urged him to escape an impending Basel civil war
List some characteristics of Holbein’s style as seen in his double portrait The French Ambassadors (fig 18-9)
Exquisite detail, sculpture-like form, sensitivity to color, faultless technique, strong sense of composition, subtle linear patterning
Though the two ambassadors have no expressions on their faces, how does Holbein interpret and contrast their characters and personalities?
Body language: Jean de Dinteville, the titled landowner, is depicted with an open pose, and the objects painted near him are of the latest military technology; they represent his interest in humanism and technology. Georges de Selve, a priest, appears as an introspective man of thought, with a more closed pose and less flashy clothing; has a hymn book at his feet
Though a secular painting, what aspects reflect late Medieval Flemish religious painting?
Hidden religious symbols, as employed by Pietrus Christus and Jan van Eyck: hidden crucifix, broken lute string, anamorphic skull represent piety, discord and memento mori themes
11. What aspects of the portrait of Francis I (Fig 18-10) relate to the italian renaissance portraiture of the early 16th century?
Secular, devoid of religion, glorified the subject, idealized figure, formalized to emphasize wealth/decorum
12. What famous Renaissance Florentine artist ended his career in the service of Francis I and according to Vasari, died in the arms of the king?
Leonardo da Vinci
What two Italian Mannerists were instrumental in bringing the Italian style to the School of Fontainebleau?
Rosso Fiorentino, Francesco Primaticcio
Which two Italian Mannerists were in charge of the architecture, sculpture, and painting of the Gallery of King Francis I at Fontainbleau?
Rosso Fiorentino, Francesco Primaticcio
Which Italian Mannerist sculptor working in France wrote one of the first modern autobiographies?
Benvenuto Cellini
13. List 3 Italian Renaissance features of the Chateau de Chambord
1. regular, orderly horizontal and vertical pattern on the 3 levels
2. arcade on the lowest level
3. palazzo serves as the model
colossal order, symmetrical, crossing technique
List 2 french features of the Chateau de Chambord
1. From roofline upward, the architecture is complicated, vertical, Flamboyant style with spiky pinnacles
2. Chateau is a country estate, not a fortress
chaotic above the palazzo level; decorations above palazzo level
14. List 3 features of the Louvre courtyard (Fig 18-12) that derive from the Italian renaissance
a. Palazzo-esque 3-level model
b. Colossal order: alternativng curved and angular pediments; engaged capitals; vertical and horizontal components; arcade on ground level
c. Design is more refined as you move up from the ground level
3 features of the Louvre that are French:
a. Double-columned pavilions framing niches
b. Profuse sculpture in the façade
c. Windows are taller and wider than Italian renaissance tradition
15. Who was the most famous Netherlandish painter at the turn of the 16th century?
Hieronymus Bosch
What aspects of his strange and often apocalyptic paintings reflects Flemish medieval transitions?
Jan van Eyck’s Ghent Altarpiece apocalyptic theme
Saint Anthony tormented by Demons
cautionary tale with disguised symbolism
16. According to Vasari, how did Jan Grossaert integrate Italian renaissance themes and stylistic elements into his native netherlandish style?
Full nudes in classical contrapposto, rendered with detail and realism with careful modeling, netherlandish polish, classical architecture in the background
While visiting Italy, what name did Jan Gossaert adopt?
Jan Mabuse (Traverso says “Marbuse”, but according to every online source, it’s Mabuse)
Which features of his Neptune and Amphitrite (18-14) are classical?
Classical nude; chiaroscuro, contrapposto stance; Doric and Ionic architecture in the background; bucrania, ox skulls used as decoration; depiction of gods of antiquity/classical heroes; celebration of the nude figure
Which features of Neptune and Amphitrite are not classical ?
Netherlandish realism; figures are much bigger/fleshier than Italian counterparts
17. List 4 new types of subject matter that became popular in 16th century Flemish art
a. disguised symbolism; cautionary tale; memento mori
b. portraits portraits
c. landscapes
d. still life
18. List 3 characteristics of Bruegel’s landscape paintings
a. Detailed human activity dominates the scene; people fill almost every inch of the landscape; romanticized peasantry (influenced by Duc de Berry’s Book of Hours)
b. Symbolic meaning behind seemingly bizarre actions (101 Proverbs)
c. Optical accuracy in linear and atmospheric perspective
d. romanticized peasantry
e. Hunters in the Snow is somewhat flat due to winter lighting; landscape is idealized (has mountains) to further romanticize the Dutch countryside; nostalgic Medieval feel
f. bird’s eye view
g. emphasis on detail
What was the general preoccupation of Bruegel’s scenes of peasant life?
Symbolic action; genre paintings disguised symbolism; romanticization of peasantry; medieval human forms ; atmostpheric and linear perspective; seasonal like Book of Hours; nostalgia for vanishing rural way of life
20. The Plateresque architectural style that prevailed in Spain from the 15th -16th centuries is a mixture of what influences?
French Gothic Flambeau—shields and pinnacles on the façade, fenestration
Muslim/Islamic-natural, patternistic
The name plateresque is derived from what Spanish word and refers to what process?
Plateresque comes from platero, a Spanish word meaning silversmith. It refers to the delicated ornamentation on the screens above portals, or doorways, which resembles elegant metalwork
21. During the reign of which Holy Roman Emperor who inherited the Spanish crown did the Italian renaissance begin to make its appearance in spain?
Charles V of Flanders. When he comes to power, Charles brings Flemish and Italian artists to cultivate the arts in the dated and feudal Spain
22. The Escorial was built by
King Philip II of Spain
23. Describe two elements of El Greco’s style that show the influence of Italian Mannerist
a. Intense emotionalism
b. Mastery of and reliance upon color (also, cool light w/ uncertain origin, elongated figures in an undefined space), chiaroscuro
c. anatomically exaggerated, inaccurate figures–appears to have never learned how to draw the human figure correctly
Describe two elements that point towards the Baroque
a. Strong sense of movement
b. Use of light to irradiate upper level of painting
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor ruling Spain and Northern Europe/Germany during 16th century. Like Philip II, devout Catholic; sponsored Renaissance-influenced arts in Spain
Francis I
French King; very Catholic, outlawed Protestantism in France. Battled Charles V for control of territory in southern France, northern Spain, Italy and the Rhinelands. Invited Leonardo da Vinci to his court to cultivate Renaissance art in France. Attempted to glorify the state; move to secularism
Henry VIII
-founder of Anglican Church, fostered The Reformation: Protestant split from Catholic church. Protestantism the official religion of England; Protestants elsewhere, like in France (Huguenots), persecuted in those Catholic kingdoms
Martin Luther
Posted 95 Theses against Catholic church, notably involving the sale of indulgences (i.e. buying your way into Heaven). Said the Bible was the authoritative source of religious truth
Philip II
“Most Catholic King” of Spain during 16th century. Battled Protestant Reformation; sponsored conquistadors settling the New World; wanted Catholic civilization of Europe and the Americas
The Reformation
Protestantism emerges as a split from the Catholic church. Produced 100 years of civil war b/w Protestants and Catholics
The Counter-Reformation
Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation; spiritual movements, restructuring of the church, Roman Inquisition
a luxurious country residence for French royalty, developed from Medieval castles
genre scene
realistically depicts scenes from everyday life (e.g. Bruegel’s Netherlandish Proverbs)
anamorphic device
a distorted image recognizable only if viewed with a special device or by looking at the painting at an acute angle
e.g. Holbein’s French Ambassadors
High Renaissance vs. Renaissance
High: idealized naturalism, perfection, classical ideal, dignitas
Renaissance: realistic, naturalistic, figures as they appear in nature, not idealized
how is the Escorial the perfect example of a renaissance building?
focus on simplicity, little decoration, pediment-capped entrance, symmetry

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Ch 18 art hist
1. List 3 means by which 16th century German artists became aware of the developments in Italian art a. Catholic Italy and the Protestant Holy Roman empire engaged in economic and cultural trade b. Humanism filtered up from Italy and spread throughout northern Europe c. Through trade and visits to Italy, Northern humanists cultivated knowl
2021-02-24 03:16:34
Ch 18 art hist
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