gg——————————————————————————–A. EconomicImperialism at home and abroad – In one generation Africa – direct possession (1902: only Liberia, founded by former American slaves remains independent) Asia and Near East: economic and diplomatic pressure Economic concessions and extra-territorial privileges: Ottoman Empire – most vulnerable; China – most vulnerable; Japan – modernizing rapidly; India – firmly in British hands; Importance to Europe: keeps fat on European economy; colonial rule a reproach to democracy; encouraged feelings of national and racial superiority; “Pan” movements – a form of imperialism Technology and science: materialism B. SocialHuman welfare: serfdom gone (except in Russia); surgery and anesthetics perfected; life span longer; Victorian middle class morality in decline; spread of literacy. Peace movements: “pipe dream of peace”. Aristocratic remainders.
Neglect of the proletariat. C. Intellectual1. European cultural heritage2.
Ideologies of progress:conservatism – delaying action not progress (aristocracy) liberalism – freedom, law, representative government (upper middle class) radicalism – remove class distinctions, anti-clerical (lower middle class) socialism – collectivist doctrine (city workers) new left – syndicalism D. Political1. the nation-state: language and race2. parliamentary government3.
parties:tied to class and ideology lack of responsibility too many of them 4. Differing formsseparation of powers only in the USA king or president a figurehead in Britain and France search for majorities in parliament Britain: the cabinet held the whip France and Italy: parliament held the whip 5. Extension of the suffrage6. Exceptions to democratizationGermany: only has external form of it, the Reichstag is a “debating chamber” Austria-Hungary: maintaining monarchy in polyglot confusion Russia: a struggle between Duma and Ministry E. Military1.
popular militarismBoer War naval building race: Admiral Tirpitz – risk theory Three-year army law: France 1913 Tripoli campaign in Italy, 1911 2. Comparative figures on army increase, 1870-1914:1870 1914Russia 700,000 1,300,000France 380,000 846,000Germany 403,000 812,000Austria-Hungary 247,000 424,000Britain 302,000 381,000Italy 334,000 305,000Japan 70,000 250,000U. S. A.
37,000 98,0003. military expenditureGermany and Russia had the largest budgets in 1914 Britain and Germany spent most per capita: Germany $8. 52 Britain $8. 53 U.
S. A. $0. 32 F. Diplomatic1. Alliance System1870 – 1890: Bismarck in control 1890 – 1907: balance against Germany 2.
Testing the systemRusso-Japanese War, 1904-5 First Morocco Crisis, 1905-6 Bosnian Annexation Crisis, 1908 Second Morocco Crisis, 1911 Haldane Mission, 1912 3. Tensions in the BalkansHapsburg Empire in turmoil South Slav Problem First Balkan War, 1912-13 Second Balkan War, 1913 ——————————————————————————–