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    AP World History – Renaissance

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    characteristics of the renaissance
    fresh perspective on the classical worlds; less emphasis on the church
    focuses on the capabilities and accomplishments of the individual
    Francesco Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio
    humanist writers that celebrate the inidividual
    how did Italy gain importance?
    it was the midpoint of the mediterranean and crusaders visited on their way to the holy land
    what were the trading empires of italy?
    genoa and venice
    how was northern italy organized?
    it wasn’t; over 250 different city-states; efforts of merchant class to address common urban issues and administration
    who were the new urban elite?
    the nobility and the merchants
    push for power based on real benefits for one’s country
    what did realpolitik focus on?
    what kind of governments were in northern italy?
    oligarchies and dictatorships
    niccolo machavelli
    author of “the prince”; wanted strong italian political leader
    cesare borgia
    consolidated central italy
    wrote “the courtier”; described the ideal behavior for social elites
    a certain ease and effortlessness
    what were the major italian city states?
    milan, genoa, florence, venice, rome, naples
    what was centered in florence?
    textile and banking
    who ruled florence?
    bankers & merchants (oligarchy)
    what did the de medici family do?
    patrons of the arts & humanist ideals
    dominican friar who preached against florence’s sinfulness
    what happened after the florentine surrender to the french?
    expulsion of the de medici family & savonarola became ruler
    what was milan recognized for?
    lavish displays of wealth & excess
    who were the powerful families in milan?
    the visconti family and the sforza family
    what kind of city was venice?
    a port city
    council of 10 and the doge
    the 10 people who ruled venice; the doge was a figurehead who was selected by the council
    renaissance popes
    both religious and political leaders
    how did naples differ from the other city states?
    less urban, more rural & feudal
    alfonso the magnanimous
    studied classically and did oil paintings
    what did motifs and themes in humanist art focus on?
    cultural patronage
    financial support of artists; a way for the wealthy to compete socially with one another
    what was the premier manifestation of the renaissance?
    what were common subjects in painting?
    characters from mythology, history, religion, and storytelling
    what techniques did renaissance artists use?
    linear perspective, foreshortening, sfumato, chiaroscuro, balance & proportion
    the contrast of light and dark in a painting
    a mural painting
    how did renaissance art show off artists’ talents?
    choices of base, medium, and subject were different from each artist, each artists’ perspectives were also different
    how was renaissance architecture built?
    with geometry, proportion, symmetry
    filippo brunelleschi
    constructor of the dome of the cathedral of florence
    a twist in the body, not standing still, showing differences in body perspective
    made free standing, nude statues
    how does the renaissance migrate?
    print, travel, trade, war
    johann gutenberg
    invented a movable metal type
    what happens as a result of the printing press?
    literary rate increases, revisit to classical thought, reemergence of latin, widespread distribution of the bible
    what was flanders the center of?
    art in northern europe
    jan van eyck
    a flemish painter who used oil paints
    dutch writer who was critical of the church
    miguel de cervantes
    spanish writer who wrote about society
    what themes did shakespeare focus on?
    secular life, universal human emotions across classes

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