characteristics of the renaissance
fresh perspective on the classical worlds; less emphasis on the church
focuses on the capabilities and accomplishments of the individual
Francesco Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio
humanist writers that celebrate the inidividual
how did Italy gain importance?
it was the midpoint of the mediterranean and crusaders visited on their way to the holy land
what were the trading empires of italy?
genoa and venice
how was northern italy organized?
it wasn’t; over 250 different city-states; efforts of merchant class to address common urban issues and administration
who were the new urban elite?
the nobility and the merchants
push for power based on real benefits for one’s country
what did realpolitik focus on?
what kind of governments were in northern italy?
oligarchies and dictatorships
author of “the prince”; wanted strong italian political leader
consolidated central italy
wrote “the courtier”; described the ideal behavior for social elites
a certain ease and effortlessness
what were the major italian city states?
milan, genoa, florence, venice, rome, naples
what was centered in florence?
textile and banking
who ruled florence?
bankers & merchants (oligarchy)
what did the de medici family do?
patrons of the arts & humanist ideals
dominican friar who preached against florence’s sinfulness
what happened after the florentine surrender to the french?
expulsion of the de medici family & savonarola became ruler
what was milan recognized for?
lavish displays of wealth & excess
who were the powerful families in milan?
the visconti family and the sforza family
what kind of city was venice?
a port city
council of 10 and the doge
the 10 people who ruled venice; the doge was a figurehead who was selected by the council
both religious and political leaders
how did naples differ from the other city states?
less urban, more rural & feudal
alfonso the magnanimous
studied classically and did oil paintings
what did motifs and themes in humanist art focus on?
financial support of artists; a way for the wealthy to compete socially with one another
what was the premier manifestation of the renaissance?
what were common subjects in painting?
characters from mythology, history, religion, and storytelling
what techniques did renaissance artists use?
linear perspective, foreshortening, sfumato, chiaroscuro, balance & proportion
the contrast of light and dark in a painting
how did renaissance art show off artists’ talents?
choices of base, medium, and subject were different from each artist, each artists’ perspectives were also different
how was renaissance architecture built?
with geometry, proportion, symmetry
constructor of the dome of the cathedral of florence
a twist in the body, not standing still, showing differences in body perspective
made free standing, nude statues
how does the renaissance migrate?
print, travel, trade, war
invented a movable metal type
what happens as a result of the printing press?
literary rate increases, revisit to classical thought, reemergence of latin, widespread distribution of the bible
what was flanders the center of?
art in northern europe
jan van eyck
a flemish painter who used oil paints
dutch writer who was critical of the church
miguel de cervantes
spanish writer who wrote about society
what themes did shakespeare focus on?
secular life, universal human emotions across classes