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The Scientific Revolution and Renaissance and Reformation

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    What factors helped bring about the Scientific Revolution?
    People questioned traditional learning and observed nature for themselves. Translations of classical texts exposed scholars to new ideas,. Discoveries by explorers showed that accepted ideas could be wrong.
    How did the work of Copernicus lead to a new view of the universe?
    It introduced a heliocentric (sun at the center) theory about the universe vs. the Bible driven belief of a geocentric (earth at the center) universe.
    How did Kepler and Galileo improve upon Copernicus’s theory?
    Kepler identified the orbits of the planets were ellipses (ovals) not circluar as Copernicus had thought. Galileo used a telescope to apply his understanding of motion and further validate Copernicus’s heliocentric theory. His observations of Venus helped confirm it.
    What were Newton’s contributions to the Scientific Revolution?
    The law of gravity was his main contribution. Main scientists had observed planets moving around the sun but this theory finally explained why.
    Outline the steps of the scientific method. Why do
    modern scientists still use this method today?
    1)State a question or problem
    2)Form a hypothesis
    3)Design and conduct an experiment the test the hypothesis
    4)Measure the results of the test
    5)Analyze the results to determine if the hypothesis is correct
    This method is still used today because it allows one scientist to repeat or compare tests under consistant techniques.
    How did scientists like Descartes and Newton explain that science could
    coexist with traditional religious beliefs?
    They used science to help explain the world God had made.
    What key inventions were made during the Scientific Revolution? How
    did these inventions increase scientists’ understanding of nature?
    Telescopes, microscopes, barometers and thermometers were all inventions of the scientific revolution. They allowed scientist to see everything from bacteria to plants and to measure everything from pressure to temperature. These tools provided scientific explanations for previous observations.
    What was Copernicus’s theory about the sun and planets? How was
    it different from what people believed before?
    He believed that the sun was the center of the universe. At that time it was commonly believed that the earth was the center.
    Why do you think most people were unwilling to believe
    Copernicus’s theory?
    The Bible stated that the earth was the center of the universe and if this truth was wrong people could cast doubt on other teachings of the church.
    What were some of the important discoveries Galileo made with
    his telescope?
    The moon’s surface was rough and uneven.
    Moon’s orbitting Jupiter.
    Venus had phases.
    How did Galileo’s discoveries help support the heliocentric theory?
    The showed that not only could planets orbit the sun but that moons can orbit planets.
    Why do you think church leaders felt so threatened by Galileo’s
    support of the heliocentric theory?
    If a major teaching (like the earth being the center of the universe) could be disproved then any teaching from the church could be challenged.
    What was the basic idea behind Newton’s law of gravity?
    All physical objects had a force of attraction between them.
    How did Newton’s work support the earlier work of Copernicus,
    Kepler, and Galileo?
    It offered a mathmaticall/scientific explanation for what earlier scientists had observed but could not explain.
    What are the steps of the scientific method?
    1)State a question or problem
    2)Form a hypothesis
    3)Design and conduct an experiment the test the hypothesis
    4)Measure the results of the test
    5)Analyze the results to determine if the hypothesis is correct
    What were some key scientific tools developed during the
    Scientific Revolution?
    Microscope, barometer, thermometer, telescope.
    What impact did the scientific revolution?
    It marked a major shift in how people thought about the natural world.
    When did the scientific revolution begin?
    When Copernicus proposed the idea that Earth and the other planets traveled around the sun.
    How did Kepler further the revolution?
    By correctly describing the planets’ orbits
    How did Galileo further the revolution?
    His discoveries supported Copernican’s heliocentric theory.
    How did Newton further the revolution?
    His law of gravity explained by planets orbited the sun and that the same laws applied everywhere in the universe.
    Who helped shape the scientific method?
    Bacon and Descartes.
    Movement following the Middle Ages that centered on revival of the interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome; French word meaning “rebirth”
    People who specialize in studying the humanities, which includes grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric.
    They believed it was important to understand how things worked; emphasized education. They viewed life as preparation for the afterlife, but also as a joy.
    Religious revolution that split the church in western Europe and created a number of new churches. , a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
    Attempt by the Catholic Church, following the Reformation, to return the church to an emphasis on spiritual matters., attempted to stop the migration of Catholics to Protestant religions by reforming the issues from within the Church.
    Paid pardons from punishment for sin.
    Government ruled by religious leaders claiming God’s authority.
    Diet of Worms
    A meeting summoned by Charles V that commanded Martin Luther to abandon his ideas. Luther refused and was branded an outlaw.
    Council of Trent
    Meeting of Church leaders in the 1500s. to clearly define Catholic doctrines for the Counter-Reformation.
    Printing Press
    A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450.
    Machiavelli wrote “The Prince”: described government in ideals; ruthless leadership necessary. (Could be considered a Humanist)
    – Sonnets – depict daily life, love
    Leonardo DaVinci
    The Renaissance man, a painter, engineer, scientist, inventor and sculptor. Famous for the Mona Lisa, and the Last Supper. ; Used mathematics to organize his paintings. (Mona Lisa, Last Supper, Visitation)
    Assumption of the virgin
    An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Michelangelo sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà, painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter’s Basilica, designing its famous dome. (biblical figures)
    Madonnas, Cherubs, WSchool of Athens
    Johannes Gutenberg
    German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press.
    Martin Luther
    a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
    Thomas More
    He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society.
    What are three causes of the Renaissance?
    *Trade with Byzantines, Africa, and Asia. New wealth from trade causes people to become patrons of the arts.
    *Humanism: Revival of Classical thought, verify truth through investigation, Education, great power of individuals, based on Cristian teaching.
    How is the Renaissance different from the Middle Ages?
    More Advances in Science, Art, and Literature. New Ideas and the world was not centred around just God anymore. People began to think for themselves. Some of the greatest writers and artists lived during this time.
    What are the similarities and differences between Northern and Italian Renaissance for art?
    Both Italian Art and northern Art strived for realism. Italian art used Chiarosuro- light and dark, they were humanist, used sfumato – blurred edges, glorified the human body, 3D, and they were religiously themed. (depicted beauty of gods)
    Northern art was less focussed on Greek/Rome idealism and less concerned about balanc/proportion, subjects were daily life not church, more criticism/reform on church, christian humanism.
    What are the similarities and differences between Northern and Italian Renaissance for Literature?
    Both the Northern and Italian Renaissance seemed to write much about daily life. Both Machiavelli and Thomas More wrote about the government. Machiavelli expressed it in ideals while More criticized it. Northern Renaissance Writers’ theme seemed to be daily life and criticism of the church. Petrarch also wrote about daily life but LOVE as well.
    How did the Renaissance Spread?
    increased trade of goods and ideas between European nations
    merchant traveling
    spread of universities
    printinig press
    writing in vernacular
    What characteristics and values were seen in Renaissance art?
    -realism + expression
    -emphasis on individualism
    -geometrical arrangement of figures
    -lights and shadowing soft edges
    -artists as personalitites/ celebs
    What impact did the Renaissance have on the church?
    They began to question the church. Protestant Reformation.
    What are the causes and effects of the Protestant Reformation?
    Martin Luther, indulgences, Theses, led to calvinism, there were abuses in the church so they need to reform, protestant took over north
    Who was Martin Luther and how did he impact the world?
    reformist that belived in justification by faith alone; wrote 95 theses (attacked sale of indulgences); organizes Lutheran church in Germany.
    Excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church is 1521.
    How did Protestantism spread?
    -people want simpler church
    -some peopledissatisfied w/ both Catholicism and Lutheranism
    -Charles V tried to stop protestantism but was busy at war
    -1520-1530- new religious groups in Germany and Switzerland
    -nearly all of Northern German becomes Lutheran
    In what ways were Protestants and Catholics similar/different?
    Protestants believed that God viewed all people of faith equally. They both believed in God but the Protestants found things in the Church that were morally wrong.
    How did the Catholic Church Respond to the Reformation?
    The Catholic Church countered the Protestant Reformation by making its own reforms. They attemped to return the church to an emphasis on spiritual matters. Campaign to stop the spread of Protestantism. Pope Paul III worked to recieve a spiritual outlook on the Catholic Church & brought inquisition to Rome. Catholics were banned from reading the listed books which were considered harmful to faith or morals.(Index of Forbidden Books) The Council of Trent defined the official Church position on matters of doctrine.
    Scientific Revolution
    Transformation in thinking that occurred during the 1500s and 1600s caused by scientific observation, experimentation and the questioning of traditional opinions.
    , the era of scientific thought in europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
    Theory developed by Copernicus that the sun is the center of the universe.
    The Medieval Theory that the Sun and Planets moved around the Earth developed by Ptolemy.
    Columbian Exchange
    The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages.
    Triangle Trade
    Europe sent fine goods to Africa, which sent slaves to North America, which sent raw material to Europe
    Atlantic Slave Trade
    the buying, transporting, and selling of africans for work in the americas
    Stated that country’s government should do all it could to increae the country’s wealth, which was measured by the amount of gold and silver they had.
    Tax on imported goods
    Treaty of Tordesillas
    In 1494 Spain and Portugal were disputing the lands of the new world, so the Spanish went to the Pope, and he divided the land of South America for them. Spain got the vast majority, the west, and Portugal got the east.
    Line of Demarcation
    Imaginary north to south line running down the middle of the Atlantic and granted Spain the west of the line and Portugal the east
    Hernan Cortes
    Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
    Francisco Pizzaro
    a Spainish explorer and conquistador who conquered the Incas in the 1520s and claimed all the land from Panama to Peru for Spain
    Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642) helped prove heliocentric theory
    Francis Bacon
    English statesman and philosopher; came up with scientific method.
    Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
    This mathematician and astronomer helped prove the sun-centered theory of the universe and said that planets orbited the sun in an eliptical manner
    Isaac Newton
    English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion.
    What are the causes and effects of the Scientific Revolution?

    Causes: Renaissance encouraged curiosity, investigation, discovery, modern day knowledge. Caused people to question old beliefs. During the era of the Scientific Revolution, people began using experiments and mathematics to understand mysteries.

    Effects: New discoveries were made, old beliefs began to be proven wrong.

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