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    S1 World History Test 3

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    Absolute Monarch
    A ruler who has complete authority over government and the lives of the people
    Bartolome de las Casas
    Spanish priest in the New World who spoke out against the brutal treatment of Native Americans by Spanish colonists.
    Investment to make money or a profit
    Catherine the Great
    Empress of Russia who began state-supported education for boys and girls; Russian ruler intrigued by the Enlightenment thinkers; spoke out against the institution of serfdom, but, not wanting to give up any power, did little in terms of real reform.
    Christopher Columbus
    Sailor from Genoa who sailed west for Spain in hopes of reaching the East Indies.
    Divine right
    The belief that authority to rule comes from God
    Ferdinand Magellan
    Portuguese captain of the ship that was to be the first to circumnavigate the world.
    Hernan Cortez
    Conquered the Aztec empire under Montezuma in Mexico, 1521.
    A Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought.
    Johannes Gutenberg
    German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe
    Limited monarchy
    Government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the ruler’s power
    Martin Luther
    German monk, priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation; Believed that only faith could gain salvation
    A person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, cause, or activity.
    The divine foreordaining of all that will happen
    Queen Elizabeth I
    Queen of England who encouraged sea captains to plunder Spanish treasure ships
    Tax on imported goods
    Thomas More
    Used his writings to call for social reforms
    A representative in the colonies who ruled in the king’s name
    William Shakespeare
    Renaissance writer who had the most far-reaching influence
    How did Renaissance art reflect the humanist interests?
    Through individual achievement
    How did the printing press affect Europe?
    More people learned to read and write.
    What did Renaissance art favor?
    the Greek and Roman style
    What does habeas corpus mean?
    Principle stating that a person cannot be held in prison without being charged with a crime
    What enabled the Spanish to conquer the Aztec and Incan empires?
    There were many factors that made the Spanish able to conquer the Aztec and Incan empires. One of these factors includes disease. The Spanish carried numerous disease that the Indians were not immune to. The populations of both empires decrease drastically due to this problem alone. Both empires were also extremely hospitable and welcoming to the Spanish, which the Spanish took advantage of. Unlike the Indians, the Spanish had gunpowder weapons and protective armor. The Spanish easily conquered both empires through gunfire and disease.
    What is encomienda?
    The right to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans in a particular area
    What ruler of Russia carried out social and economic reforms to modernize the country?
    Peter the Great
    Who headed England’s commonwealth after the English Civil War?
    What were the effects of the Catholic Reformation?
    Religious wars, new beliefs, rebellion and European expansion
    Why did Peter and Catherine want to acquire territory on the Black Sea?
    Form new trade routes; to end Russia’s landlocked situation
    How did the voyages of Columbus lead to a global exchange?
    Columbus’ voyages led to the finding of routes that were previously unknown to Europe. This encouraged other adventurers to also travel the world to discover new continents, countries, and routes. Through his own voyages and the voyages of those inspired by him, numerous trading routes were established. This led to a global exchange between numerous countries.
    What were the four results of the Thirty Years’ War?
    One result of the Thirty Years’ War was the election of Ferdinand to Holy Roman emperor. Ferdinand tried to roll back Reformation. Another result of the Thirty Years’ War was the extreme depopulation. Another result was The Peace or Westphalia which was one of the major treaties that was accepted as a result of the war. This treaty helped to end the war with peace. Finally, as a result of the war the Netherlands and the Swiss Federation won recognition as independent states. Although the Thirty Years’ War left Germany divided, Germany potentially became the most powerful nation in Europe after this war. The Netherlands and Switzerland became independent states.
    Why was economic prosperity a necessary precondition for the Renaissance?
    The Renaissance was a time of creativity and changes in politics, society, economy, and cultures. In order for these changes to occur, it was necessary for the economy and learning to prosper during the Greek and Roman eras. Also, many of the famous artists and sculptors who were founded during the Renaissance era found inspiration and portrayed images relating to religion, humanitarianism, and everyday life. The eras prior to the Renaissance were full of new beginnings in religion, government, and learning. The events that took place in the economy, government, and religion paved the way for the Renaissance.
    Why did Poland vanish from the map of Europe in the late 1700s?
    Poland rulers were unable to rid the influence of Polish nobility and accept each others power. Therefore, the divided Polish government was too weak to fight neighboring countries. As a result, Austria,, Prussia, and Russia all conquered and gained parts of Poland. This resulted in the vanishing of Poland during the late 1700s.
    Compare and Contrast the ideas of Calvin and Martin Luther?
    Martin Luther practiced praying and fasting to try to lead a holy life, but he still believed he was doomed for eternal damnation. Martin Luther later created his 95 Theses that argued that indulgences had no basis in the bible, that the pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory, and that Christians could be saved only through faith. His ideas became more and more radical as he began ugring other Christians to reject the authority of Rome. John Calvin also based his beliefs off of Martin Luther. John Calvin was one of the most important reformers to follow Martin Luther. Like Martin Luther, John Calvin also preached that the Bible was the only source of religious truth. Unlike Martin Luther though, John Calvin also preached predestination. Predestination is the idea that God determined long ago who would gain salvation.
    What political and social changes resulted from the English Civil War?
    One political change of the English Civil War resulted form the execution of the current king, Charles I. The execution resulted in shock across Europe and the clear political sign that no ruler could claim absolute power and ignore the rule of law. The execution also led to other political changes. The house of Commons abolished the monarchy, the House of Lords, and the official Church of England. England was also declared a republic, known as the commonwealth.
    Under the commonwealth many social changes took place.Under the commonwealth, puritan society thrived. Puritan preachers tired to impose a “rule of saints,” and get rid of godlessness. Puritans also spread religious knowledge and equality when it came to the Bible. Puritans pushed for social changes pertaining to marriage also. As a result marriages became based on love instead of business. The English Civil War also resulted in the changing social roles of women. The English Civil War paved not only the way for a social revolution, but also a political revolution.
    church issues pardons of sin

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