3 important causes for the change in Europe that we call the Renaissance
The fall of Constantinople (1453) brought many ancient texts to Europe. New texts lead to different ideas, but still within classical models.
The invention of the printing press by Guttenberg (1440).
Increase In trade and contact with other cultures.
What is meant by the claim that the renaissance makes the beginning of internalize individualism?
Success requires breaking with tradition rather than working well within it.
There is renewed interest in Socrates claim that to be human is to inquire into our own motivations and practices.
The self is becoming something we “have
Why was there renewed interest in Rhetoric?
First, it was viewed as an aid to contemplation and moral refinement. Second, rhetoric was considered a path to political power.
Difference between a trope and a figure?
What important issue in rhetoric did the difference between trope and a figure make important?
Style is the art of ornamenting speech. Style has these two parts.
Christine de Pisan – her focus?
Urged women to discover menaing and achieve worthy acts in their lives…her objective was to counteract the slander of the female sex so prominent in texts at the time. WOMEN’s SUCCES DEPENDS ON THEIR ABILITY TO MANAGE AND MEDIATE BY SPEAKING AND WRITING EFFECTIVELY
Madame de Scudery: How could she claim that everyday conversation was the basis of rhetoric?
Language is “the bond that holds society together, not through public speaking but through the conversation that educates and plants morality daily in ordinary people”
What were the distinguishing characteristics of the unmanista? (Italian Humanists?)
Umanista is “a teacher, or student of classical literature and the arts associated with it, including rhetoric”…these individuals wished to read ancient works for their true meanings, rejecting the limited or false meanings attributed to them during centuries of Christian Dominance in Europe.
What was the role of textual analysis in the renewing of intellectual vigor in Europe? (Higher criticism) (e.g. Lorenzo Valla)
“exposing or challenging historical myths”…”humanists successfully claimed that the ancient texts were subject to critical evaluation”
In what way was it a conservative movement (Umanista)
They bring back Aristotle’s old works
How did the humanists differ from the medieval scholastics? (umanista)
They challenged widely accepted views. always offered 2 sides.
Trying out multiple skills. For example, Henry VIII wrote music and played tennis. Elizabeth I was the best dancer at court.
The renaissance as a recovery of the classical past
Pico Della Mirandolla – What was most important about his “oration”?
Pico Dell Mirandolla – What did his oration have to say about language and human distinctiveness?
Humans could employ language to restore order to the chaotic world of nature. We created the civilized world through the humanizing tool of language, an ability possessed by humans, a freedom granted through language. Human beings are different from the other animals in their ability to choose their own destiny.
Pico Della Mirandolla – In what ways was his oration a collection of very different ideas?
The connection between rhetoric and magic, is expressed in Pico’s famous Oration on the dignity of man. Magic and rhetoric were inseparable. “Thus when wielded by a master of rhetoric, a veritable magician of language, words could produce extraordinary effects” People could be brought under control like a spell.
What was the conflict between rheotric and philosophy about?
Lorenzo Valla states that Rhetoric, not philosophy in the university setting, is the proper basis of instruction. Rhetoric was more informative than philosophy. Rhetoric was the master of philosophy.
Peter Ramus – How did he reduce the scope of rhetoric?
He proposed an alternative approach to learning that did not make reference to authorities such as aristotle or cicero at all. He saw rhetoric as merely verbal ornamentation, and thus of little consequence. Because of his influence, rhetoric lost a lot of prestige as a study. He separated thought from language.
Peter Ramus – In what way was his attack on classical rhetoric consistent with the emphasis of the Royal Academy?
It challenged accepted thoughts and views.