List the masters of the 16th century.
Leonardo, Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, Giorgione, Titian
The High Renaissance was less concerned with the rational order than with ______ and ___________ effectiveness.
visual and expressive
(a) What was the “cult of the genius”? (b) How did it influence the great masters? (c) How long did it last?
classics in their own right, equal in authority to famous monuments of antiquity
Spurred artists and their patrons to ambitious goals
What is the significance of the period 1495-1520?
most high renaissance key monuments were produced during this time
The artist ____________________________ is considered the earliest High Renaissance master?
(a) List each of Leonardo’s important works (the text shows four)
Adoration of Magi- unfinished- shows chiaroscuro (Light and dark)
Virgin of the Rocks-figures emerge from semidarkness and have a haze over them that created dreaminess/sfumato
The last Supper- expiriment with oil-tempura that did not adhere well to wall/deteriorated, balanced stability, vanishing points, Jesus at center, open door behind his head forms a halo, Jesus forms a calm triangle
Mona Lisa- layers of glaze creates a warm glow
____________ is an artistic technique used to create a dreamlike quality.
what is chiaroscuro?
light and dark
Why is The Virgin of the Rocks considered a significant work?
Leonardo was the 1st to depict hidden early life of Jesus, grace signifying a spiritual state of being
(a) The Last Supper is said to be the first what of High Renaissance? (b) Why? (c) Why did it deteriorate so quickly?
first full statement of the ideals of High Renaissance painting
The figures in The Last Supper are said to portray the highest and most difficult aim of painting, which is to depict “____________________________.”
the intention of man’s soul
Name all the fields in which Leonardo excelled.
architect, art, science
____________________________ was the most ambitious structure of the sixteenth century.
St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome
____________ created the architectural style of the High Renaissance.
(a) What did Bramante mean when he said that he would put the Pantheon on top of the Basilica of Constantine? (b) In which building did he do this and (c) How? (d) How is it different from earlier plans of Aberti for sacred architecture? (e) What early but long forgotten medium was used in this famous building? (f) Why?
to surpass the 2 most famous structures of Roman antiquity by a Christian grande building
He used concrete- it was cheaper than brick and stone and strong enough
(a) _______________ believed that his art was not a science but was a divine creation. (b) What belief made him closer than any artist of his day to classical sculpture?
His faith in the image as supreme expression
What two (2) conflicting influences created tension for Michelangelo?
Neo-Platonism and religious reforms
Why did the Pietà gain favor in Italy at this time?
the growing veneration of Mary
(a) Michelangelo’s _________ is considered the symbol of the Florence Republic. (b) This work is the best of this artist’s main concept, which is what?
heroic scale, superhuman beauty and power and swelling volume of their forms
What was unusual about Michelangelo’s technique?
he would see signs of life in a potential piece of marble, he might make small wax figures and drawings before attempting to carve
(a) Why did Michelangelo leave Rome, and more importantly, (b) why did he return?
his project at St. Peter’s was turned over to Bramante and he left in anger
He returned when the Pope half forced him to paint frescos on the ceiling of the Cistine chapel
What is Michelangelo seemingly trying to accomplish in the paintings of the Sistine Ceiling?
creation, destruction, and salvation of humans
The Creation of Adam says what about Michelangelo’s beliefs?
his own artistic creativity
(a) How and (b) why does The Last Judgment reveal great changes in Michelangelo’s depiction?
from radiant vibrancy of the ceiling piece to somber vision
How did Michelangelo spend his last 30 years and (b) why?
he received the most ambitious commission of his career
(a) Which artist represents the solitary genius, and (b) which artist, as man of the world?
Michelangelo= solitary genius
Raphael= man of the world
(a) Which artist is considered the central painter of the High Renaissance? (b) What are the hallmarks of this artist’s style?
idealization of form, grace and perfection
(a) Which work of the Stanza della Segnatura is considered Raphael’s masterpiece? (b) Why? (c) Discuss its symbolism.
School of Athens (one of the 4 frescos in Stanza della Segnatura) is his masterpiece. It embodies the classical spirit of the high renaissance
The building suggests harmony, Plato=Leonardo’s face, Socrates purple robe symbolizes Jesus (Socrates died for what he believed in) Standing on the steps are leaders of math and philosophy (gateway to higher knowledge) Pythagoros (a mathematician) had 10 tables= Diving #10 and 10 commandments
Why are Raphael’s portraits outstanding?
he didn’t flatter the subjects or impose conventions on them
Raphael is thought to have influenced a later group of artists called the _________
(a) ____________ dominated painting in the late fifteenth to early sixteenth centuries. (b) Explain the festive quality that dominates his paintings.
the subjects appear as though they belong to a long lost golden age, move with joyous freedom
Titian was the most sought after portraitist after Raphael’s death. Why?
dreamy intimacy, reflects to style of Giorgione
(a) What did Titian and Michelangelo disagree about? (b) Why is the subject important to the art world of today?
Michelangelo had less sensual poses, Michelangelo also did many studies and transferred them onto canvas 1st
Titian painted and corrected as he went along
Merits of line vs. color
Why does art critic Bernard Berenson think Titian is so important?
He is the only painter who expressed nearly all of the Renaissance that could find expression in painting
What is the outcome for the viewer when Titian contemplates Christ Crowned with Thorns?
mood of serenity arising from deep religious feeling rather than the drama- purpose vs. the actual suffering