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    Renaissance and Art in Italy (Chapter 2 sections 1&2)

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    Early Renaissance period
    define renaissance
    a cultural movement that represents new ideas, a change from the middle ages
    What is considered to be the beginning of the modern period?
    define reformation
    religious revolution/rebellion against the catholic church, leading to the creation of new christian churches
    How did the renaissance view the individual and what impact did this have on Western views of the roles of men ad women?
    Beginning with the Renaissance, the world beings to divide with men playing a more public role and women playing a more domestic role
    renaissance timeline
    Who was the “father of the Renaissance”
    What does the word Renaissance mean?
    rebirth of culture
    What was the renaissance?
    rebirth of interest in the world inspired by Greece and Rome
    During the renaissance, there was a desire to balance both ________ and _________.
    spirituality, worldliness
    How did the people of the renaissance view the middle ages?
    they saw the medieval period as a destruction/distraction of humanity
    The people of the renaissance believed that the middle ages were too focused on ________.
    In the middle ages, there was a lack of _______.
    The middle ages was also known as (2)
    The dark ages, the age of faith
    Describe why the middle ages can be referred to as the “age of faith”
    There was a strong importance of religion. They focused on salvation and they rejected the world.
    How did people of the middle ages view the man and human nature?
    They believed in the sinfulness of man, and the frailty of human nature.
    How did the middle ages view one’s place in the world?
    They believed that all of creation was rigidly in one spot and you can never change your spot in the world
    What happened to culture in the renaissance?
    There was a cultural revival
    The Renaissance believed in a balance of what?
    reason and faith (living in THIS world)
    The “balance of reason and faith” during the renaissance focused on what?
    living in this world
    During the Renaissance, how did they view human possibilities?
    They believed there was a limitless of human possibility (the “wonder” of man)
    For people of the Renaissance, life was about …
    being all that you can be
    Leonardo Bruni can be credited with
    Leonardo Bruni used the word Humanitas to…
    describe a system of education designed to produce an excellent individual
    What is Italy’s political stance during the beginning of the Renaissance?
    Italy is divided politically, it doesn’t have one political area
    What was italy divided into?
    city states and small kingdoms
    What we three key city states in Italy?
    Florence, Venice, Rome (Papal states)
    Rome was also known as what?
    the Papal states
    Least affluent area in Italy?
    Why Italy first?
    problems in northern europe (lingering of the middle ages), geography, trade, merchant patrons, church patronage, spirit of competition, surrounding of classical past
    What were some problems in Northern Europe during the beginning of the renaissance?
    wars never ended, peasant uprisings, black plague was harder to overcome
    Why was the location of Italy significant?
    their location in the center of the mediterranean allowed them to explore the seas
    Who could Italy trade with because of their location in the Mediterranean?
    Byzantine empire and Arabs
    The location of Italy created…
    a stable class of merchants
    Trade links Italy with whom?
    Byzantine and Islam (the east)
    Who were the wealthy people who supported the renaissance?
    merchant patrons
    You were considered what by supporting/patronizing art?
    Renaissance Gentleman
    How was the church significant in Italy?
    money would accumulate because the center of the church was in rome, the church could then spend this money on art (the presence of the Church aided Italy)
    What was the “spirit of competition” in Italy?
    There was a competition between city states in Italy, they each wanted the best art and architecture. This made each city prosper as competition got stronger.
    What does it mean when you say Italy was “surrounded by the classical past”?
    Roman ruins were located in the artists hometowns, Italy itself provided inspiration for artists
    Why did Italy decline?
    Atlantic Powers, fall of Constantinople, Invasions, political systems/nationalism
    Why were the Atlantic powers a threat?
    Italy was unable to compete with the 5 powerful countries, they couldn’t even unify themselves as one country
    When was the fall of Constantinople?
    What was the fall of Constantinople?
    Italy lose trading power
    Constantinople was the capital of what?
    the byzantine empire
    When did Italy loose a lot of trading goods?
    when Constantinople fell to the turks
    Where is the portrait of Jesus located?
    the books of kells (c. 800)
    “Jesus” was painted by who?
    When was “Jesus” by Michelangelo painted?
    the late renaissance, 1541
    t/f: Medieval art is “flat”
    t/f: Medieval art is very relaxed, renaissance art is more stiff
    False (Medieval art is stiff, renaissance art is relaxed)
    Characteristics of Medieval Art:
    individuals as religious symbols, lack of perspective (flat), no shading (dimension), little interest in showing the natural world
    Characteristics of Renaissance Art:
    the humanity of religious subjects, accurate perspective, use of dark and light, natural world shown accurately, impacted by Greece and Rome
    this technique created an illusion of depth
    linear perspective
    What experiment proved linear perspective?
    Brunelleschi’s experiment
    Explain chiaroscuro
    use shading and shadows to show depth
    Explain sfumato
    smokey, distant objects indistinct, close objects distinct
    What is a fresco?
    a painting over fresh plaster (Italian for “fresh”)
    When was the early renaissance?
    Who was the earliest renaissance artist?
    What did Giotto paint?
    “Lamentation over the Dead Christ” (c. 1310)
    When was the high renaissance?
    Who painted the Mona Lisa?
    Leonardo da Vinci
    What does the Mona Lisa show?
    sfumato, chiaroscuro, power of individualism
    Who painted the Last Supper?
    Leonardo da Vinci
    What were Leonard’s greatest works?
    Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, (& also, his notebooks)
    Pope Julius Caesar told this person to come to Rome
    preferred sculpting to painting
    Painted the sistine chapel ceiling
    Michelangelo combines what two types of art?
    classical and traditional christian
    Who painted the last judgement?
    Who sculpted “David”?
    Where was “david” sculpted?
    Who sculpted the Pieta?
    What is the only piece Michelangelo has ever signed?
    the Pieta
    Who designed the Dome of St. peter’s Basilica in Rome?
    Who designed the dome of florence cathedral (duomo)
    first domed building to be constructed in the modern western world since the roman times
    dome of florence cathedral (duomo)
    What were some of Michelangelo’s famous works?
    The sistine chapel ceiling, the last judgement (also in the sistine chapel), the statue of David, the statue the “pieta”
    Who painted Madonna of the chair?
    Who painted Madonna of the meadow?
    Who painted the school of Athens?
    What did the school of Athens celebrate?
    The great Greek philosophers, scientists, and mathematicians
    Who were the two central figures in “the school of athens”?
    Plato and Aristotle
    Raphael used _________ features to model plato
    Leonardo da Vinci’s
    a cultural and intellectual movement of the Renaissance that emphasized human potential to attain excellence and promoted direct study of literature, art, and civilization of classical Greece and Rome
    describe the influence of humanism on Renaissance writers
    Authors during the renaissance constantly wrote about the Greeks and how we should strive to be more like them
    Embraced the idea known as civic humanism – valued a sense of civic responsibility and active engagement with the world
    What role did Florence play in the Italian Renaissance?
    Florence –
    – Center of trade and production
    – Banking – it was the commercial and financial center of Europe
    – Earliest center of Renaissance culture
    – Great wealth
    What role did Venice play in the Italian Renaissance?
    Venice –
    – Center of Italian maritime and military power
    – Venice Arsenal – ship building and weapons factory (“largest industrial complex in Europe)
    – Venice controlled over 3,000 merchant ships which let them dominate trade over the Mediterranean Sea
    Note the political and economic factors that brought Italy’s dominance to an end.
    – City states faced successive waves of invasion by the armies of France and Spain
    – The rise of the Atlantic powers led to the closing of economic opportunities
    In what historical context did Machiavelli write The Prince and how does this explain his purpose? How does Discourses contrast with The Prince?
    – Machiavelli wrote The Prince during the 1500’s when Italy was fighting against armies of the Atlantic Powers. This explains his purpose, he wanted to end the self-destructive feuding among Italian states so that a united Italy could drive out all foreign armies. He advised rulers to be ruthless and all-powerful.
    – Discourses contrasts with The Prince because Machiavelli talks about how power should not be in the hands of a single prince, instead, it should be in the hands of the people.
    What are some key general characteristics of Renaissance Art?
    sfumato, chiaroscuro, human, shows the natural world, life-like (realistic)
    What makes Giotto, in the opinion of many art historians the earliest Renaissance painter?
    Giotto is considered to be one of the earliest Renaissance by many art historians because he expressed a clear break with the past in his works.
    How did Masaccio advance the techniques of modern painting?
    Masaccio advanced the techniques of modern painting by bringing a precision to his use of perspective and through the use of light and shadows to give his figures depth and dimension.
    Who were the three great masters of the High Renaissance? Note their most iconic works.
    1. Leonardo da Vinci
    – Mona Lisa
    – Last Supper
    2. Michelangelo
    – Sistine Chapel ceiling
    – The last judgment
    3. Raphael
    – Madonna of the Chair
    – Madonna of the Meadow
    Why does the Renaissance shift from Rome to Venice in the 1500s? What change in style is noticeable?
    – The Renaissance shifts from Rome to Venice in the 1500’s because Rome was being attacked by the Spanish, and it never fully recovered.
    – Venice had a artistic golden age in which artists used brighter colors, complex designs, and exotic settings and subjects
    4 renaissance writers were…
    Francesco Petrarch, Pico della Mirandola, Baldassare Castiglione, Niccolo Machiavelli
    challenged the individual to be of use in this world
    civic humanism
    Father of Italian Humanism
    Francesco Petrarch
    What did Francesco Petrarch write?
    “Sonnets to Laura”, “Letters to the Ancient Dead” , “Praise of Antiquity”
    Petrarch was the first modern…
    “poet laureate”
    What did Pico della Mirandela write?
    “Oration on the Dignity of Man”
    Praises the unique capacity of humans granted by God
    Pico della Mirandola
    What did Baldassare Castiglione write?
    “The Book of Courtier”
    This writer discussed the ideal renaissance gentleman
    Baldassare Castiglione
    define Renaissance Man
    education began with classics, able to speak and write well and to be knowledgeable, understood latin and greek, lucid fullness of knowledge
    What was a political connection Italian humanists made with the Greeks?
    Italian politics resembled the city states of Greece (the peninsula was divided into small independent states)
    What held back larger states of northwestern europe during the 1300 and 1400’s?
    a cooling climate (shortened growing seasons) and the hundred years war
    Italy was a ______ for new ideas and influences because of it’s geographic location
    By the 1400’s ____ was the most “dazzling” city state.
    define civic virtue:
    the ability to act decisively and heroically for the good of their country
    Who wanted to end self-destructing feuding among italian states so that a reunited italy could drive all foreign armies out?
    What did Machiavelli write?
    “The Prince” (1513) and “Discourses” (1521)
    What was written in the prince?
    advice to rulers to discover the advantages of ruthlessness,
    Why had Machiavelli been misinterpreted?
    His cold practical view of the relationship between morality and politics
    define Machiavellian
    a synonym for ruthlessness and deceitfulness in the pursuit of power
    In this writing, Machiavelli argued that power should not be in the hands of a single prince, but in the hands of the people
    The second renaissance artist
    During the high renaissance, who was the leader?
    Two famous works of Sandro Botticelli…
    “La primavera” and “Birth of Jesus”
    most noted for his harmoniously beautiful paintings, particularly his portraits of the Virgin
    When was rome invaded?
    Who invaded rome?
    EMperaor Charles V of Spain
    _____ reached it’s artistic golden age as ____ declined
    Venice, Rome

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