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    Music Appreciation Unit 1 and 2

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    rhythm
    the flow of music through time
    meter
    the organization of beats
    time signature
    a symbol for beats per measure
    tempo
    the speed of beats
    melody
    a series of pitches forming a unit (the tune)
    pitch
    a term describing high or low regions of pitch
    theme
    the main recurring melody
    contour
    the shape and direction of a melody
    decorative notes
    less significant notes decorating the melody
    phrasing
    a logical grouping of melody notes; similar to the use of language
    chord
    any two or more simultaneous pitches
    key
    tonality; hierarchichal system featuring a central harmony
    modulation
    the process of changing key
    major: happier
    minor: depressing
    describe the sounds of major vs. minor harmonies
    consonance: stable; pleasant
    dissonance: clash; creates tension
    describe the sounds of consonance vs. dissonance
    texture
    the number and use of melodies
    monophonic
    texture featuring one unaccompanied melody
    homophonic
    texture featuring one melody with accompaniment
    polyphonic
    texture featuring two or more melodies simultaneously
    imitation
    term for successive entries of a single melody like a round.
    dynamics
    a term for volume
    crescendo
    italian term for an increase in volume
    decrescendo
    italiam term for a decrease in volume
    timbre
    term synonymous witht one quality or tone color
    forms
    the plan of organization for a piece of music
    repetition, variation, contrast
    3 possible formal principles
    genre
    category of a piece of music based on its instrumentation and form.
    movement
    independent sections within a larger piece, usually with pauses in between
    violin, viola, cello, bass
    4 orchestral string instruments in order from highest to lowest
    plucked or bow
    2 ways sound is produced ona string instrument
    half
    percentage of the orchestra is taken up by the string section?
    flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoon
    4 man orchestral woodwinds in order from highest to lowest.
    wood
    inner construction of each woodwind instrument.
    trumpet, french horn, trombone, tuba
    4 brass instruments in order from highest to lowest range.
    vibrating lips
    describe how sound is produced in a brass instrument.
    tuned and untuned
    2 broad categories of percussion instruments.
    soprano, alto, tenor, bass
    4 voice types in order from highest to lowest range.
    harpsichord, piano, and pipe organ
    3 most commen keyboard instruments.
    dates covering ancient greece and rome
    1000bc-500ad
    vocal and greek dramas
    2 most common uses of music in ancient greece
    lyre
    most common instrument of ancient greece?
    influenced moral character
    what was the most common greek belief about the power of music?
    476-1100’s
    dates of the middles ages
    vocal
    what was the most popular genre during this time?( Middle Ages)
    latin mass
    what was the most important type of church service?
    gregorian chant
    what is the name and purpose of the special mass featuring the dies irae?
    hildegard bingen
    which abbess was the 12th C composer of liturgical dramas?
    1100-1450
    give the dates of the medieeval period/
    polyphony
    during medieval period music changed from monophony to what texture?
    oragnum
    what 11th C genre added a parallel line to a chant, forming the link between monophony and polyphony?
    leonin and perotin
    which 2 composers in the 12th C developed 4 part organum at the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris?
    cantus firmus
    the term for a bass line based on a phrase of chant.
    medieval motet
    what 4 part polyphonic genre was based on cantus firmus?
    leonin and perotin
    which french composer was known for his motets?
    estample
    fast dance in triple meter
    1450-1600; rebirth
    date and definition of the renaissance.
    josquin
    which renaissance composer from the netherlands was known for his chansons and motets?
    chanson
    what genre is described as a french polyphonic song?
    palestrina
    which italian composer was considered conservative during his lifetime, but is now considered the culmination of the renaissance?
    madrigals
    what italian genre is a polyphonic piece for a small group of singers?
    text painting
    the term for the musical depiction of words.
    thomas wealkes
    which english composer was known for his madrigals?
    lute
    what was the most common instrument of the renaissance?
    1600-1750
    give the dates of the baroque period.
    doctrine of affections
    what is the term for the idea that music should sound like the plot or text in use?
    continuo
    give the term for continous accompaniment by keyboard and low string instrument.
    oratorio
    what genre was originally for church use, and resembles opera without theatrics?
    recitative
    what speech like section with minimal accompaniment uses much text to move the plot along?
    aria
    what song like section with solo singer and accompaniment slows the plot of insight into a particular character?
    chorus
    what less frequent section features a large group of singers at climactic moments?
    handel
    which german composer, whose partron became the kind of england, is known for oratorio and opera?
    chorale
    what is the term for a german lutheran hymn?
    cantata
    what is the term for a shorter oratorio used in the worship service?
    opera
    what genre was meant to recreate greek drama, and is similar to musical theatre?
    libretto
    what is the italian term for the text for an opera?
    monte verde
    which italian composer shows the transition from renaissance polyphony to baroque homophony?
    purcell
    who is the most well known english composer of opera during this period?
    suite
    what is the term for a collection of stylized dance?
    trio sonata
    what genre featuring 3 instruments plus continuo usually has 4 movements?
    arcangelo corelli
    which italian composer and violinist was the first to promote virtuosic playing?
    concerto grosso
    what genre featuring 2 groups of contrasting sizes has 3 monvements? (fast-slow-fast)
    antonio vivaldi
    which prolific italian composer and violinist was also a priest at an orphanage for girls?
    program music
    what is the term for music that portrays extramusical ideas?
    Fuge
    what genre w/ frequent imitation has 2 themes called the subject and countersubject?
    toccata
    what genre features mostly free style virtuosity?
    bach
    which german composer/organist is considered the culmination of the baroque period?
    1750-1820
    dates of the classical period?
    absolute music
    what is the term for music with no extramusical associations?
    sonata form
    common form for first movements of symphonies, sonatas, and concertos?
    exposition
    name of the section that exposes the 2 contrasting themes?
    development
    what is the name of the section that works with 1 or both themes?
    mozart
    austrian compoer and keyboard prodigy father was well known violinist?
    solo concerto
    what genre for orchestra and solo instrument is more virtuosic than the baroque version?
    double exposition
    what is it called when the 1st section of the 1st movement is played by the orchestra, then repeated with the soloist?
    cadenza
    what is the term for the impressive, improvised solo section in the 1st movement?
    rondo
    what common form for final movements features a main theme alternating with contrasting themes?
    haydn
    austrian composer for prince esterhazy is known as the father of several genres, and also taught beethoven?
    opera seria
    italian term for the serious, dramatic, style of opera
    opera buffa
    italian term for the light, comic style of opera
    chamber music
    genre for small instrumental groups was orginally played in small rooms for wealthy homes?
    string quartet
    most significant chamber group featuring 2 violins, 1 viola, and 1 cello?
    minuet and trio
    common 2nd or 3rd movement form is based on a stylized dance in triple meter?
    variation
    what form features a melody placed in many different setting or costumes?
    piano sonata
    solo genre with 3-4 movements rivaled the symphony in importante?
    beethoven
    german composer struggled with composing and eventually became deaf?
    symphony
    genre for orchestra usually with 4 movements was the more important genre?
    scarzo
    form, sometimes replacing the minuet and trio, means “joke”

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    Music Appreciation Unit 1 and 2. (2017, Sep 05). Retrieved from https://artscolumbia.org/music-appreciation-unit-1-and-2-13923/

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