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    Guitar History

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    strings that are not fretted
    (his own French/Italian tablature)
    · wrote collection called ” El Maestro”
    · Born in court
    · 1500s in Valencia Spain, “El Maestro” 1536 was first book of Vihuela tablature
    o 6 pavanes
    o 40 Fantasias
    o 22 Songs
    · First to use tempo words (vs. tempo markings)
    Published his books divided in 6 parts in 1538
    Vihuela Maestro for Philip the 2nd (King of spain)
    First signs for tempo
    Fantasias, entabulations, songs with voice, several variation sets
    Variations were differencias: Early variations were developed there. 1st to write down variations.
    Diferencias on Conde Claros: Famos variations
    Guardame las Vacas: other famos variations
    Wrote in Italian tablature
    · 1546 Book published
    · made first guitar music
    · raised in royal family
    · talks about different pluckings and tempo
    · first to indicate how long notes should be held
    · * wrote 6 pieces for four course guitar
    o arrangement vocal+instrumental for just vihuela
    Italian tab
    Orphenica Lyra (1554)
    included earliest discussion of 5 course guitar
    Blind, also in the court of Philip II
    Wrote the hardest music to play (counterpoint)
    Wrote 50 Fantasias (mostly 6 course, same 5 vihuela and some 4 course guitar)
    Entabluations sacred music and motets
    Discuss Split Courses
    Italian tab
    From spain. Wrote, Libro de música de vihuela intitulado Silva de Sirenas (1547)
    Variety of pieces, including Fantasia’s
    (1576) )-no L in his name, the one with the L is a lutenist
    Last composer to write for vihuela
    Fantasias mostly
    3 ways of picking vihuela
    o Dos Deros= p and i
    o De Dillo= i finger as a pick
    o Castellan method= m and i
    What is the importance of the vihuela in regards to tempo?
    · the only instrument to explain ANY tempo in renaissance music
    tuning of vihuela
    typically 6 courses with f# tuning.
    Renaissance Lute
    (Transylvania 1526-30; d Padua, 22 Aug 1576).
    Worked primarily in Hungary
    Made Very good money.
    Was knighted in Polish Court
    High quality compositions, harder to play
    Renaissance Lute
    (1470’s – 1540’s)
    Attaingnant collection (1517) First written dynamics, ornaments, and fermatas
    Renaissance lute
    Paris 1552 French printer and publisher
    Robert Ballard
    Renaissance lute
    born in Paris circa 1575, died after 1649
    his father’s partner Adrian Le Roy was most likely his first lute teacher
    published his first lutebook in 1611
    Francesco da Milano
    Renaissance Lute
    (1497 – 1543)
    “il divino”
    worked in the papal court
    Renaissance Lute
    1588-Christ church of oxford
    1612 – appointed lutenist to James IV
    Had a BM in Music
    Highest expression of late renaissance
    Very cosmopolitan composer, he was introduced to many different styles of music in many different countries in Europe.
    Renaissance Lute tuning
    Courses 6 – 1 = G c f a d g
    Diapason tuning for Renassiance Lute
    varied between 7 and 10 course lutes.
    4 Course Baroque guitar characteristics
    Folia Strumms are very characteristic of the baroque guitar.
    Lots of accented dissonance, suspensions, arpeggiations, less exclusively chords.
    divisions between consonances are becoming accented dissonances.
    independent voices in stile brise.
    another clean break between vocal music Much more linear.
    Juan Carlos Amat
    4 course baroque guitar
    Wrote treatise Guitarra española on 4 course guitar that briefly mentions 5 course guitar.
    Gorlier Morlaye
    4 course baroque guitar
    Wrote 3 books of tab for 4 course Guitar
    1552 he obtained from Henri II a ten-year privilege to print, or have printed, music by his teacher, Alberto da Ripa
    Gaspar Sanz
    (1640 – ~1710)
    Spanish guitarist, composer
    Uses 5 string guitar with tuning A
    Coins the term Campanella in his book. Campanella: ringing over notes. An expressive device used in the baroque era
    Re entrant tuning
    Instruction book (Generic Title) 1674
    contains 90 pieces written for the 5 course guitar
    G. Foscarini (il furioso)
    Italy early 1600s (flourished 1600 ~ 1649(?))
    Played Lute and Guitar, not just one
    Instruction on the music of the spanish Guitar, he means the 5 course guitar with stringing C, used alphabeto and Italian Notation
    Corbetta (c. 1615-1681)
    Italian, but worked in Paris
    Taught at University of Bologna, taught there and began writing in the 1640’s to 1670’s
    Appeared in a piece directed by Lully. Went to england but mainly worked in paris (Even though he was italian)
    Stringing B reentrant tuning
    De Visee
    most likely a pupil of Corbetta,
    important composer in the court of Louis the 14th and for guitar and theorbo
    Guitar teacher to the king
    His son succeeded him in 1721
    Formalized core dance suites: allemande, courante, sarabande, gigue, etc. with other things interspersed
    Visee included a tombeau to Corbetta
    tombeau – elegy to someone who’s died
    Tunings of Theorbo, Archlute, and Baroque Lute
    Theorbo: reentrant pitched in “a” or “g”
    Archlute: tuned like the lute but 13 courses
    Baroque lute :13 courses with D minor tuning
    S.L. Weiss
    Greatest Baroque Lutenist
    knew Bach and shared material with him
    most of his pieces are suite like but called sonatas
    60 sonatas (suites)
    35 more (questionable authenticity)
    4 concertos (all lost or incomplete)
    7 fantasias
    5 preludes & capriccios
    2 tombeaus
    50 more individual pieces
    Student of Weiss
    May have arranged the 995 lute suite
    (1580 – 1651)
    “Il tedesco”
    Born in Venice worked in Italy, but had German Heritage
    Wrote madrigals, considered heir to monteverdi
    1st virtuoso of Theorbo (Chitarrone)
    Toccata = Fantasia
    8 Books of Theorbo Music
    Direct contemporary of Frescobaldi
    Has a piece for the instrument Calascione which is a lute like instrument tuned in 5ths
    Italian (b Bologna, 30 Dec 1566; d probably at Bologna, c1638)
    Wrote two volumes of music for lute and theorbo, talked about using nails in these books.
    Denis Gaultier
    Couperin and Ramo are a great deal to FR Lutenists

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