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    Art Appreciation: Chapter 14

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    a technique in drawing and painting where a dramatic contrast between light and dark areas creates a convincing illusion of 3-D forms. Michelangelo is known for this.
    colorito & disegno (“color” vs. “line”)
    More of a colorito (color) than a disegno (line) artist (compare his paintings to Michelangelo’s), Color matters more to Leonardo rather than lines
    Early vs. High Renaissance
    early renaissance featured figures that were not as realistic, and most included halos. The high renaissance was more realistic, technical, included nature, and halos were also not seen as often.
    golden triangle/pyramid
    There is a new structural innovation – the golden triangle (golden pyramid) – a geometric underpinning for his atmospheric effects (Leonardo)
    The importance of Giotto: How is his painting (ex. Lamentation from the Arena AKA
    Scrovegni Chapel)different from medieval painting such as the St Francis Altarpiece?
    Initiating a return to visual realism, Giotto almost single-handedly created the Renaissance style of painting. In the Lamentation he shows us how the scene may have really looked. The figures have mass, they are weighted to the ground, they are in proportion to each other, and in a natural setting. They express real human emotion – we empathize with them in their sorrow.
    What are some of the ways in which Brunelleschi is able to solve the problem of how to erect a stable 140′ diameter dome over the Florence Cathedral, AKA the Florence Duomo?
    How the dome works:
    Oglival (egg-shaped)
    Double shell
    Herringbone bricking
    Heavy lantern up top
    Never-before seen machinery such as reversing levers and pulleys
    Why was Florence so important in the 15th century (1400s)? Why did the Renaissance begin there? How did the Florentines view themselves and what made them so special? How did the dome of the Florence Cathedral and the biblical figure David express how Florentines viewed themselves and viewed Florence?
    Early Renaissance = 1400s/15th c. Center is Florence. Important Early Renaissance works include the dome of the Florence Cathedral and Donatello’s David
    High Renaissance = 1500s/16th c. center is Rome. Artists become known for their individual genius and styles (ex. Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael)
    Things to Know:
    Early Renaissance = 1400s/15th c. Center is Florence
    High Renaissance = 1500s/16th c. center is Rome. Artists become known for their individual genius and styles (ex. Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael)
    Describe the importance of David to the Florentines. How and why does his depiction change throughout the three examples (Donatello’s Early Renaissance, Michelangelo’s High Renaissance and Bernini’s Baroque) that we studied in class? How is Bernini’s depiction of David different from the Renaissance examples of David shown in class (i.e. Donatello’s and Michelangelo’s Davids)
    Donatello’s David is the 1st free-standing, life-sized bronze figure since ancient times. Nudity was no longer shameful, as in the medieval period, but beautiful, and capable of representing humanity’s highest ideals. The Florentines identified with the biblical David. They saw him as an underdog who defied expectations and emerged victorious, similarly to how they saw themselves. Donatello shows David as a boy, almost effeminate – looking too weak to even lift the sword. And yet, note that this version is victorious: Goliath’s severed head is placed beneath David’s foot. Michelangelo depicts David before killing the giant. His eyes stare intensely, choosing the right moment – he is nervous and tense, but confident. This David is a powerful young man (different from Donatello’s version) – a heroic symbol for the city of Florence. Bernini’s David is same age/build as Michelangelo’s David. Bernini shows David in action as he about to throw the stone. There is great dynamic energy, and an intense grimace of concentration on his less than ideal face. The gaze is so intense, that the unseen Goliath becomes part of the work. Bernini breaks down the barrier between art and the real world. David is stepped down off his pedestal. Shows David partially clothed
    Describe Leonardo’s paintings. What are general things to look for? Think about the importance of each of Leonardo’s paintings studied in class.
    • Pulls light out of darkness
    • Sfumato- using shading
    • Importance of numbers, ratios (ex. “phi”), geometry (ex. golden triangle)
    • Rocky, fantasy landscapes
    • Importance of hands and faces
    • More of a colorito (color) than a disegno (line) artist (compare his paintings to Michelangelo’s)
    • Leonardo- more on hands and specific features
    Describe who Michelangelo was and how he felt as an artist? What were his views on painting vs. sculpture? How does he include psychological tension in the body in the examples of how artwork we studied in class?
    • Michelangelo considered himself a sculptor, and was often at odds with Leonardo when it came to art.
    • As opposed to Leonardo, Michelangelo thought line, not color, was the most important part of a composition. Note how his paintings look like his sculptures.
    • Michelangelo likes to show the “cliffhanger” part of a narrative so that he can reflect psychological tension in the body (ex. David, Creation of Man)
    • He often intentionally distorts bodily proportions (the enlarged hand of David, the enlarged lap of Mary in Pietá)

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