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Elizabethan Renaissance

Marlowe
Born in Canterbury
Attended Cambridge on ministry scholarship, but never entered ministry
Most famous for plays; most recognized playwright of late 1580s before Shakespeare’s talents fully realized
Canterbury
Marlowe was born in ______________
spying, brawling
Marlowe notorious for __________ and ____________

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Marlowe, inn
____________ stabbed to death at an __________ (some said over bill; others insist it’s related to involvement in undercover political intrigue)
verse
Marlowe also had wonderful gift for ___________
Pastoral
a type of poem that deals with shepherds and rustic life in an idealized way
Pastoral poetry
_________ was considered the humblest kind of poetry, written in the lowest style
Eye rhyme
the appearance and close proximity of two words which, because of their similar spellings, look alike but when pronounced do not sound alike (e.g. love, prove)
Spenser
Often referred to as “the poet’s poet”
Generally acknowledged to be the greatest non-dramatic poet of Elizabethan Age
the poet’s poet
Spenser is referred to as _________
Spenser
Attended Cambridge University
Held services of positions in service to prominent English noblemen
Close friends with Sidney
Served as “Lord Deputy” in Ireland and ended days there
The Faerie Queen
Spenser’s greatest achievement was _____________ published in 1590
Irish rebels
Spenser had to return to England shortly before his death because of ____________
Lyric poem
a poem, usually a short one, that expresses a speaker’s personal thoughts or feelings
Alliteration
the repetition of similar sounds, usually consonants or consonant clusters, in a group of words
Initial alliteration
occurs at the beginning of words (ex. Sally sold shells)
Internal/hidden alliteration
occurs within words, usually on stressed syllables (ex. But came the waves and washed it away.)
Bacon
Key figure in transition from intellectual world of late Middle Ages to modern Europe
Prophet of new century; characterized by growing scientific spirit
Bacon
Member of parliament; served as royal counsel under Elizabeth
Later in career, he was brought before House of Lords in charges of bribery and retired to private life
Scholar, scientist, writer, philosopher
Professions of Bacon
Essays, essayist
Bacon published _________ in 1597 and became England’s first ___________
Bacon
Greatly concerned with humans’ understanding of themselves and world
classical scholar
Bacon wrote in tradition of ____________; formal style
Latin
Bacon wrote mostly in what language?
Bacon
Powerful, direct, & compact; lots of quotes, metaphors, & allusions
Aphorism
a concise, pointed statement expressing a wise or clever observation about life
1609, 1590
Shakespeare published in _____, but probably written around _______
154
Shakespeare has _________ total sonnets in sequence; suggest an elusive and mysterious “story” involving a young man, dark lady, and a rival poet
First 126 of Shakepeare’s Sonnets
Addressed mainly to a young man of greaty beauty and promise
Speaker addresses/expresses his affection and admiration for the young man and urges him to marry and perpetuate his virtues through children
Warns the young man about destructive power of time, age, and moral weakness
Shakepeare Sonnets 78-86
Concerned with a rival poet who has also addressed peoms to the young man
Shakepeare Sonnets 127-154
Addresses to the “dark lady”; a lady with dark hair, eyes, and complexion
Both the speaker and young man seem to be involved with her romantically
young man, woman
Shakespeares sonnets were different from his contemporaties because they had the idealization of ________ (rather than a _______) as object of praise, love, and devotion
promiscuous, dark
His sonnets were also different beauty he wrote of _________ and ___________ women
Petrarchan
Shakespeare wrote about a woman who was not a despairing as ___________ lover; includes an array of emotions such as delight, pride, melancholy, shame, disgust, fear, etc.
Sydney
Embodiment of ideal Renaissance man and courtier
Came from prominent aristocratic family
Started at Oxford and completed education by traveling around Europe; saw many literary and aristic developments in Italy, France, etc.
Sydney
Assumed role of courtier, diplomat, and a man of beliefs
Deep political and religious interests (died fighting for Dutch Protestants against Spanish)
Sydney
Discussing/writing poetry was private and informal, not professional
The Defense of Poesy
Finest piece of Elizabethan literary criticism
Provoked by an extremist Puritan attack against poetry and plays
Addresses itself to the universal values of imaginative literature
Greatly exalts role of the poet and moral value of poetry
Intended to establish the high nobility and great social and moral value of poetry
Astrophel and Stella
First fully developed sonnet sequence in ENGLISH
Sonnet sequences of Petrarch
What was Astrophel and Stella modeled on?
Astrophel and Stella
Series of 108 Sonnets (reflect autobiographical love for Penelope Devereux who married older and wealthier Lord Rich)
starlover
Astrophel means
star
Stella means
Conceit
a kind of metaphor that makes a comparison between two startlingly different things; may be a brief metaphor; usually provides framework for an entire poem
Apostrophe
a figure of speech in which an absent or dead person, an abstract quality, or something nonhuman is addressed directly
Sir Thomas More
One of the most versatile and enigmatic figures of the English Renaissance
Became well known humanist
Torn between active role in public affairs and monastic devotion
Sir Thomas More
Visible public figure under Henry VIII; named Lord Councillor (highest office under crown)
Resigned when Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn & divorced Catherine
Sir Thomas More
Would not accept Act of Supremacy; tried and executed
Felt he was dying for faith of Catholic Church
Canonized as a saint
Utopia
Published in1516
Written and published in Latin
Description of imagined society
Set up as a dialogue between a character named More and a returned traveler named Raphael Hythloday
Debater over whether scholar should participate in government or should be confined to an Ivory Tower
Sir Walter Raleigh
Founder of VA; responsible for introducing tobacco to Europe
Solider, explorer, colonizer, courtier, poet, philospher, historian
Sir Walter Raleigh
Favorite of Queen Elizabeth in 1580’s until secret marriage
Secretly married one of Elizabeth’s maids of honor; was imprisoned in Tower of London
James I was convinced he was part of plot to bar James succession to throne; imprisoned & executed
Anti-pastoral
realistic tone used in poetry that shatters the idealism of pastoral life
Allusion
a reference to a person, place, event, or literary work that a writer expects the reader to recognize and respond to; may be drawn from history, mythology, literature, geography, religion
Iambic Pentameter
a poetic line consisting of five verse feet, with each foot an iamb (unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable U/ )
Sonnet
fourteen-line lyric poem, usually written in rhymed iambic pentameter, generally expresses a single theme or idea
Italy, 13th century
Where and when did sonnets originate?
14th century
Petrarch produced most important group of sonnets in European lit; remained dominant influence in
Italian or Petrarch Sonnet
*has a rhyme scheme which divides the poem into an octave (first 8 lines) and sestet (last 6 lines)
*octave rhyme scheme is ABBA ABBA
*sestet rhyme scheme is CDE CDE or CD CD CD
*shift from the octave to sestet is called the Volta (point of dramatic change)
*usually NEVER ends in a rhymed couplet
ENGLISH or SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET
* lines are organized into 3 groups of alternating rhymes plus a final couplet
*four line groups are called quatrains
*rhyme scheme is usually ABAB CDCD EFEF GG
SPENSERIAN SONNET
*complicated interlocking rhyme scheme broken into 3 quatrains and a rhymed couplet
* rhyme scheme is ABAB BCBC CDCD
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Elizabethan Renaissance
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Marlowe Born in Canterbury Attended Cambridge on ministry scholarship, but never entered ministry Most famous for plays; most recognized playwright of late 1580s before Shakespeare's talents fully realized
2017-09-20 06:27:34
Elizabethan Renaissance
$ 13.900 2018-12-31
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