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    Elizabethan Renaissance

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    Born in Canterbury
    Attended Cambridge on ministry scholarship, but never entered ministry
    Most famous for plays; most recognized playwright of late 1580s before Shakespeare’s talents fully realized
    Marlowe was born in ______________
    spying, brawling
    Marlowe notorious for __________ and ____________
    Marlowe, inn
    ____________ stabbed to death at an __________ (some said over bill; others insist it’s related to involvement in undercover political intrigue)
    Marlowe also had wonderful gift for ___________
    a type of poem that deals with shepherds and rustic life in an idealized way
    Pastoral poetry
    _________ was considered the humblest kind of poetry, written in the lowest style
    Eye rhyme
    the appearance and close proximity of two words which, because of their similar spellings, look alike but when pronounced do not sound alike (e.g. love, prove)
    Often referred to as “the poet’s poet”
    Generally acknowledged to be the greatest non-dramatic poet of Elizabethan Age
    the poet’s poet
    Spenser is referred to as _________
    Attended Cambridge University
    Held services of positions in service to prominent English noblemen
    Close friends with Sidney
    Served as “Lord Deputy” in Ireland and ended days there
    The Faerie Queen
    Spenser’s greatest achievement was _____________ published in 1590
    Irish rebels
    Spenser had to return to England shortly before his death because of ____________
    Lyric poem
    a poem, usually a short one, that expresses a speaker’s personal thoughts or feelings
    the repetition of similar sounds, usually consonants or consonant clusters, in a group of words
    Initial alliteration
    occurs at the beginning of words (ex. Sally sold shells)
    Internal/hidden alliteration
    occurs within words, usually on stressed syllables (ex. But came the waves and washed it away.)
    Key figure in transition from intellectual world of late Middle Ages to modern Europe
    Prophet of new century; characterized by growing scientific spirit
    Member of parliament; served as royal counsel under Elizabeth
    Later in career, he was brought before House of Lords in charges of bribery and retired to private life
    Scholar, scientist, writer, philosopher
    Professions of Bacon
    Essays, essayist
    Bacon published _________ in 1597 and became England’s first ___________
    Greatly concerned with humans’ understanding of themselves and world
    classical scholar
    Bacon wrote in tradition of ____________; formal style
    Bacon wrote mostly in what language?
    Powerful, direct, & compact; lots of quotes, metaphors, & allusions
    a concise, pointed statement expressing a wise or clever observation about life
    1609, 1590
    Shakespeare published in _____, but probably written around _______
    Shakespeare has _________ total sonnets in sequence; suggest an elusive and mysterious “story” involving a young man, dark lady, and a rival poet
    First 126 of Shakepeare’s Sonnets
    Addressed mainly to a young man of greaty beauty and promise
    Speaker addresses/expresses his affection and admiration for the young man and urges him to marry and perpetuate his virtues through children
    Warns the young man about destructive power of time, age, and moral weakness
    Shakepeare Sonnets 78-86
    Concerned with a rival poet who has also addressed peoms to the young man
    Shakepeare Sonnets 127-154
    Addresses to the “dark lady”; a lady with dark hair, eyes, and complexion
    Both the speaker and young man seem to be involved with her romantically
    young man, woman
    Shakespeares sonnets were different from his contemporaties because they had the idealization of ________ (rather than a _______) as object of praise, love, and devotion
    promiscuous, dark
    His sonnets were also different beauty he wrote of _________ and ___________ women
    Shakespeare wrote about a woman who was not a despairing as ___________ lover; includes an array of emotions such as delight, pride, melancholy, shame, disgust, fear, etc.
    Embodiment of ideal Renaissance man and courtier
    Came from prominent aristocratic family
    Started at Oxford and completed education by traveling around Europe; saw many literary and aristic developments in Italy, France, etc.
    Assumed role of courtier, diplomat, and a man of beliefs
    Deep political and religious interests (died fighting for Dutch Protestants against Spanish)
    Discussing/writing poetry was private and informal, not professional
    The Defense of Poesy
    Finest piece of Elizabethan literary criticism
    Provoked by an extremist Puritan attack against poetry and plays
    Addresses itself to the universal values of imaginative literature
    Greatly exalts role of the poet and moral value of poetry
    Intended to establish the high nobility and great social and moral value of poetry
    Astrophel and Stella
    First fully developed sonnet sequence in ENGLISH
    Sonnet sequences of Petrarch
    What was Astrophel and Stella modeled on?
    Astrophel and Stella
    Series of 108 Sonnets (reflect autobiographical love for Penelope Devereux who married older and wealthier Lord Rich)
    Astrophel means
    Stella means
    a kind of metaphor that makes a comparison between two startlingly different things; may be a brief metaphor; usually provides framework for an entire poem
    a figure of speech in which an absent or dead person, an abstract quality, or something nonhuman is addressed directly
    Sir Thomas More
    One of the most versatile and enigmatic figures of the English Renaissance
    Became well known humanist
    Torn between active role in public affairs and monastic devotion
    Sir Thomas More
    Visible public figure under Henry VIII; named Lord Councillor (highest office under crown)
    Resigned when Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn & divorced Catherine
    Sir Thomas More
    Would not accept Act of Supremacy; tried and executed
    Felt he was dying for faith of Catholic Church
    Canonized as a saint
    Published in1516
    Written and published in Latin
    Description of imagined society
    Set up as a dialogue between a character named More and a returned traveler named Raphael Hythloday
    Debater over whether scholar should participate in government or should be confined to an Ivory Tower
    Sir Walter Raleigh
    Founder of VA; responsible for introducing tobacco to Europe
    Solider, explorer, colonizer, courtier, poet, philospher, historian
    Sir Walter Raleigh
    Favorite of Queen Elizabeth in 1580’s until secret marriage
    Secretly married one of Elizabeth’s maids of honor; was imprisoned in Tower of London
    James I was convinced he was part of plot to bar James succession to throne; imprisoned & executed
    realistic tone used in poetry that shatters the idealism of pastoral life
    a reference to a person, place, event, or literary work that a writer expects the reader to recognize and respond to; may be drawn from history, mythology, literature, geography, religion
    Iambic Pentameter
    a poetic line consisting of five verse feet, with each foot an iamb (unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable U/ )
    fourteen-line lyric poem, usually written in rhymed iambic pentameter, generally expresses a single theme or idea
    Italy, 13th century
    Where and when did sonnets originate?
    14th century
    Petrarch produced most important group of sonnets in European lit; remained dominant influence in
    Italian or Petrarch Sonnet
    *has a rhyme scheme which divides the poem into an octave (first 8 lines) and sestet (last 6 lines)
    *octave rhyme scheme is ABBA ABBA
    *sestet rhyme scheme is CDE CDE or CD CD CD
    *shift from the octave to sestet is called the Volta (point of dramatic change)
    *usually NEVER ends in a rhymed couplet
    * lines are organized into 3 groups of alternating rhymes plus a final couplet
    *four line groups are called quatrains
    *rhyme scheme is usually ABAB CDCD EFEF GG
    *complicated interlocking rhyme scheme broken into 3 quatrains and a rhymed couplet
    * rhyme scheme is ABAB BCBC CDCD

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