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    16th Century Renaissance Poetry

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    16th Century Renaissance Poetry occurred between these years
    Sonnets written in the Sixteenth Century often reflected this aspect
    Courtly Love
    Courtly love allowed members to do what?
    Show admiration for each other, dispute marriage status as marriage was for money and power, not love
    Many illicit court romances were fuelled by this practice
    Courtly love
    When showing admiration for their love, men had to be what?
    Discrete to maintain his lady honour. Also, you didn’t want her husband to find out.
    Was the notion of the unattainable considered highly valuable?
    Yes, it was believed that it built character.
    What was one downside to the practice of Courtly Love?
    It could lead to a love triangle between the lover, the lady and his jealous husband.
    What were the men’s experiences with courtly love?
    Generally, the man would fall in love as first sight, would admire her at a distance, be completely devoted to her, be sick with love and was careless about himself.
    How were the ladies attitude to their admires?
    They were often cruel, cold, distance and hard to please.
    What notion does Courtly Love relate to?
    Platonic Love
    Who put forth the notion of platonic love?
    Plato in his Symposium
    Platonic Love
    Describes love in a purely spiritual sense, free from sensual desire. Idealizing perfect love in Symposium, Plato also, defines what is “good” and that man should strive for that “good” daily.
    Who describes the perfect courtier (the ideal Renaissance man) and the perfect lady?
    Baldassare Castiglione, in his book, The Book of the Courtier (1528) where he expanded Plato’s ideas further.
    Who created the Ladder of Love?
    Baldassare Castiglione
    Ladder is divided into how many stages?
    9 Stages
    What are the 9 Stages of The Ladder of Love?
    1) Nurturing the proper response to beauty
    2) Instruction for purposes of purification
    3) The Kiss, the sharing and bonding of souls
    4) Sustaining nourishment of beauty
    5) Universal qualities of love
    6) Heavenly contemplation
    7) Universal Understanding
    8) Purification
    9) Transcendance
    Stage 1:
    Nurturing the proper response to beauty
    Love begins on a sensual level, an appreciation for physical beauty from the man, which the lady responses with her own appreciation of him. This can lead to sex just for the sake of sex, which is hollow and leads down a road of bitterness, distress, and rejection. Love is a holy and provides spiritual nourishment for those governed by reason.
    Stage 2: Instruction for purposes of purification
    The woman’s responsibility is to remain chaste and avoid impure thoughts. The man’s responsibility is to guide the learning and control the sensual desire so that the two can seek a higher level of communication other than sex.
    Stage 3: The Kiss, the sharing and bonding is souls
    The kiss is seen as the way of bonding to soul, which is view as a spiritual connection. However, it does not worked reason hasn’t conquer sexual gratification.
    Stage 4:
    Sustaining nourishment of beauty in the absence of the beloved
    Love grows stronger while apart and their union of their souls nurtures and sustains the lover
    Stage 5:
    Universal qualities of love or the spiritual leap
    As long as he remains faithful, he will gather spiritual happiness by the thought of his beloved.
    Stage 6:
    Heavenly contemplation
    He begin to see that aspects of her beauty are heavenly and that she seeks a closer spiritual connection with God.
    Stages 7:
    Universal understanding
    Lover develop a deep understanding with all things without the sensual haze, thus mocking dark and earthly matters.
    Stage 8:
    They see the beauty in all things
    Stage 9:
    By bending all thoughts to God, true happiness is found as well as shelter from the tempest world. It leads to a state of heavenly grace.
    What are the traits of Castiglione’s prefect courtier?
    1) Classical education in Greek and Latin
    2)Respected friend of all his peers and king/queen
    3)Accomplished in sports, telling jokes, fighting, poetry, music, drawing and dancing
    4) Reflects traits of personal goodness
    5) Familiar with good literature
    6) Excels in everything with ease and graces
    7) Usually born into a noble family
    8) Converses easily with everyone, no matter their status
    9) Young, but mentally in his late 20s and portrays a seriousness and thoughtfulness beyond his years
    How respected was the English language during the 16th Century
    Not very; no one really travelled to England for its language, it was the English that travelled to cities like Venice, Madrid and Paris.
    What is one of the most important work of 16th Century literature that was writing in Latin?
    Utopia (1515)
    Who is the author of Utopia?
    Thomas More
    When did the English language begin to gain prestige?
    At the end of the 16th Century
    Who was Henry the 8th spiritual guilder that was beheaded for refusing to convert to the Church of England?
    Thomas Moore
    What were the influences of the 16th Century language and writing?
    1) Consolidation & strength of England with the Tudor dynasty (1485-1603)
    2) The Tudor Court
    3) No freedom of speech
    4) The economy of England
    5) In 1476, Willian Caxton ‘a printing press
    6) Tudor era saw an interest in an idealized past
    7) Renaissance movement originating in Italy spread to England
    8) Humanism in England focused on reform & influenced by Moore’s Utopia
    9) Humanists struggled with whether they should write their own works in Latin or English
    10) Reformation
    11) Bloody Mary
    12) Elizabeth 1st
    13) Mary, Queen of Scots
    14) Elizabeth 1st vs. Catholic Spain
    15) 16th century London had a diverse population
    Describe London
    Diverse population, wages were 50% higher than anywhere else and at 1/8 of the English population lived in London at some point
    Was poetry published once the printing press came about?
    No, the tradition of reading poetry out loud was preferable to silent reading
    Why was it hard to be a professional writer during the 16th Century?
    Being a ‘writer’ was not seen as a professional career and there was copy rights, so work could be easily stolen
    What was plays and poetry printed in?
    Quartos or Octavos
    What are Folios?
    Published work that held longer works of poetry or work that had great merit
    Who was known as a “Good Queen Bess”
    Queen Elizabeth 1st
    Was it possible for writers to live a good life?
    Yes, a selective few that lived at court.
    Was there any freedom for writers and their works?
    No, books were censored.
    How did writers earn their money?
    Through wearily patrons (members at court and wealthy families)
    What do Oxford, Cambridge and the city of London have in common?
    They affected the literature of that time
    Poetry was seen as what?
    Musical; explaining why it was often sung.
    What was the most important literary criticism of this time?
    Defense of Poesy by Sir Philip Sidney. He said that poetry was not only contained magical power but also moral power
    Who are five important poets of the 16th Century?
    1) Sir Thomas Wyatt the Elder (1503-1542)
    2) Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1517-1547)
    3) Edmund Spenser (1552-1599)
    4) Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586)
    5) Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593)
    Which poet was alive during 1503-1542?
    Sir Thomas Wyatt the Elder
    Sir Thomas Wyatt was the father of what?
    The English Sonnet
    Who influenced Sir Thomas Wyatt?
    Petrarch- Wyatt was a English courier and diplomat in Italy where was exposed to Italian poets
    Which poet was imprisoned I. The Tower of London twice and escaped both times?
    Thomas Wyatt.
    1) Accused of adulatory with Anne Boleyn
    2) Accused of treason by his enemies at court
    What are common themes in Wyatt’s work?
    1) Longing to escape corruption, stress and duplicity at court.
    2) Saw man’s love for a woman as bitter, obsessive and disillusioned.
    Which poet is considered the master of “poetic self-display” because of his representation of himself as plain-speaking and steadfast?
    English sonnet is a variation of what?
    The Petrarch sonnet
    Wyatt’s book, Songs and Sonnets was published when?
    1557, 15 years after his death
    Which poet was believed to have been in love with Anne Boleyn?
    Sir Thomas Wyatt
    Which poems of Wyatt’s did we study in class?
    1) “The long love that in my thought doth harbour”
    2) “Whose list to hunt”
    What is the sonnet
    “The long love that in my heart doth harbour” about?
    He is taken over by love, he has become bold and his love is saying ‘get it together man, stop showing everybody that we’re a thing, my husband it starting to notice’ and now he has to hide his love
    What is the conceit in “The long love that in my heart doth harbour”?
    It is the comparing of love to a warrior
    What is “Whoso list to hunt” about?
    This man is chasing after this woman and he can’t get her, and he warns that it will be a waste of time for another man to try because she is the property of the king.
    What is the conceit of “Whose list to hunt”?
    Comparing the woman to a deer that is owned by another.
    When did Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, live?
    Between the years 1517-1547
    Who was Surrey’s close friend?
    Who was descended from royalty on both side of his family?
    Who was the first poet to publish in blank verse?
    Who took Wyatt’s English sonnet and introduced a new version that Shakespeare would later use?
    Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey
    What sonnets of Howard’s did we study?
    “Love, that doth reign and live in my thought”
    Edmund Spenser birth and death date?
    He was best known for his…?
    Spenserian Stanza
    What is a Spenserian stanza?
    8 iambic pentameter lines followed by a ninth of 6 iambic feet
    6 iambic feet
    Characteristics of Edmund Spenser’s writing
    Renaissance Neoplatonism, earthy, practical, lover of physical beauty, analyst of good and evil, Puritanism, sensuous images, iconoclastic, idealist, celebrant if English nationalism and empire
    Which poet became a English civil servant in Ireland in 1580 and why?
    Spenser, he was part of England’s attempt to dominate Ireland
    Who was often addressed in the Amoretti sonnet sequence?
    Spenser’s wife, Elisabeth Boyle. He depicted the success rather than the failure of love
    What’s sonnets of Spenser’s did we study?
    Sonnet 34 and Sonnet 54
    Sir Philip Sidney: 1554 to ?
    Which poet embodied all the traits of a Renaissance man?
    Sidney: he was a knight, solider, poet, friend and patron
    What was Sir Philip Sidney’s ambition?
    He wanted to have influence in court and policy, however he remained a man of letter rather than politics
    Who wrote Astrophil and Stella (Starlover and Star)?
    Sir Philip Sidney; it was his finest achievement and the first great Elizabethan sonnet cycles
    Who are believed to be the inspirations for astrophil and Stella?
    Penelope Devereux is believed to be the source of Stella and Philip to be Astrophil. The two were to marry but ended up marrying someone else
    Astrophil and Stella represent what?
    The trails, setbacks, and suffering of the lover to a typically unresponsive lady
    What are Christopher Marlowe’s dates?
    1564 -1593
    Who was born two month before Shakespeare and he 1st to introduce blank verse to drama?
    Marlowe: it is also believed that if he had love long enough, he plays would have rivalled Shakespeare’s
    What is considered the turning point of Elizabethan drama?
    Marlowe’s ‘Tamburlaine’
    Whose poetry contained a dual nature?
    Marlowe’s: his work was socially and religiously conventional but they also questioned conventional morality
    Who is suggested to have been a spy for Elizabeth the 1st, spying on Catholics who wanted to overthrow the Protestant reign?
    What are Francesco Petrarch birth/death dates?
    Who was the father of Renaissance?
    Who was the first Humanist?
    Who was the first modern man?
    Who did Petrarch dedicate sonnets to?
    Laura; the sonnets are normally known as ‘The Laura Poems’
    When is it believed that Petrarch saw Laura?
    In church on Good Friday, April 6, 1327
    Who is believed is the really identity of Laura?
    Laura de Noves who died in 1348
    Who was crowned with the poet’s laurel wreath in Rome?
    What is Petrarch most known for?
    Petrarch sonnet
    What is the Petrarch sonnet?
    A sonnet in the form an octave (8 lines) and a sestet (6 lines) with a rhyme scheme of abba abba cde cde
    Who is considered the first poet to use the conceit (extended metaphor)?
    What sonnets did we study of Petrarch?
    “Alas, That Gentle Look” and “Life Hurries on”
    What is “Alas, That Gentle Look” about?
    Petrarch is upset over the lost of Laura.
    What is the conceit of “Alas, That Gentle Look”?
    Her beauty; her face, smile, gentle look are his love
    What is “Life Hurries On” about?
    A person who is at a point in their where they are reflecting on the life and death and how death is unavoidable
    What is the conceit of “Life Hurries On”?
    1) comparing life a frantic refugee
    2) Compares life to a sea

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