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    West Civ – North Renaissance – Protestant Reformation

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    moist famous of the Northern Humanists, a dutch priest who wrote Adages
    wrote Adages and Praise of Folly
    made the wisdom of the Renaissance available to less scholarly people
    Praise of Folly
    satirical work that sought to expose the follies of 16th century society especially the church
    the philosophy of Christ
    based on faith, Christian love, and ethical behavior rather than dogma and ritual; founded by Erasmus
    Sir Thomas More
    English Humanist scholar, lawyer, and government official; beheaded for treason
    Sir Thomas More
    wrote Utopia
    describes an ideal state inhabited by citizens willing to share their wealth in a communal society
    Sale of Indulgences
    selling indulgences for the forgiveness of sins
    the selling of high church offices such as bishops or archbishops
    practice of being absent form the diocese, ignoring duties and still collecting the tithes and revenues of the office
    Holding multiple high church offices at once
    the papal practice of granting high offices to family members
    Renaissance Popes
    popes elected in the late 1400s-1500s who were characterized by excessive pomp, luxury and immorality
    Alexander VI, Julius II, Leo X
    the three Renaissance Popes
    Alexander VI
    bribed the College of Cardinals to win his election; had a series of mistresses and illegitimate children
    Julius II
    “warrior pope”‘; tried to extend the power and territory of the Papal States
    Leo X
    was the pope during the rise of Martin Luther; used church resources to become a great patron of the arts
    Ninety-five Theses
    written by Martin Luther; list of propositions on the subject of reforming the Roman Catholic Church
    Charles V
    Holy Roman Emperor who Martin Luther was ordered to appear before to answer charges of heresy
    Edict of Worms
    issued by Charles V; declared Martin Luther to be an outlaw
    Frederick the Wise
    prince of Germany who protected Martin Luther
    To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
    written by Martin Luther; urged the local German princes to support local religious reform and to resist the authority of foreign popes
    Lucas Cranach
    Lutheran artist who drew unflattering political cartoons about the pope
    Passion of Christ and Anti-Christ
    political cartoon by Cranach which contrasted the life and actions of Christ with those of the Pope
    Three different types of religions
    Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant
    Three Types of Protestant
    Luthern, Calvinist, Anglican

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