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    Renaissance , Reformation( Protestant & Catholic), etc

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    During the middle ages who was the dominant religion in Western Europe
    Catholic Church
    What happen without a common government in europe
    the catholic pope became an important political leader
    Why were priests powerful
    b/c the controlled peoples access to heaven by delivering the sacraments & absolving sins
    What did catholic church teach
    that people could gain access to heaven (called salvation) by having faith in God & doing god works for others
    1. Christians could gain more of God’s grace through series of spirtual rituals (called holy sacraments)
    2. Sacraments included Baptism,Confirmation,Communion,Confession, Marriage ,Ordination of Priests, Last Rites for the Dying
    The church was also
    corrupt
    Why did clergy members took vows of chastity
    to abstain from sex…but some church leaders fathered children
    Priests were required to go through rigorous training in monastery….but _____
    but some church positions were sold to the highest bigger called Simony
    What is it called when feudal lords use their influence to have friends or children name priests
    Lay investiture
    Who was poorly educated
    the clergy memebers
    Why was the selling of indulgences one of the most corrupt church practices
    1. way for people to repent for their sins through good works
    2. church leaders began selling them as a way of raising money
    During the middle ages, what were the practices
    unquestioned
    What did christians began doiong during the Renaissance
    criticizing church corruptions & questioned catholic teachings
    What did Christian humanists believe
    that they could reform the Catholic Church
    What did Reformers like John Wycliffe & priest John Hus say the bible was in 1300s
    ultimate authority on Christianity
    What language did the reformers want the church teachings in
    vernacular (local language ) NOT LATIN
    How did Catholic leaders respond to criticism
    by executing Wycliffe & Hus
    Who published “Praise of Follly” which called for an end of corruptions
    christian humanist Erasm
    Who invented the printing press
    Johann Gutenberg who had a great impact on spread of Martin Luther’s ideas and gave rise to the thought of Humanism
    How was the Catholic Church in early 1500s
    it was turmoil over controversy of corruption & its unwillingness to adopt reforms
    Who became involved in a serious dispute with the Catholic Church
    a catholic monk named Martin Luther
    What was one cause of the Protestant Reformation
    corruption among high officials of the church
    What was the effect of Martin Luther’s break from the Catholic Church
    began the Protestant Reformation & inspired series of new denominations
    What did reformers do during the Protestant Reformation
    they protested church corruptions & practices in hopes of reforming Christianity
    What did Martin Luther vowed to become
    at first he was going to become a lawyer, but after he nearly died in a thunderstorm he vowed to become a catholic priest
    What did Luther realize during his studies of the bible
    that salvation could not be achieved by good works & sacraments
    What was Luther inspired by
    St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans: ” A person can be made good by having faith in god’s mercy”
    What is Justification by faith
    salvation gained through having faith in God
    What did Luther see selling indulgences as
    a false salvation
    Where did Luther post the “ninety-five Theses” in 1517
    church door in town of Wittenberg
    What did the “ninety-five Theses” do
    caused great controversy through out europe, northern europe was excited about ideas, catholic church condemned Luther & rejected his ideas
    What was the Diet of Worms
    meeting of church & political leaders that demanded that luther take back his teachings but Luther refused using that the bible was the only source of religious authority & encouraged christians to study the bible, Luther was EXCOMMUNICATED from the Catholic Church
    What is Lutheranism
    new christian denomination ; first series of “Protestant” christian faiths that broke from Catholic Church.
    use of bible as the sole source of religious truth.
    sermons should be the main source of a church service.
    Who broke from the Catholic Church & started new Christian denominations
    religious reformers called protestants
    Who began the Reformation & believed in Justification by faith
    Martin Luther
    What help start the Protestant reformation
    Kings and Princes resented the power of the Catholic Church
    Who was the head of Anglican Church
    Henry lll
    Why did Henry lll spilt from Roman Catholic Church
    his desire for a male heir
    Where did the new protestant faith spread
    northern europe in areas away from the power of the Catholic Church
    What happen to the Catholic Church since most europeans stayed with it
    remained largest religion in Europe but lost much of its power & influence
    What is the response of the Catholic Church
    that the Protestant Reformation is better known as the Counter-Reformation or the Catholic-Reformation
    Who was one of the first reformers in the Catholic Church
    Ignatius of Loyolo
    What were the three goals that members of the society of jesus (jeusits) did
    1. form schools to better educate Catholic priests
    2. tried to stop the spread of Proestantism
    3. sent missionaries around the world to convert non-christians to catholicism
    What was the Council of Trent
    committee of catholic leaders to review church practices that Pope Paul lll created in order to reform the catholic church
    What were the reforms that the Council of Trent made
    1. Catholic Church stopped selling false indulgences
    2. New schools were created to educate priests
    What did Council of Trent Reaffirmed
    1. The church’s interpretation of the bible was final & all others who interpret the bible are heretics (non-believers)
    2. Salavation is gained through good works & faith
    3. All 7 holy sacraments are legitimate means to gain God’s grace
    What did the church ban & burn
    all offensive books, including protestant bibles
    What was the impact of the Protestant Reformation
    1. Left Europe religiously divided
    2. Religious wars were fought between Catholics & Protestants
    3. weakened authority of the pope helped kings gain powder & form nations
    4. Missionaries converted non-Christians throughout the world
    5. Encouraged education & questioning of long-held beliefs
    What did the church use to enforce its beliefs
    inquistion
    What is the name of era from 1300-1600 in western Europe
    Renaissance
    What new ideas were developed during the renaissance
    art,human potential,government
    What state first benefited from the growth of trade with the Middle east and Asia
    Italy
    What took place from 1337-1453 between England and France
    100 year war
    Which weapon gave the English an advantage at the start of the war
    Long bow
    What did the church loose power of due to what during the renaissance
    The crusades
    How many people did the plague killed in 5 years
    25 million
    Who was responsible for the paintings on the ceilings of the Sistine Chapel that reflect realism and humanistic forms
    Michelangelo
    What did the Catholic Church teach you that you could gain access by doing what
    having faith in God & doing good works
    What was one of the most corrupt church practices of the church
    selling of the indulgences
    What was Luther not
    went to law school but was not a LAWYER
    What feature was typical of Greece during the Golden age and Italy during the Renaissance
    a questioning spirt
    What is the Renaissance in Western Europe
    Great intellectual & artistic creativity. The philosophy of Renaissance is Greek and Roman civilizations are worthy of study.
    What did the first printing press give rise to
    Humanism
    What is the similarity of the protestant reformation & renaissance
    encouraged people to question tradition
    What did the renaissance belief in nobility of man coupled with the Christian emphasis on individuals salvation do
    weakened the political and religious authority of the pope
    Who wrote “The Prince”
    Machiavelli
    What did Renaissance humanist philosophers believe
    people should study both secular and religious matters
    What started the Renaissance in Italy
    city-states became wealthy centers for trade
    What was the goal of the counter/catholic revolution
    reinstate the power of the Roman Catholic Church
    Capitalism and republican government in Europe grew out of the Renaissance belief….
    in the importance of the individual
    How was the writers of the Renaissance influenced by Greek writers
    Greek writers emphasized the power of human reason
    What was an effect of Renaissance in Western Europe
    secularism brings a decrease in the power of the Church

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