During this time Britain and other foreign nations had gained much control over the middle east nations and implemented their own religion and governing system. By the end of the 18th century, Muslims became aware that they had been conquered through hegemony (DD 250). These events initiated a wave of reformation movements to restore the Muslim faith and reject western values that had been silently implemented. Three general movements arose from the reformation movements; Wahhabism, Secular Modernism, and the Islamist Modernism movement.
Wahhabism focused on completely shutting down Western influence to restore Islamic faith which included violent tactics against those imposing Western ideas. (DD251) Leaders of this movement claimed that “anyone who blocked the restoration of the original and holy community must be eliminated” (DD 252). Moreover, followers of this movement committed atrocious murders against fellow Muslims that allegedly became involved in adultery (DD 253). On the other hand, the Secular Modernism movement widely accepted Westernization. They believed that to modernize and progress with the world around them they had to follow western ideals and veer away from religious superstition (DD 251). Leaders of this movement were influenced by their travels and began to compare Muslims who did not accept Westernization to “dirty animals” (DD 259).Order now
Finally, the Islamist Modernism movement declared “Islam the true religion but concede that Muslims had certain things to learn from the West” (DD 251). Sayyid Jamaluddin-i-Afghan, the dominant figure of this movement utilized his education and charisma to influence others and avoiding violent tactics by boycotting against those imposing on his word (DD 266). Jamaluddin faced backlash from imperial powers, often being exiled from the country he was living as well as placed in prison for allegedly inciting a rebel movement. This movement was touched by new educational values from those imposed by the imperialists. Jamaluddin believed that “Muslims had the right to his or her own interpretations of the scriptures and revelations, but Muslims as a community had to school themselves in those first principles embedded in the revelations” (DD 267).
Furthermore, he expressed that a combination of both the retention of old traditions and some western ideas were needed for Pan-Islamic nation to progress (DD 267). Jamaluddin believed that the Islamic faith experienced a minor setback due to their tactics in dealing with imperial powers. He expressed that, “they (Muslims) should have embraced western science but closed their gates to social more and education systems” (DD 267). The three reform movements divided Muslims depending on their gender and social class status as well as the country of residence. Some Muslims experienced violent persecution for not worshipping or following in the eyes of an opposing reform movement.