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    Music Chapter 12 Essay

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    60s, 70s Country
    -slick Nashville sound
    -hardcore country (Merle Haggard)
    -country pop (AM radio)
    Progressive country
    -grew out of 60s counterculture
    -inspired by honky-tonk, rockabilly, singer-songwriter, country rock
    -intellectual + liberal songs
    -tested the limits of country music tradition

    Artists: WIllie Nelson, Kris Kristopherson (“Help me make it through the night”), Tom T Hall (“Harper Valley PTA”), Townes Van Zandt

    Willie Nelson
    influential progressive country artist


    1971 outdoor festival of country: he organized it

    bridged gap between rock + country without losing honky-tonk roots

    “the Outlaws”: group he achieved fame from

    Waylon Jennings
    center of “The OUtlaws”
    joined the Crickets
    stayed around Nashville
    rebel image
    The Outlaws
    Waylon Jennings, WIllie Nelson
    rebellion against conservatism in country music, connected past and future

    paved way for alternative country

    Townes van Zandt
    progressive country singer-songwriter
    underground classics

    combined straightforwardness w/ poetic subtleties

    inspired country + rock musicians

    “Pancho + Lefty”

    space, unpolished vocals, guitar w/ complex harmony, fits w/ European ballad tradition, old Spanish roots

    mix of Caribbean folk + American R+B

    first style of rock to originate in 3rd World
    born in Kingston, Jamaica from Jamaican country (mento)

    popularized by film “The Harder They Come” + soundtrack

    Bob Marley, Jimmy Cliff

    inspired rock musicians

    slow tempo, wide spaces between notes, polyrhythmic, riddims, choppy guitar for bouncy up and down feeling, bass-drum combo, political messages (social injustice, racism)

    mix of Jamaican folk, church hymns, sailor shanties, Cuban influences
    19th century

    led to reggae

    onomatopoeic term derived from style’s typical sharp, offbeat accents

    combo of Jamaican folk + American RNB

    fast tempo, steady four-beat pattern of bass, piano/guitar/drum backbeat

    Don Drummond + the Skatalites

    religious movement, reinterpreted bible focusing on passages about slavery, salvation, Babylon (apocalyptic consequences on oppresors), association w/ ganja (marijuana), dreadlocks

    theme in reggae music

    founded by Josiah Marcus Garvey who inspired “Back to Africa” repatriation movement among black Americans

    rock steady
    urban popular music, updated version of ska (slower tempo)
    Rude Boys
    rock steady patrons
    informal, unruly Jamaican youth movement against “the system”

    conflict w/ police, covered by media

    interlocking rhythmic patterns played by guitar, bass, drums
    Jimmy Cliff
    from Jamaica, did reggae
    film star, rebellious spirit

    “The Harder they come”

    Bob Marley
    led the Wailers, national hero in Jamaica
    reggae’s most effective international ambassador

    songs of determination, rebellion, faith, roots in Rastafarian, worldwide audience

    “I Shot the SHeriff” cover

    some reggae artists
    Millie Small: “My Boy Lollipop” ska-flavor
    Johnny Nash “Hold Me Tight”
    Desmond Dekker + the Aces “Israelites”
    Jimmy Cliff “Wonderful World, Beautiful People”
    Bob Marley “I shot the sheriff”
    NYC dance clubs in mid 1970s
    latin-oriented, experimental blend of ballroom dance music, afro-Cuban rumba drumming, modern jazz

    stars: Eddie Palmieri, Willie Colon, Ruben Blades

    “Pedro Navaja”

    1970s punk
    1970-1978 golden age, NYC
    back to basics rebellion against perceived artifice + pretension of corporate rock, getting away from its pomposity + self-conscious artistry

    influence on alternative rock

    cultural style + attitude rebelling aginst authority, rejecting middle-class values

    ripped stockings, patched outfits

    dark dimensions of human existence: drug addiction, despair, suicide, lust, violence

    began from garage bands

    The Velvet Underground, the Stooges, the NY Dolls

    new wave
    developed alongside punk rock
    self-conscious artistic + experimental terms
    garage bands
    rough + ready, DIY attidue

    paved way for punk rock

    the Velvet Underground
    NY group promoted by Andy Warhol
    rough-edged, chaotic, loud

    focus on sexual deviancy, drug addiction, violence, social alienation

    led by Lou Reed, John Cale

    the stooges
    punk group in Michigan
    working-class motorcycle-riding, leather jacketed

    led by Iggy Stooge


    Iggy Stooge
    Iggy Pop, James Osterburg, famous for outrageous stage performances, punk

    stage diving, cutting self with beer bottles, rubbing self with raw meet

    the new York dolls
    punk, NYC
    fishnet stockings, bright red lipstick, cellophane tutus, ostrich feathers, army boots, all-male dolls

    response to English glam rock movement

    began at Christmas party in Manhattan hotel

    succumbed to drug + alcohol abuse

    country, bluegrass, blues, + other music for urban gourmandizers

    Patti Smith (rock), Blondie

    The Ramones
    first bonafide punk rock band, NYC
    high-speed, energetic, extremely loud, garage band like

    catchy, pop-inspired melody, fast tempo, short, raw, hard-edged

    influenced English punk groups (Sex Pistols, the Clash)

    street-tough image

    Jeffrey Hyman (Joey), John Cummings (Johnny), Douglas Colvin (Dee Dee), Tom Erdelyi (Tommy), managed by Danny Fields

    “Sheena is a punk rocker,” “I wanna be sedated”

    the talking heads
    self-consciously artistic, exploratory side of alternative rock scene, mid 1970s, CBGB

    David Byme, Chris Frantz, Tina Weymouth (RISD)

    reflected minimalism, combo of colors, shapes, sounds, words

    riff-based rhythms like James Brown

    simple structure, strong pop hooks

    slacks, sweaters, vests, cerebral, nerdy college students, awkwardness as cool

    “Psycho Killer”

    funk music
    (led to disco) brought focus of dancing into pop mainstream

    “tear the roof off the sucker”

    white male audience, back to basics, impulse to dance

    “funki” = “healthy sweat” : strong body odors, quality of earthiness, authenticity

    profane + down to earth

    characterized by strong, dance-oriented rhythms, catchy melodies, call-and-response exchanges between voice + instrument, heavy reliance on repeated, rehythmically interlocking patterns

    rhythm + horn sections

    vigorous reassertion of African American musical values, paved way for disco

    ex: Kool and the Gang, Ohio players, chic

    James Brown
    inspiration for funk

    strong rhythmic momentum + groove, electric bass + bas/snare drums playing on beats

    Sly + the family stone
    interracial psychedelic soul band
    bridged gap between rock + soul

    fiery performance at 1969 Woodstock
    “Dance to the music” “everyday people” “thank you” “family affair”

    sly stone
    Sylvester stewart
    gospel to RNB/Rock DJ to the Stoners (band)

    diverse musical experience (jazz, soul, San Fran psychadelia, folk rock)

    George clinton
    led Parliament/Funkadelic (loose aggregate of 40 musicians playing funk): spectacular concerts, wild costumes, elaborate sets, innovative concept albums
    “give up the funk (tear the roof off…


    ex-RNB vocal leader/songwriter

    mixed polyrhyrthms, psychedelic guitar solos, jazz-influenced horn arrangements, RNB vocal harmonies

    reconfigured black popular music as positive moral force

    wove mythological narratives
    blend of social criticism, wacky humor, psychedelic imagination
    influenced Dr. Dre + RHCP

    “Free your mind, and your a** will follow”

    heavy, syncopated electric bass lines
    interlocking rhythms underlain by strong pulse on each beat of each measure
    long multisectioned arangements featuring call+ response between horns + keyboard synthesizer
    RNB style vocal harmonies
    verbal mottos chanted by fans

    used by Clinton + Parliament/Funkadelic

    spurred more popular debate than any other genre
    based on principles derived from African tradition (rhythmic momentum, complex tone colors, dense textures, appreciation of improv, innovative approach to technology)

    response to oppression + racism

    multiracial, multicultural, transnational audience

    emerged in 70s

    forged by African American + Caribbean American youth in NYC (Bronx)

    distinctive styles of visual art (Graffiti), dance (break dancing, freak), music, dress, speech

    rejection of mainstream dance, shaped by disco DJs

    70s DJs
    Kool Herc
    Grandmaster Flash
    Afrika Bambaataa

    spun records at block parties, gym dances, dance clubs, public spaces, parks

    ancestors of rap producers

    developed personal styles

    Kool Herc
    developed technique of 2 turntable mixing to create smooth transitions between records

    stripped melodies to feature rhythm section

    switching between turntables, backspinning discs to repeat break over and over (refined by Grandmaster Flash)

    recited rhyming phrases over backbeats produced, some based on toasting

    rhythmic sound collages, inspired name for break dancing

    pioneered by Kool Herc

    Grandmaster Flash
    used headphones to pinpoint beginnings of breaks: very refined skill

    Theodore was his protégé (developed scratching)

    “the message”: portrait of life in S Bronx, trend of social realism in rap

    form of poetic storytelling w/ roots in trickster tales of W Africa, inspired raps of Kool Herc, black inmates of prisons
    Hustler’s convention
    portrait of the urban underworld of gamblers, pimps, hustlers
    comprised prison toasts
    album by Jala Uridin (led Last Poets: group of militant ex-convicts)
    master of ceremonies
    DJs that did verbal performances

    controlled crowd behavior at large dances
    ancestors of contemporary rappers

    Sugarhill Gang
    “Rapper’s delight”: popularized term of rapper as equivalent for MC, unexpected success popularized rap

    crew based in Harlem

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