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    Music Appreciation Pt. 7

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    Composers in the twentieth century drew inspiration from all except:
    American marching band music
    The combination of two traditional chords sounding together is known as
    a polychord
    Among the unusual playing teechniques that were widely used during the twentieth century is the _____, a rapid slide up or down a scale.
    glissando
    Which of the following composers was not stimulated by the folkore oh his native land?
    Anton Webern
    A chord made of tones only a half step or a whole step apart is known as
    tone cluster
    The absence of the key or tonality in a musical composition is known as
    atonality
    One of the most striking elements of twentieth-century music that is used to generate power and excitement is
    rhythm
    The use of two or more keys at one time is known as
    polytonality
    A motive or phrase that is repeated persistently at the same pitch thoughout a section is called
    ostinato
    In the twentieth-century music, melodies are often difficult to sing because
    of the wide leaps and rhythmic irregularity
    Radio broadcasts of live and recorded music began to reach large audiences during the
    1920s
    The first opera created for television was Gian-Carlo Menotti’s
    Amahl and the Night Visitors
    Recordings of much lesser-known music multipled in 1948 through
    the appearance of long-playing disks
    The most influential organization sponsoring new music after World War 1 was
    the International Society for Contemporary Music
    The best-known American ensemble created in the 1930s by a radio network to broadcast live music was the
    NBC Symphony Orchestra
    One of the most important teachers of musical composition of the twentieth century was
    Nadia Boulanger
    Impression as a movement originated in
    France
    Which of the following is not considered a sybolist poet?
    Victor Hugo
    When viewed closely, impressionist paintings are made up of
    tiny colored patches
    Debussy’s most famous orchestral work was inspired by a poem by
    Stephane Mallarme
    Debussy’s music tends to
    sound free and almost improvisational
    The faun evoked in Debussy’s famous composition is a
    creature who is half man, half goat
    As a result of his summer sojourns away from France during his teens, Debussy developed a lifelong interest in the music of
    Russia
    Debussy’s opera Pelleas et Melisande is an almost word-for-word setting of the symbolist play by
    Maurice Maeterlinck
    At the Paris International Exhibition of 1889 Debussy was strongly influenced by the
    performances of Asian music
    In which of the following areas did Debussy not create masterpieces?
    symphonies
    The poem which inspired the Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun was written by
    Stephane Mallarme
    In order to drown the sense of tonality, Debussy
    turned to the medieval church modes, borrowed petatonic scales from Javanese music, and developed the whole-tone scale
    Which of the following statements is not true of Ravel?
    He composed a large number of works in all genres
    Ravel’s Bolero originated as a(n)
    ballet commissioned by the dancer Ida Rubinstein
    While some of Ravel’s music has the fluid, misty, atmospheric quality associated with impressionism, he does not fit neatly into any stylistic category because his
    music is too clearly defined in form and tonality
    Which of the following works is not by Maurice Ravel?
    Voiles
    Bolero reflects Ravel’s fascination with
    obessive rhythmic repetition and tone color
    A more appropriate term for “neoclassicism” might be
    neoBaroque
    Neoclassical compositions are characterized by
    forms and stylistic features of earlier periods
    Neoclassicism was a reaction against
    romanticism and impressionism
    Which of the following is not characteristic of neoclassicism?
    misty atmosphere
    Neoclassical composers favored
    tonality
    A painter who went through a neoclassical phase, and who designed sets for Stravinsky’s first neoclassical work, was
    Pablo Picasso
    During the period from about 1920 to 1951, Stravinsky drew inspiration largely from
    eighteenth-century music
    Le Sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) is an example of
    primitivism
    Sergei Diaghilev was the director of the
    Russian Ballet
    Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring is scored for
    an enormous orchestra
    Which of the following ballets is not from Stravinsky’s Russian period?
    Pulcinella
    Stravinsky’s composition teacher was
    Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
    Stravinsky’s second phase is generally known as
    neoclassical
    In the 1950s Stravinsky dramatically changed his style, this time drawing inspiration from
    Anton Webern
    The famous riot in 1913 was caused by the first performance of Stravinsky’s ballet
    The Rite of Spring
    Expressionism is an art concerned with
    social protest
    The expressionist movement flourished in the years
    1905-1925
    The expressionist movement was largely centered in
    Germany and Austria
    Twentieth-century musical expressionism grew out of the emotional turbulence in the works of late romantics such as
    Richard Wagner, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of Expressionist music?
    classical tonality
    Edvard Munch was an expressionist
    painter
    The expressionists rejected
    conventional prettiness
    Expressionism stressed
    intense, subjective emotion
    Expressionist painters, writers, and composers used ____ to assault and shock their audience.
    deliberate distortions
    Expressionist composers
    avoided tonality and traditional chord progressions
    Schoenberg’s teacher was
    Schoenberg himself
    When Schoenberg arrived in the United States after the Nazis seized power in Germany, he obtained a teaching position at
    UCLA
    Alban Berg and Anton Webern were Schoenberg’s
    students
    In addition to being a composer, Schoenberg showed skill as a
    painter
    A Survivor from Warsaw used three languages: English, German, and
    Hebrew
    Schoenberg’s third person, in which he developed the twelve-tone system, began around
    1921
    Schoenberg developed an unusual style of vocal performance, halfway between speaking and singing, called
    Sprechstimme
    Which of the following statements is not true of Schoenberg’s twelve-tone method of composition?
    Each tone of a row must be placed in the same register
    Which of the following terms is not used to describe the special ordering of the twelve chromatic tones in twelve-tone composition?
    polychord
    Georg Buchner’s play Wozzeck was written in the
    1830s
    The vocal lines in Wozzeck include
    Sprechstimme
    Which musical form provides the basis for the last act of Wozzeck?
    variations
    Which of the following statements regarding Berg is untrue?
    He composed a great quantity of music in all forms
    Webern’s melodic lines are
    atomized into two-or three-note fragments
    Webern’s twelve-tone works contain many examples of
    strict polyphonic imitation
    The least important element in Webern’s music is
    tonality
    Webern’s Five Pieces for Orchestra are scored for
    a chamber orchestra of eighteenth soloists
    Webern
    earned a doctorate in music history from the University of Vienna
    Bartok’s principal performing medium was
    piano
    Bartok evolved a completely individual style that fused folk elements with
    changes of meter and a powerful beat, twentieth-century sounds, and classical forms
    The melodies Bartok used in most of his works are
    original themes that have a folk flavor
    Bartok’s six string quartets are widely thought to be the finest since those of
    Ludwig van Beethoven
    While remaining within the framework of a tonal center, Bartok often used harsh dissonances and _____ in his music.
    polychords
    Bartok’s string quartets are often compared to those of
    Beethoven
    As a Soviet composer, Shostakovich was required to
    reject modernism
    Shostakovich is best known as a composer of
    an enormous quantity of music in almost every genre
    Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony
    is accessible in style and allowed the composer to regain official favor with the Communist party
    Shostakovich’s opera Lady MacBeth of the Mtsensk District
    established the composer as a major figure in the twentieth-century music
    Babi Yar, a poem by the Russian poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko about Jews massacred by the Nazis in Kiev,
    was used by Shostakovich as a text of the opening movement of his Thirteenth Symphony
    Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony has been described as
    “a Soviet artist’s practical creative response to just criticism”
    Putnam’s Camp, Redding, Connecticut, is a child’s impression of
    a Fourth of July picnic
    Charles Ives’s father was a(n)
    bandmaster
    After graduating from Yale, Ives
    went into the insurance business
    During most of his lifetime, Ives’s musical compositions
    accumulated in the barn of his Connecticut farm
    Ives’s music contains elements of
    revival hymns and ragtime, patriotic songs and barn dances, and village bands and church choirs
    Ives’s large and varied output includes works in many genres, but not
    operas
    Putnam’s Camp, Redding, Connecticut, is a movement from Ives’s
    Three Places in New England
    Gershwin left high school at the age of fifteen to
    become a pianist demonstrating new songs in a publisher’s salesroom
    The Gershwin song that became a tremendous hit in 1920 was
    Swanee
    Porgy and Bess is a(n)
    opera
    In addition to his musical skills, George Gershwin showed talent as a
    painter
    George Gershwin usually collaborated with the lyricist
    Ira Gershwin
    Which of the following works is not by George Gershwin?
    The Desert Song
    Rhapsody in Blue opens with
    a solo clarinet
    “Harlem Renaissance” was the name
    sometimes given to a flowering of African American culture during the years 1917-1935
    William Grant Still’s opera dealing with the Haitian slave rebellion is
    Troubled Island
    As a result of his studies in compositions with composers from two opposing musical camps, the conservative George Whitefield Chadwick and the modernist Edgard Varese, Still
    composed in a very conservative style
    Each movement of William Grant Still’s Afro-American Symphony is prefaced by lines from a poem by
    Paul Laurence Dunbar
    William Grant Still’s works in African American style, such as his Afro-American Symphony, were
    performed to critical acclaim in New York
    After serving in the navy and a brief return to studies at Oberlin College, William Grant Still moved to New York where he
    made band arrangements and played in the orchestras of all-black musical shows
    Copland’s name has becomes synonymous with American music because of his use of
    revival hymns, cowboy songs, and other folk tunes
    Copland’s turn toward simplicity in the 1930s can be traced in part to
    the great depression
    In 1921 Copland began a three-year period of study in
    France
    Which of the following works was not composed by Copland?
    Concord Sonata
    In addition to his compositions, Copland made valuable contributions to music in America by
    directing composer’s groups, writing books and magazine articles, and organizing concerts of American music
    In 1925, and for a few years afterward, Copland’s music showed the influence of
    jazz
    An example of Copland’s use of serialist technique is
    Connotations
    Appalachian Spring originated as a
    ballet score
    Copland depicted “Scenes of daily activity for the Bride and her Farmer-husband” in Appalachian Spring through
    five variations on the Shaker melody Simple Gifts
    Ginastera’s early interest in percussive sounds was fully realized in his work entitled
    Estancia Suite
    During the 1940s and 1950s Ginastera was forced to resign from his teaching positions because
    he opposed the regime of Juan Peron
    The Latin American Center of Advanced Musical Studies, which Ginastera directed, promoted
    avant-garde musical techniques
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of Ginastera’s music?
    simple harmonies
    In Final Dance: Malambo, the character of the gaucho is shown through
    energetic melodies and perpetual motion
    Minimalist music is characterized by
    a steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic patterns
    Many composers since the mid-1960s have made extensive use of quotations from earlier music as an attempt to
    improve communication between the composer and the listener
    A major composer associated with the serialist movement is
    Milton Babbitt
    All of the following are major developments in music since 1950 except the
    continued composition of symphonies in the classical style
    Intervals smaller than the half step are called
    microtones
    Twelve-tone compositional techniques used to organize rhythm, dynamics, tone color, and other dimensions of music to produce totally controlled and organized music are called
    serialism
    In chance or aleatoric music, the composer
    choose pitches, tone colors, and rhythms by random methods
    Ellen Taaffe Zwilich won the 1983 Pulitzer Prize for Music for her composition
    Symphony No. 1
    One of the most widely performed orchestral works by a living American composer is
    Adam’s Short Ride in a Fast Machine
    Ellen Taaffe Zwilich’s Concerto Grosso 1985 is an example of
    quotation music
    “Liberation of sound” refers to
    the use of non-musical sounds, often produced by an electronic instrument
    Which composer used a toy piano in his song cycle?
    George Crumb
    Which composer was known for creating dramatic effects through changes in tempo?
    Elliot Carter
    Rapid slide up or down a scale
    glissando
    Combination of two chords sounded at the same time, used in twentieth-century music
    polychord
    Chord in which the tones are a fourth apart, instead of a third; used in twentieth-century music
    fourth chord
    Chord made up of tones only a half step or whole step apart, used in music after
    tone cluster
    Approach to pitch organization using two or more keys at one time, often found in twentieth-century music
    polytonality
    Approach to pitch organization using two keys at one time, often found in twentieth-century music
    bitonality
    Absence of tonality, or key, characteristic of much music of twentieth and early twenty-first centuries
    atonality
    Use of two more contrasting and independent rhythms at the same time, often found in music after 1900
    polyrhythm
    Motive or phrase that is repeated persistently at the same pitch, used in music of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries to stabilize a group of pitches
    ostinato
    Scale made up of five different tones, used in folk music and music of the far east
    petatonic scale
    Scale made up of six different tones, each a whole step away from the next, which conveys no definite sense of tonality; often found in the music of Debussy and his followers
    Whole-tone scale
    Succession of varying tone colors serving as a musical idea in a composition, used by Schoenberg and his followers
    tone-color melody (Klangfarbenmelodie)
    In German, speech-voice; a style of vocal performance halfway between speaking and singing, typical of Schoenberg and his followers
    Sprechstimme
    Method of composing in which all pitches of a composition are derived from a special ordering of the twelve chromatic tones (tone row or set); developed by Schoenberg in the early 1920s
    twelve-tone system
    Particular ordering of the twelve chromatic tones, from which all pitches in a twelve-tone composition are derived
    tone row (set, series)
    Method of composing that uses an ordered group of musical elements to organize rhythm, dynamics, and tone color, as well as pitch; developed in the mid-twentieth century
    serialism
    Music composed by the random selection of pitches, tone colors, and rhythms; developed in the 1950s by John Cage and others
    chance (aleatory) music
    Works which make extensive use of quotations from earlier music; common since the mid-1960s
    quotation music
    Instrument whose sound is produced, modified, or amplified by electronic means
    electronic instrument
    Interval smaller than a half step
    microtune
    Technique in which music is presented together with visual counterparts such as slide projections, films, or theatrical action
    mixed media
    A piano whose sound is altered by placing objects such as bolts, screws, rubber bands, or pieces of felt between the strings of some of the keys
    prepared piano
    Percussion instrument of definite pitch with metal bars, similar to the marimba, with tubular metal resonators driven by electronic impulses
    vibraphone
    Percussion instrument with tuned wooden bars, similar to the xylophone, but larger and having cylindrical acoustic resonators
    marimba
    Composer born in Paris, created one of the most famous piece called Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun
    Debussy
    Stress on tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity are characteristics of
    impressionism music
    Debussy uses successions of ____ ____ that do not ____.
    dissonant, chords, resolve
    This composer grew up in Paris, and was a master of orchestral and pianistic tone color
    Ravel
    Besides the clarinet and strings, the French loved
    flutes and harps
    The worst piece ever, by Ravel, that became the most popular was
    Bolero
    The most important composer in the 20th century, wrote 3 famous ballets, and was born in Russia, but moved to Paris was
    Stravinsky
    Stravinsky wrote one of the most important chorale work called
    Symphony of Songs
    Robert Craft was
    Stravinsky’s musical assistant
    The deliberate evocation of primitive power through insistent rhythms and percussive sounds
    primitivism
    Stressed intense, subjective emotion
    expressionism
    This composer was born in Hungary and based his symphonies on folk tunes
    Bartok
    Bartok’s most popular work. Finished it in 6 weeks.
    Concerto for Orchestra
    This composer was born in Connecticut, and was the 1st significant American composer.
    Ives
    Varese was the first composer to
    abandon an orchestra
    Varese wrote ____, which became the most famous ___ piece in the 20th century.
    Ionisation, percussion
    ____ was one of the first to use ____ to create sounds
    Varese, synthesizer
    This compose was born in Buenos Aires, he’s Argentinean, and was attracted to percussion
    Ginastera
    Astor Piazzolla was
    Ginastera’s first private composition student
    One of Ginastera’s most popular work was
    Estancia
    A dance for men only performed by the gaucho
    malambo
    The most famous and influential creator of chance music was the American
    John Cage
    Steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic patterns
    minimalist music

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    Music Appreciation Pt. 7. (2017, Aug 28). Retrieved from https://artscolumbia.org/music-appreciation-pt-7-15740/

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