Japanese arts have the distinction of being distinct because it uses absolutely identical materials. Implements, and media for both drawing and painting (Bowie, 9). Therefore, it is arguable whether Japanese drawings and paintings are either the same thing or, that there is no such thing as a Japanese drawing (Bowie, 9). Either way, these drawings/paintings represent a distinct art form and era in Japanese history as well as art history. The art of these ink drawings involve the use of sums, which is a charcoal precipitate that is mixed with water and can create visual and textual effects to an unlimited range (Bowie, 10).Order now
These ink nettings can also be referred to as sums-e. The kind of brush that was used was also a wide variety of brushes from large, small, flat or round (Bowie ICC). Sums- ex.’s encompassed a wide variety of materials in which it was presented on. They were seen on whole walls off reception hall or temple, on sliding door panels known as the fuse, as well as the hanging scroll that was known as Oakmont (History 17). Along with those items, less elaborate items were used such as the hand scroll, animation, fans, segments, and albums, gaucho (History, 17).
Along faith these material items that oeuvre used in this art form were also the on-material aspects of the art; the artists’ intent and planning of each painting. Subjects were transformed in the mind Of each artist using interpretations and feelings that were expressed in each brush stroke (History 18). The artist was known to hold on to his brush until he had determined the intention, composition, and position of each stroke as well as how each stroke would function (History 18). These aspects of the art form truly distinguish Japanese ink paintings.
These material and non-material items both work together to create specific and intricately thought out pictures of balance and perfection in Japanese art. Influences from and Differences between China Although, when looking at a Japanese painting and/or drawing, one can easily lump them into the category of general far east art, since they all gain great influence from China. Japanese art differs aesthetically from that of China and its surrounding neighbors. Japanese paintings show a distinct stylistic perfection that is reflected in balance and asymmetrical compositions (History 13).
These characteristics developed with influence from Japanese Buddhist monks who traveled to China (History 20). There was also a flow of Chinese monk refugees ho fled to Japan in the I lath century during the Mongol take-over of China (History 20). This also had a huge impact on the development of Japanese paintings in relation to China The fact that the beginnings of ink painting had the foundation of monks also sets the back drop for the simplicity and the presence of nature and space in much Of these drawings; the Zen aspect.
The distinction with Japan was that paintings were also focused on Zen patriarchs and famous monks rather than solely focusing on nature as the Chinese did (History 21). When nature further came in to play in the early 15th century, there was resend Of strong asymmetry in branches and cliffs, emphasis on image Of space as well as height using cliffs or trees (History 23).
History emphasizes techniques used and its relation to China: The sharp definition of the trees and more muted forms of the bamboo grove and distant mountains further enhance the sense of atmospheric space] this work admirably demonstrates the degree to which Japanese artists if the fifteenth century had assimilated the essentials of Chinese landscaping painting (History 23) In an orthodox portrait of a Zen master extraneous and/or ornamental elements such as trees and mountains in the background are not present (Kanata 36).
Detail, instead went to the face and the robe of the priest (Kanata 36). Other aspects of capturing are also depicted through these paintings such as the idea of movement in some of the paintings of the priests. There are portraits that give out the idea of “walking as though not walking, quiet and unmoved” (Kanata 44). The scroll also provided another way in which ink paintings were represented. It combines poetic inscriptions with landscape paintings and became the major pictorial expression of the first half of the 15th entry (Sashimi paintings on fans were another asset to this art form.
An example of techniques in fan art is seen in Nina Gene’s landscape fan of 1975 Which expresses the use Of orange-brown color, patterning Of dots, and the occasional use of darker ink in tree groupings (Addis 34). These are some of themes and techniques of composition of the different eras of ink drawings. Schools, Eras, and Change There were also different schools and styles of Japanese ink paintings (from http://www. Arterial. Com/articles/Japanese-painting. Asp), 0 Chihuahuas is the term for painting in black ink. It was adopted from China and strongly influenced by Zen Buddhism.
During the 15th century ink painting gained a more Japanese style tot its own. Guano Monsanto (1453-1490) and his son Kane Monotone (http://w. Vow. Arterial. Com/articles/Japanese-painting. Asps-1559) stab lashed the Kane painting school. It began as a protest against the Chinese ink painting technique in black, The Kane school used bright colors and introduced daring compositions with large flat areas that later should dominate the Kikuyu-e designs. The Kane school split into several branches over the time, but remained dominant during the Eddo period. Many Kikuyu-e artists were trained as Kane painters. ] Toss-ha was a painting school specialized on small miniature formats in book illustrations. The founder avgas Toss Hokier in the 14th century. The Toss school became something like the official art school of the imperial court in Kyoto. The imperial court was a secluded world of its own, politically powerless, but well equipped with funds by the governing shoguns to dedicate themselves to fine arts. 0 The nag painting style was strong at the beginning of the 19th century during the bunk and bonsai era. The advocates of this style painted idealized landscapes and natural subjects like birds and flowers for a cultural elite.
The style was rather Chinese. C] The Shoji school was a split in the 18th century from the official Kane school. The shoji style is characterized by subjects taken from people’s everyday life. A kind Of realism With sometimes satirical elements. Kane Monsanto, developed the Kane school (History, 23). This school was dominated Japanese painting until the 19th century and believed an artistic tradition that was family oriented; leadership was passed from father to son (History, 24). As mentioned in the above list of schools, this school reduced native paintings that incorporated color in its subject.
These paintings also lack the Zen overtones because Zen Buddhism lost its unchallenged position as a cultural force in Kyoto (History, 24). Kyoto served as the cultural center for ink paintings; however, Kumara came into play as an important spot in the late 15th century (Sashimi, 27). Like all areas of art, when one place bursts with energy and creativity that extremely reflects and affects the culture, the trend and need to branch out transcends. Session’s work took prominence at the time which the ink paintings were gaining ground in Kumara (History 25).
Session’s work exemplifies the beauty of ink in color: He has used ink and light color to convey the beauty and freshness of summer and broad, harsher ink washes to capture the cold of wintergreen’s shows greater sensitivity to seasonal changeableness describes painting as a form of magic (History, 25) This magic was thought of as man’s ability to reveal the process of nature through brush and ink (History, 25). All these different schools lead to different eras of this art and show the diverse ways in Which history and the evolution Of society and politics created particular dynamics in one particular art form.
The Basic aspect of Japanese ink paintings was originally that Of the Zen Buddhist culture. The art later assimilated with ideas of Chinese Confucianism. The Zen characteristic of life in earlier paintings where there; there were virtually no apparent landscapes or depictions of nature. As time and politics progressed, the art itself became evolutionary as it began to take on new forms and develop different schools as well as spread into different areas of Japan. Even though the ways of they paintings evolved, the overall structure, technique and material of the art maintained the same. Bibliography Addis, Stephen.