The client age 19 female is a year 12 student, who lives with her mom. She usually catches the bus to her school as she lives close to the bus stop. She only walks three times a week while traveling to school, which is under the active transport domain. Walking accounts for a total of 60 min of physical activity, she also spends 20 min in moderate activity and 30 min in vigorous activity as a total of 110 min overall exercise per week through leisure time activity domain.
According to the” Australia bureau of statistics (ABS) The graph “person aged 18 years and over – Average minutes per week spent on physical activity”.
The Australian Health survey 2011 the people in the same age of the client do 95 minutes of walking for transport, 29 minutes for moderate physical activity, 115 minutes for vigorous Pa and another 40 minutes of walking for fitness which will be a total of 279 minutes per week (ABS. statistics, 2013).
So according to this the client doesn’t meet the Australian physical activity guideline, and people in her age, as she does only a 35 minute of walking for transport, 25 min of walking for fitness, 20 minutes of moderate activity and another 30 minutes of vigorous PA which will be a total of 110 minutes per week. The client has 169 minutes less than the people in her age. The client need to increase her physical activity by 40 min to meet the Australian physical activity guideline.
If the client doesn’t do enough exercises she will be at risk of getting diabetes type 2. Diabetes type 2 which is one of the most common disease among people that cause premature deaths. According to epidemiological studies the people who are more active have 30-50% lower risk of getting type 2 diabetes than sedentary people, Risk will be reduced by doing at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity per day and more better to extent (Bassuk & Mason 2005).
Vigorous and moderate intensity physical activity and risk of chronic diseases among 44,551 men at the age of 40-75 in 1986, leisure time and physical activity helps to reduce and prevent chronic diseases, cardiovascular and cancers by doing exercise 3 days a week at least 30 min of vigorous physical activity (Chomistek. Et al, 2013).
Correlates of physical activity. The below table is the ecological model of the client’s barriers from the plan.
- Low self-conscious
- No one to exercise with
- No access to places to do vigorous exercises
- No motivation
- A lot of traffic on the road
But according to the journal Barriers to physical activity among high school students is the below table that leads students to lack of activity and exercises psychologically, Socially and Environmentally.
- Lack of motivation
- Lack of support from friends and family
- Unstable weather
- Lack of interests or desire
- Lack of time due to other responsibilities
- Low resources
- School and school works
- Physical activity strategies
Find research that has already been completed on increasing physical activity in your client’s demographic, and analyse the studies.
What type of intervention was it? An LEAP (Lifestyle Education for Activity Program) intervention was designed for a year to increase the physical activity support among the girls. As there were 6 components of LEAP. PE, health education, school environment, school health services, Faculty/staff health promotion and family/community involvement. The LEAP team was supported by providing workshops, demonstrations, onsite training, consultation and instructional martials.
What Theory of Behaviour Change Was It Based On?
The intervention was designed based on social ecological model that was drawn primarily from social cognitive.
How did they attempt to increase physical activity? They attempted it by a group randomized controlled field trial at 24 high schools, 2744 of girls that 48.7% of them were African American and 46.7% white that participated in the trial. And the LEAP team was supported by providing workshops, demonstrations, onsite training, consultation and instructional martials.
They attempted it by selecting a 24-high school, a total of 2744 girl students, that 46.7% of white American and 48.7% of African American participated in a group of randomized controlled field. Approximately 80% of girls enrolled in PE class after the intervention in the next grade.
45% of girls in the intervention schools and 36% of girls in the control schools reported vigorous physical activity during an average of 1 or more 30-minute time blocks of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day over a 3-day period (Pate et al, 2005)
But in the second article (The effects of a 2-year physical education program SPARK on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students).
- A two-year physical education program (SPARK) intervention was planned to help increase the physical activity among students during physical education classes. seven schools to three conditions. The physical education was taught by physical education specialist, trained classroom teachers, and the third one control, that were taught by untrained teacher. The students were compared from classes to those control classes, as there was a total of 955 students involved in the intervention.
- The intervention was based on health related physical education
- The physical education classes were organized to increase physical activity, by teaching movement skills, and making it enjoyable. Classes were 3 days a week that lasted in 30 minutes for health fitness activities and skill fitness activities. The activities were included aerobic dances, aerobic games, walking/jogging and jump rope.
- There was no physical activity effects on students outside of school
- The student’s physical activity in school were higher with specialist led and with teacher led than the students in control classes as they spent fewer minutes of PA in school. As it shows in the below table the effects of physical activity on students in three specific conditions that were used in the intervention among students.
Measurement of promotion of physical activity among high school girls, randomized controlled trial. Physical activity was collected by trained university based research staff. The three-day physical activity recall (3DPAR). Graphic figures were used to explain the intensity level of common activities, it was done every Wednesday the participants had to fill a form for each recall
Height and weight were measured in private way whereas the students had to wear light clothing. Height to nearest 1.0 cm and weight was measured to nearest 0.1kg (Pate et al, 2005).
Graphic figures to measure the physical activity by the trained based research staff, is a very accurate way of measurement because they do it every Wednesday so there’s less likely to be an error in measuring the physical activity. And for height and weight measurement it’s also very accurate as they were wearing a light clothing while measuring which avoids some extra weight to make an error.
Self-reported physical activity, out of school physical activity was measured with a 1 day recall in form of a checklist format that children reported their participation and the score was collected based on type of physical activities.
Accelerometer: Out of school physical activity was observed 1 weekday per semester and 1 weekend each school year
For fitness and anthropometric measure the health-related fitness the adaptation of fitness was used. The mile run test was used to measure cardiovascular sufferance, height and weight were measured in stocking feet (Sallis et al, 1997).
Self-report was quite not accurate because there’s more chances of students to forget report or just guess, so as that reason the accelerometer can be more accurate then self-report.
- As my client is a student she has no access to places, a lot of traffics on the road and got no enough time to make it go to the gym so she can actually do it at home after doing her school works she just need to take a break and watch the YouTube workouts. Physical activity benefits her mental health as well. Exercising right after the school works make her mentally calm and relaxed.
- My client mentioned she had no one to exercise with, as social barrier so on that case she can actually take her dog for a walk and prevents chronic diseases.
I actually learned from the plan to use rubric for the assignment as I didn’t use it for the plan. The Rubric really helps to focus more on what we exactly have to do to get the best mark, not to miss any important points to cover in the final. Marking rubric also help increase the quality of work.
- Allison, K.R., Dwyer, J.J. and Makin, S., 1999. Perceived barriers to physical activity among high school students. Preventive medicine, 28(6), pp.608-615
- Andrea. K. C, Nancy R. C, Aan J. F, Eric B. R, 2013, Vigorous intensity leisure time physical activity and risk of major chronic diseases in men, US National Library of medicine National Institutes of Health, Vol 44, no 10, pp. 1898 – 1905, doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31825a68f3
- Australia Bureau of Statistics 2013, Australian Health Survey: Physical activity, 2011 – 12, cat. No 4364.0.55.004, Australian bureau of Statistics, retrieved. 19/07/2013,
- http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/Latestproducts/D4495467B7F7EB01CA257BAC0015F593?opendocument.
- James F. S, Thomas L.M, John E. A, Bohdan. K, Nell F, & Melbourne F. H, 1997, The Effect of a 2-Year Physical Education Program (SPARK) on Physical Activity and fitness in Elementary School Students, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, no. 8, pp. 1328 – 1334
- Russel R. P, Dianne S. W, Ruth P, S, Gwen K. D, & Marsha D, 2005, Promotion of Physical Activity Among High School Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 95, no. 9, pp. 1582 – 1587, Retrieved January 2019
- Shari S. B, JoAnn E. M, 2005, Epidemiological evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, Journal of applied physiology, doi 10.1152, 00160.2005