With reference to the RIBA work stages explain how a designer and design team would produce a design from the clients initial brief through to start on site.
A Designer and team will produce a design from the client’s initial brief through to the start of construction, the client appoints an architect, through a chosen selection process like interviews. Once a designer has been chosen and all pre agreement procedures have been completed appraisal and briefing will commence. Appraisal, this is when a client’s requirements are set by the designer through asking key questions such as, whether the clients existing building could be extended or adapted to suit his/hers requirements or a new build is needed, how large the budget is and how the project would be funded, the desired or crucial hand over date etc. This is the Identification of the client’s requirements and needs, any factors that could affect development, and also to allow the client to decide whether he/she still feels it is viable to carry on. This in turn would allow a suitable procurement method to be chosen with the aid of the designer for example traditional.Order now
The clients initial brief may have many unseen obstacles that need to found and addressed so what is known as feasibility studies are conducted, these could be anything from taking soil tests to collecting local data like foot and road traffic. This can be told to the client before charges have been made and accurate estimations can be determined. A statement of need will be written up, this includes the client’s requirement s, budget and time scale, visits to the proposed sites will most certainly be needed during these early feasibly studies taking notes and pictures and starting important legal procedures like creating and health and safety file with relevant information added as project grows. During these stages that in RIBA would be A-B appraisal and strategic briefing constant relaying of information is needed between architect and client to ensure no misunderstandings are made leading to legal disputes, so the amount of cost incurred by other professionals like bore hole specialists will need to be agreed with and confirmed in writing with client also the design teams charge for these stages or total payment in instalments will need to be confirmed.
Even a relatively small build will require other team members such as a services engineer, and is the beginning of what is known as team assembly, this is very important to establish early on and will progress even further in other stages organised by the lead consultant. When requirements and constraints are weighed up to determine whether the project is actually feasible with the cost implications included, this could be done by the clients own team, the design team or to ensure no bias has been made a private team could solely carry out stage B of the plan of works . But typically the designer will be able to do these feasibility tests like soil tests and working out the legislative and legal constraints. It is important to note at this stage partnering agreements? should be finalised to stop any disagreements further down the line and quality control systems put in place. Once other members of the design team start to join or earlier, professional indemnity insurance should be taken out to protect the parties involved. Appraisal of clients needs/requirements should also be completed but address possible constraints and missing factors, agreeing on main objectives for project.
Now the team will be expanding quickly as the client may be new to construction constant informing of the needs and reasons for other professionals like a Q.S is required, also things like legal statutes, local and national legislation relating to his project need to be shown to client as well as the client’s responsibilities under CDM.
All of this work carried out will be compiled into a strategic brief to be signed off by client, once signed off proposals can commence where a project brief will develop to be used to create a design. Before the strategic brief is signed off the architect along with other members will decide if the clients requirements can be accommodated within budget and a starting point for creating a design has been reached. When the strategic brief has been signed by the client an evaluation will be needed to find any issues, again if the design team charges for these stages or the overall payment method hasn’t been agreed this will need to be confirmed as well as the clients statement to carry on the project further to proposed designs. Further specialists will need to be appointed at this stage too like planning and structural specialists and their findings incorporated into the project brief or changing the project brief due to their advice or findings, they will also aid in collating relevant legislation and health and safety regulations relating to the type of building. Methods and channels of communications can become tangled or not known by this stage as more members and specialists have joined the team, so it is important for everyone involved to know who to send their findings to.
Throughout these processes risk assessments will be taken for relevant activities where there is danger like maybe a site survey all this would be part of the H&S file. As well as communication, meetings will need to be planned to ensure the busy individuals involved are all available to develop the build and give input.
Further site tests and inspections will be needed maybe to resolve issues found in appraisal or acquire more information. Cost planning, consultations with relevant authorities and their approvals will be needed. Cost planning will require the lead consultant to tell the Q.S all the info he/she has so an initial cost plan can be made, this will project the amount of money available to the amount of money required at different key financial stages. Approvals from authorities could be a application for outline planning approval not a complete O.K from the planning board but an agreement on the design so far, or approvals from highways, NHS, drainage anything relating to the building in question. A schedule of activities or something similar will be written stating the amount of rooms, desired location to other rooms or features, activities performed etc.
Now is the time for scheme design to commence this is where the client will get to see drawings showing the appearance, types of materials and special arrangements made to suit his requirements and that he/she is happy to continue. At this point applications for full planning permission and building and building regulations can be made if possible although not essential. At this point in the design for planning apps etc experts information should be looked at so it can be incorporated into the design now stopping lengthy changes, a more detailed cost plan can be revised by the Q.S to given to the client, a programme/schedule of works can be started, all this should be shown to the client by maybe models or computer walkthroughs, graphs and diagrams showing rooms, their size locations etc to give an accurate representation to the client, this is what is also known as the outline proposals.
When the client has agreed on the outline proposals in written confirmation detail design/final proposals can start, by turning the drawings already made into more detailed designs indicating desired floor finishes lighting etc given by the client. When these drawing and specifications are completed a design freeze will be placed if not done earlier, the client will be made aware that any further alterations will have significantly higher costs than before. By now the project brief should have been developed detailed proposals agreed and a cost plan created, as well as the procurement method i.e PFI design and build. When the client has decided major materials and features like the bricks used for example plans can be made for the delivery to site, all these details and drawings can be given to the planning officer who can then advise further as well as building control (maybe regarding foundation type and depth.) All the specification notes like the clients desired wall paper, advisors input on ventilation, concrete type etc will allow the Q.S to write up bills of quantities.
These final proposals are turned into technical instructions for contractors by expanding technical features like window on the drawing or in written form. All information from design members, client, authorities and specialists need to be looked at to ensure nothing no matter how small has been overlooked. Now the client should be informed on the appointment of the contactor and how that will be done, work can already begin for instance demolition or decontamination this will be discussed advanced orders of materials can also be made. If not already discussed inform client on the need for people on site like a clerks of works, but this could be included with contractors responsibilities and price.
Before tender documentation is sent out typically later on, meetings with contractors can be arranged to give the client an idea of where each firm is strong and weak, and also whether the contactor is interested. Other issues will also be discussed namely complications and their advise on these matters could be useful. Now pre tender and costs estimates usually in cost per sq m are made and bills of quantities with schedules and drawings revised where changes have occurred, the architect will hand over all the drawings and other relevant documents collected to the Q.S to prepare the bills of quantities. Communication between architect and Q.S will be frequent as many confusions and problems can found at this point so Q and A sheets may be passed to one another. Provisional sums may need to be included later on as unforeseen costs arise and standard checklists used so nothing is missed.
A final list of tenderers should be agreed with the Q.S and client, ideas on which contractors to choose could be made by asking their previous clients their thoughts and opinions. Once decided preliminary invitations should be sent so they can be prepared for the formal documentation when tender action is reached. Usually at this stage 15% of the fees are due the architect should ensure the client pays all outstanding bills before the project progresses. So now all detailed and technical drawings, schedules, specifications, bills of quantities, health and safety material should be finalised. Pre tender meetings may be held to discuss critical parts of the build with the contractor, inform them of the clients requirements and issues that may not be raised in the documents given for tender. The documents required for tender are assembled into two sets of the bills of quantities and specification, a set of the drawings and schedules, two copies of the form of tender and a return address to be sent to contractors. When tender packages have been sent and received the Q.S will go over them with a fine comb to find any mistakes or over sights, and make amendments to relay to the designer who can then advise the client on the best contractor to appoint. Once a client accepts an offer all contractors are informed on the decision
- 1 Task 2 P4.1+P4.3
- 2 Client
- 3 Architect
- 4 Q.S
- 5 Qualifications
- 6 Project Manager
- 7 Qualifications
- 8 Mechanical engineer
- 9 Typical work activities
- 10 Typical work activities include:
- 11 Planning Consultants
- 12 Education for Civil Engineer.
- 13 Main contractor
- 14 M and E Engineer
- 15 4.2 Traditional Procurement relationship
- 16 Design and build procurement relationship
- 17 PFI
- 18 Construction Management Contract
Task 2 P4.1+P4.3
Personal and professional roles and responsibilities are set out in appointment documents and RIBA forms of Appointment with the RIBA plan of works as a frame to discuss the services given. The architect could be appointed many different roles for instance as a lead consultant or design leader where he is responsible for organising and implementing the input of the consultants and team members. Typical duties in this instance would be managing the design through the whole process, keeping the client informed, inform and advise client on matters like his duties under CDM regulations or factors effecting proposed plans such as covenants and easements and the need to appoint further members, detailing outline proposals and design drawings, providing information to other team members to allow them to come up with their proposals and then linking it with the scheme design, Preparing and collating information related to planning permission and other legal and statutory requirements. This will vary slightly when a design and build contract is the procurement method as the contactor has much more input in the early stages so the construction and be as quick and easy as possible.
Many people are involved on a construction project but are grouped into the
- Client who may be an individual or a company public or private
- Architect or lead designers role is to get an idea of the clients requirements and turn it into a workable design managing and seeing over the whole process to agreed point
- And finally the contractors and specialists involved
The duties and responsibilities of the client is to get all his ideas and relevant material together so the designer can make a good start trying to ensure the location purpose size and desired completion date and budget are outlined. The financial implications need to be understood like the regular payment to members involved. The client is the person who will pay and use the building their role is to ensure competent workmanship and building regulations are being met the client can be sued or fined for not carrying out legal requirements if deligation cannot proved. So hiring the right project managers and contractors is important from the offset. The client can be either hands on e.g. project managing labouring etc or they can just contract all work to be done for them, they are at the top of the organisational chart so in theory everyone is working for them
Architects can be involved in every phase of the construction project, from the first meeting with the client through to the hand over. Their corporate duties are to use their skills in designing, engineering, managing, supervising, and communicating with client and team members. The architects role and responsibility will be to ensure the clients requirements are met and he/she is kept informed at all stages of the project, they will ensure all building regulations and CDM are met or allocate responsibility though contracts with other parties.
An architect is trained and licensed in planning and designing buildings, and also supervises the construction of a building. An architect must understand the building and operational codes to which the design must fit into, to not omit any requirement, produce wrong, conflicting or confusing requirements. Architects must understand the construction methods available to the builder, in order to negotiate with the client in producing the best possible building, and making compromises between to get the desired results within the actual costs and construction schedule limits, so practical knowledge is also necessary.
Qualifications, in the United Kingdom practicing under the name, style or title “architect” is restricted by law to those registered at the Architects Registration Board. It usually takes a minimum of seven years to get the necessary qualifications and experience for registration. Those wishing to become registered must first study at a university-level school of architecture. Though there are some variations from university to university, the basic principle is that in order to qualify as an architect a candidate must pass through three stages which are administered by the Royal Institute of British Architects:
- On completing an initial degree in architecture (usually 3 or 4 years, usually either a B.A, BSc, or B.Arch) the candidate receives exemption from RIBA Part I. There then follows a period of a minimum of one year which the candidate spends in an architect’s office gaining work experience.
- The candidate must then complete a post-graduate university course, usually two years, to receive either a Post Graduate Diploma (Dip. Arch), Masters (M.Arch) or B(Arch). On completing that course, the candidate receives exemption from Part II of the RIBA process.
- The candidate must then spend a further period of at least one year gaining experience before being allowed to take the RIBA Part III examination in Professional Practice and Management.
Architects deal with local and national jurisdictions about regulations and building codes. The architect might need to comply with local planning and zoning laws, such as required setbacks, height limitations, parking requirements, transparency requirements e.g windows, and land use. Sometimes the jurisdictions require close care to design and historic preservation guidelines.
Architects prepare the technical documents (construction drawings and specifications) for obtaining permits (development and building permits) that require compliance with building, and relevant national and local regulations. Also construction drawings and specifications are used for pricing the work and in the construction of the building.
Architects Forms of communication would be construction drawings email and phone.
Clients agent, get the requirements, site inspections, coordinate design team and fix defects
Quantity Surveyors are involved with all financial aspects of construction work Quantity Surveyors are concerned with financial management, measurement and accounting on construction projects. They deal with detail and tend to be highly literate and numerate and possess computer and IT skills to enable them to fulfil their responsibilities. They work on their own or within teams of other QS’s or professionals. They can be employed by Contractors, Subcontractors, Trade Specialists, Architects, Consulting Engineers or other companies and organisations involved in the construction process. They usually work in two distinct areas.
‘Pre-contract’ work which involves the preparation of documentation to enable work to be put out to tendering contractors on behalf of the Client. Clients include government bodies, public and private authorities, developers and others seeking to undertake construction projects.
The other key role for the modern quantity surveyor working for Contractors is the procurement, appointment, administration, management and payment of subcontractors. On some projects, the management of subcontract accounts is the Quantity Surveyor’s chief responsibility. He may also have responsibility for matters such as insurance claims on behalf of the Contractor or third party claims.
The Quantity Surveyor will usually report directly to the Senior Quantity Surveyor/Contract Administrator and lead a team of Assistant Quantity Surveyors to prepare Bills of Quantities for tenders; Interim Payment Certificates and Financial Accounts; and provide data for Cash Flow predications.
- All project phases or contracts
- Plan and manage the job responsibilities of the Assistant QS’s
- Monitor quality and progress of work
- Respond to Contractor queries and review construction issue drawings
- Prepare miscellaneous works contracts, monitor progress and report
- Continually ensuring that practices, policies, strategy and services represent the clients best interests and that company policy is in keeping with current legislation, British Standards and Codes of Practice etc.
- Commitment to CPD and self learning / development
Quantity Surveyors are trained professionals. Some will start straight from school some will study further with a university or higher education degree in the subject. Professional qualifications can be gained through a number of institutions recognized throughout the world, examples being the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) or the Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors (Inst.C.E.S.). QS’s can work in all levels of the industry, from assistant and trainee through to intermediate, senior, managing, regional and chief Quantity Surveyor levels to Company Directors.
A project manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution, and closing of any project, typically relating to construction industry. Many other fields in the production, design and service industries also have project managers.
Construction managers plan, direct, and coordinate a wide variety of construction projects, including the building of all types of residential, commercial, and industrial structures, roads, bridges, wastewater treatment plants, schools and hospitals. Construction managers may oversee an entire project or just part of one. They schedule and coordinate all the design and construction processes, including the selection, hiring, and oversight of specialty trade contractors for specialised work, but they usually do not do any actual construction of the structure.
These managers coordinate and supervise the construction process from the concept design to the development stage through to the final construction, making sure that the project gets done on time and within budget. They often work with owners, engineers, architects, and others who are involved in the construction process. Project managers are given the designs for buildings, roads, bridges, or other projects, and they oversee the planning, scheduling, and implementation of those designs. Sometimes in big projects there is just to much work for one person to mange so it is split into segment like site prep, land clearing and building construction etc.
Construction managers work out the best way to get materials to the building site and the most cost-effective plan and schedule for completing the project. They divide all required construction activities into steps, budgeting the time required to meet established deadlines. This may require sophisticated estimating and scheduling techniques and use of computers with specialized software. They also over see the works done by contractors like the labour requirements and, in some cases, are involved in hiring and firing of workers, and oversee the performance of all trade contractors and are responsible for ensuring that all work is completed on schedule.
Construction managers direct and monitor the progress of construction activities, sometimes through construction supervisors or other construction managers. They oversee the delivery and use of materials, tools, and equipment; worker productivity and safety; and the quality of construction. They are responsible for getting all necessary permits and licenses, and depending upon the contractual arrangements, they direct or monitor compliance with building and safety codes, other regulations, and requirements set by the project’s insurers.
The requirements to become a project manager could be a bachelor’s degree in construction science, construction management, building science, or civil engineering, plus work experience. Practical construction experience is also very important, whether gained through an internship, a cooperative education program, a job in the construction trades, or another job in the industry. The American Institute of Constructors awards the Associate Constructor (AC) and Certified Professional Constructor (CPC).
Mechanical engineers use engineering principles to provide solutions to the development of processes and products etc, this can range from small component designs to extremely large plant, machinery or vehicles. They work on all sorts of stages of a product, from research and development to the design and manufacture, through to installation and final commissioning of the product.
Most industries today need mechanical systems and mechanical engineering is thought to be one of the most diverse of all engineering disciplines, with employment opportunities available in a wide range of sectors, such as the manufacturing, power, construction and medical industries.
Mechanical engineers can also be involved in the management of people and resources, as well as the development and use of new materials and technologies.
Typical work activities
Mechanical engineers work on a project from the initial brief, through the design and development stage, to the testing of one or more prototypes, right through to final manufacture and implementation.
Projects can vary significantly, from researching and developing medical products (such as mechanical hearts) to improving production processes in large oil refineries or designing services within buildings.
Typical work activities include:
- designing and implementing cost-effective equipment modifications to help improve safety, reliability and throughput;
- developing a project specification with colleagues, often including those from other engineering disciplines;
- developing, testing and evaluating theoretical designs;
- discussing and solving complex problems with manufacturing departments, sub-contractors, suppliers and customers;
- making sure a product can be made again reliably and will perform consistently in specified operating environments;
- managing projects using engineering principles and techniques;
- planning and designing new production processes;
- producing details of specifications and outline designs;
- recommending modifications following prototype test results;
- using research, analytical, conceptual and planning skills, particularly mathematical modelling and computer-aided design;
- considering the implications of issues such as cost, safety and time constraints;
- working with other professionals, within and outside the engineering specialism;
- monitoring and commissioning plant and systems.
Planning consultants offer a wide range of advice on planning, development and environmental issues within a building project. They will use their knowledge to make the planning as cost effective as possible, and to ensure that the planning and production of the project runs smoothly. Planning consultants can range from being actively involved with all stages of the planning, or just be an outside expert who helps guide the client or designer to make decisions. The planning consultant also acts as a trainer, explaining what all parts of the process will entail.
Next, they act as a facilitator providing assistance as to how to proceed through the developments, They also act as a instructor, providing guidance as to what are the best decisions and methods to make. Another of their purposes is to be a strategist, laying out what approach should be taken, in addition, they act as a promoter, actively endorsing certain ideas. Finally, they operate as a stakeholder as they have vested interests in what the outcome of the project will be. The way the consultant would communicate his/her input to the design team would be in meetings and board rooms or just faxes and emails.
- Trainer – Explain the process.
- Facilitator – Provide assistance in moving through difficult phases.
- Coach – Provide active direction throughout the process.
- Strategist – Actively help set strategy.
- Advocate – Actively pursue certain ideas.
Their role within the design team is to keep the main features within the building the client wants and to adapt this to be accepted for planning permission if the plans aren’t suitable then the consultant could offer more acceptable approaches to achieving the desired effect.
The qualifications required to become a Planning Consultant vary. The institute which all accredited planning consultants must be a member of is the Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI). Membership of this institute is a symbol of expert knowledge and practise, a degree in a physical science or related numerate discipline and may well have a post-graduate qualification.
Civil Engineer – A civil engineer designs things such as railways, roads, airports, water supply pipe lines, power stations and bridges.
Civil engineers are highly involved around all stages of the design and construction processes such as the setting out and after construction it is there task to monitor the project to make sure it is up to standards. Civil Engineering is all about creating, improving and protecting the environment in which we live today. It provides the facilities for day to day life, and for transport and industry to go about its work. Without civil engineers life would be chaos. Our living standards would be low as we wouldn’t have structures such as hospitals, airports, stadiums or access to water. An important aspect of been a civil engineer is good communication skills so you can manage them and show them step by step through your plans and through the construction phases. Also good maths skills and design skills are vital. Over all a civil engineer’s work consists of creating, improving and protecting the environment in which we live.
Being a civil engineer gives you a variety of things that you could do as you could be in an office, working on designs at a computer, ensuring the client is kept up to date, on site leading teams, solving problems and even doing hands on work.
Education for Civil Engineer.
Structural engineers are responsible for engineering design and analysis. Entry-level structural engineers may design the individual structural elements of a structure, for example the beams, columns, and floors of a building. More experienced engineers would be responsible for the structural design and of an entire building.
Structural engineers often specialize in particular fields, such as bridge engineering, building engineering, pipeline engineering, industrial structures or special structures such as vehicles or aircraft.
Structural engineering has existed since humans first started to construct their own structures. It became a more formalized profession with the start of the architecture profession as distinct from the engineering profession during the industrial revolution in the late 19th Century. Until then, the architect and the structural engineer were often one and the same – the master builder. Only with the understanding of structural theories that emerged during the 19th and 20th century did the professional structural engineer come into existence.
The role of a structural engineer today involves a significant understanding of both static and dynamic loading, and the structures that are available to resist them. The complexity of modern structures often requires a great deal of creativity from the engineer in order to ensure the structures support and resist the loads they are subjected to. A structural engineer will typically have a four or five year undergraduate degree, followed by a minimum of three years of professional practice before being considered fully qualified.
Structural engineers are licensed or accredited by different learned societies and regulatory bodies around the world (for example, the Institution of Structural Engineers in the UK) Depending on the degree course they have studied and/or the jurisdiction they are seeking licensure in, they may be accredited (or licensed) as just structural engineers, or as civil engineers, or as both civil and structural engineers.
A main contractor contracts with another organizations or individuals (client) for the construction, renovation or demolition of a building, road or other structure. A main contractor is defined as the signatory as the builder of the prime construction contract for the project.
A main contractor is responsible for the means and methods to be used in the construction of the building in accordance with the contract documents. Contract documents usually include the contract agreement including the budget, the general and special conditions and the plans and specification of the project that are prepared by a design team.
A Main contractor usually is responsible for the supplying of all material, labor, equipment, and services necessary for the construction of the project. To do this it is common for the main contractor to subcontract part of the work to other persons and companies that specialize in these types of work. These are called subcontractors.
Main contractors conducting work for civil work are typically referred to as prime contractors. The responsibilities of a prime contractors working under a contract are essentially identical to those outlined above. In many cases, prime contractors will delegate portions of the contract work to subcontractors.
M and E Engineer
help design, develop, test, and manufacture electrical and electronic equipment such as communication equipment; radar, industrial, and medical monitoring or control devices; navigational equipment; and computers. They may work in product evaluation and testing, using measuring and diagnostic devices to adjust, test, and repair equipment. (Workers whose jobs primarily involve repairing electrical and electronic equipment are often are referred to as electronics technicians, combine knowledge of mechanical engineering technology with knowledge of electrical and electronic circuits to design, develop, test, and manufacture electronic and computer-controlled mechanical systems.
Their work often overlaps that of both electrical and electronics engineering technicians and mechanical engineering technicians. Mechanical engineering technicians help engineers design, develop, test, and manufacture industrial machinery, consumer products, and other equipment. They may assist in product tests by, for example, setting up instrumentation for auto crash tests. They may make sketches and rough layouts, record and analyze data, make calculations and estimates, and report on their findings. When planning production, mechanical engineering technicians prepare layouts and drawings of the assembly process and of parts to be manufactured. They estimate labor costs, equipment life, and plant space. Some test and inspect machines and equipment or work with engineers to eliminate production problems.
4.2 Traditional Procurement relationship
This is where the design and construction stages worked out individually and where a client contracts with an architect or specific engineer i.e. structural, mechanical. by giving them their specifications for the current project, so that deign can progress. The architect or engineer will perform as an agent for this type of contract and would advise the client throughout the construction being design or practical. At this stage a contractor will be appointed to construct the building. During the process of completing the design stage the agent needs to insure that they follow rules and regulations associated in order to comply and avoid any illegal action being taken against them. During this stage another contractor known as a subcontractor may be hired to complete specific skilled jobs.
This part of project acts as a secondary contract, in that the subcontractors have to agree to do specific tasks within the project separate to the first original contract. During this stage of the construction the contractor may have also hired plant and services to make sure that suitable equipment is available to carry out work safely and efficently. This type of contract often has no certainty that the building work can be completed or even takes place, the client can never be guaranteed a successful build because no matter how simple or small the project, there is always chance of a unforeseen problem or error. An example of this could be soil conditions affecting the buildings structural elements or a huge mistake human or not that affects the design so badly that the contract cannot catch up making more costs and wasting more time till the client becomes bust.
Design and build procurement relationship
Design and build became popular in the 80’s the idea is that there is one point of responsibility which is placed with the main conractor, the client in this setup can benefit from an early input from the contracts involved the advantages are that major threats are placed under the contractor but at the same time the contractor will have a greater financial risk which is offset in the costs. Prices are confirmed early on with a good chance of reaching that figure. The negatives include the design process being shortened and the tender stage lengthened, so design and quality are harder to control and any changes will expensive and problematic for the contractor so are therefore less likely even if needed.
This is where a public sector and private sector form a contractual relationship with each other. This is a long term contract basis and acts as a procurement method in which the private sector will fund for the public and their services (water, telecommunication etc) and other areas to do with infrastructure. This involves the private sector advising and helping them along. Both private and public sectors have an equal chance and responsibility in the risk, for example if something goes wrong both parties will have to find a solution and agree a way to overcome the problem, including the payment for it. This could be seen as an advantage as cost will be spread but on the other hand it could still be a huge figure and profit is only half as well. PFI is only usually required for more expensive large projects because the private sector wouldn’t be able to afford it without the finance from the public sector.
Construction Management Contract
Within this type of contract the employer or client makes an agreement for contract with all the required specialists within the project. The client/ employer will use the manager of the construction works as an adviser and consult him/her when and where necessary, especially if any problems or errors occur. a construction management contract has the construction manager, for a fee, acting as the principal’s agent in employing subcontractors (called trade contractors).
In this way, the contractor’s expertise can be utilised as a construction manager in the same way as it would have as a contractor but, when it comes to contract works, the contractor does no more than make recommendations to the principal in respect of the individual trade contracts and act as a post box for progress claims and payments