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    A. Meanings, needs, functions, and scope of guidance Guidance School years might be thehappiest period in an individual’s life. It is a point in one’s life when friends are made,new experiences are encountered, and transitions turn upas one grows and builds character and personality. The school is anurturing environment where a person is cultivated and molded in preparation for adulthood. But the life of a student is not all that it’s cracked up to be.

    Especiallythatof a teenager, with raging hormones matched with a sea of seemingly grave dilemmas, who else can you turn to when no one seemsto listen? Meaning of Guidance -amore or less general term to connote both systematic or unsystematic and informal means toward assisting an individual. (ErlisonLorenz M. Ognilla,MrsCzarina Ann Alfonso) – is a continuous process of helping the individuals to understand themselves and their world. (Czarina Ann B.

    Alfonso) – is an organized set of specialized services established as an integral part of the school environment designed to promote the development of students. (Czarina Ann B. Alfonso -seeksto help an individual become familiar with facts about himself – his interests, abilities, previous development and plans. (Czarina Ann B.

    Alfonso) – involves personal help given by someone. (Czarina Ann B. Alfonso) – is a process of helping the individual to become adjusted to his present situation so as to provide the maximum development for him and to help him plan for his future in terms of his interest, aptitudes, capabilities and needs. (MarjorieArandela-Caipang, Ph. D.

    ) – meant “The aspect ofeducationalprogrammewhich is concerned especially with helping the pupil tobecome adjusted to his present situation and to plan his future in line withhis interests, abilities and social needs”. (Harminand Erikson) The Need for Guidance The student life is getting complex day by day. Guidance is needed to help the students for optimum achievement and adequate adjustment in the varied life situations. (Czarina Ann B. Alfonso) 1. To help in the total development of the student 2.

    To help in the proper choices of courses 3. To help in the proper choice of careers 4. To help the students in vocational development 5. To develop readiness for choices and changes to face new challenges 6.

    To minimize the mismatching between education and employment and help in the efficient use of manpower. 7. To motivate the youth for self-employment 8. To help students establish proper identity 9.

    To identify and motivate the students from weaker sections of society. 10. To help the students in their period of turmoil and confusion 11. To help in checking wastage and stagnation 12. To identify and help students in need of special help. 13.

    To ensure the proper utilization of time spent outside the classrooms. 14) To help in tackling problems arising out of students population explosion 15) To check migration to prevent brain drain 16) To make up for the deficiencies of home. 17) To minimize the incidence of indiscipline. Functions of Guidance According to Jones, guidance does not solve the problems for and individual, rather, it helps the individual solve his problems. This is made possible by making available to the individual all possible means, opportunities, avenues of value to him. As a result, there is an increased awareness in him which results to self-knowledge, self-appraisal and self-understanding.

    Scope of Guidance(ErlisonLorenz M. Ognilla, Czarina Ann Alfonso)1. Services rendered to an individual and his needs2. Services to staff members3. Services pertaining to evaluation of services B.

    Concerns, trends, and essential elements of guidance Concerns of Guidance We as a people we also need to know the principles, services and the programs offered by guidance. And there should be a concrete practices to be explain. We have to consider the leading concerns on the importance of guidance in the different aspects of man’s life today. They are as follow: Complexity of living-With our modern gadgets and with the keen competition in our labor force, knowledge on potentials, interests, and abilities of the applicants becomes a requisite for the job placement. Attainment of effective self-direction-As a man develops; he faces challenges and has to make decisions for himself as he starts to understand the changes around him.

    Expansion of capabilities- As a man passes through different stages of growth; he takes risk to expand his powers, gain new insights, new experiences, and new interests. Necessity for discovering and developing leadership skills- As a man relates with people in a group, he has to be led to discover and develop leadership skills. Emergence of Multiple Intelligences-Knowing the different types of intelligences requires a need to discover and harness them to the fullest. Introduction of Individual Learning Styles-With technological explosion, learners start to exhibit different styles of learning. This poses a challenge for educators to modify their teaching strategies to attain effective teaching-learning outcomes.

    Concern for solution to problems of adjustment in every phase of a human endeavor-As a man starts to do his share in the community of people; it is inevitable for him to make adjustments with his members of his family, individuals in a group, or people in a bigger world around him. Steps on Appraisal-Man are not left simply doing in any way he wants. He should know how he rates in his moves, how he measures in his decisions. There is a need for evaluation. Essential Elements of Guidance Guidance is a way to shed light to a person in problems and means to extend assistance for the person to find peace. In other words, this is assisting man, who with his burden in life, cannot possibly see where and how to start solving his predicament.

    Several essential elements of guidance 1. Process pertains to the series of activities to assist the individual in developing a healthy outlook in an atmosphere of security and direction. 2. Development Aspectpertains to the aims for the development of the whole person. 3. Wider scopepoints out to the fact that guidance is for everyone, not only for the disturbed and those learners with problems.

    4. Guidance is focusedon the individual person although the process employed may be in group setting. 5. Right to free choiceis where the individual learner’s ability to decide for himself must be given the primary target of assistance. 6.

    Wise decisionmakingis done with a view and the possibilities for the development of the learner’s potential in the future. 7. Realistic appraisalof opportunities around his has to be given due consideration and emphasis. 8. Recognitionof individual difference should be practiced. 9.

    Assistancegiven can be in forms of means or methods emphasizing on goals to help an individual to his fullest development. C. Relationship of guidance to education Understanding the Learner’s needs Guidance- is a continuous process of helping the individuals to understand themselves and their world. – Seeks to help an individual to help an individual become familiar with facts about himself- his interest, abilities, previous development and plans.

    Education-is the process of facilitatinglearning, or the acquisition ofknowledge,skills,values,beliefs, andhabits. The school is a nurturing environment where a person is cultivated and molded in preparation for adulthood. High School years are full of growth, promise, excitement, frustration, disappointment and hope. High School is the time when students begin to discover what the future holds for them. Role of the Classroom Teachers in different Levels a. Assist the child and parents in mapping out appropriate educational programs.

    b. Assist students as they prepare to graduate in High School and continue their education c. Assist students with personal problem d. Interpret and explain test results to students and their parents. e.

    Assist students who may have difficulty in their students. D. Principles of Guidance Philosophy behind guidance Know the individual Guidance is primarily dedicated to implement the essential concern of democracy for the dignity and worth of the individual/ Guidance is a life-long process Guidance is based on human needs Guidance is an art of helping individual to their own action wisely Basic Principles of Guidance Guidance is concerned with the whole student not with his intellectual life alone. Guidance is concerned with all students, not only with special case. Guidance is primarily concerned with prevention rather than cure. Guidance is more than just the activity of a specialist; it involves the whole staff.

    Guidance can exist without the specialist; the full time teacher is its backbone. Guidance is concerned with the choices and decisions to be made by the student. Guidance is concerned with developing student self-understanding and self-determination. Guidance is “counsel” not compulsion. Guidance is a continuous process throughout the school life of each individual/student.

    Guidance is fundamentally the responsibility of parents in the home and the teachers in school. Phases of Guidance Three Phases of Guidance There are three phases of guidance namely the developmental phase, the preventive phase and the remedial phase. The first phase in guidance involves thedevelopmental phase, which focuses in the unique and typical growth and development of the children. In the K-12 counseling and guidance program the developmental phase of a children, follows a rationale which attempt to resolve some of the confusions in the individuality of the children.

    A developmentally oriented guidance program is based on the process of growth and development of children and must achieve a certain goals if they are to progress normally. It offers a program that attempts to offer the kinds of services and experience that would assess the individuality of the student. A guidance program should be designed with the cooperative efforts of the teachers, the program coordinator and the counselors. (LilianV. Cadi, 2009) Provisions and implementation are often made in the classroom. Some activities that a teacher or counselor might offer are those kind of activities that hone the children for example, role playing.

    In role playing the individuality and the uniqueness of the children were best highlighted. The nextphases now involvesthepreventive and the remedial phases. In these cases, it confers upon the students being a deviant individual. It refers to the students’ learning difficulties and disorders such as physical maturation disabilities, emotional distress, psychological fear, health problems, and concepts of self and block in mental processing.

    In the figure below, it will discuss how the developmental phase, thepreventive (facilitative-developmental)and theremedial (correct-adjustive) phaseoccurs. The concept of variant and deviant learning is shown in the figure in relation to the preventive and remedial phase of guidance. thepreventive phase focuses on the normal learning differences of the students whereas the remedial phase focuses on the learning difficulties of the students. The effort with helping the students to cope up with their learning difficulties happens in the remedial.

    Wherein the counselor or the teacher talks to the students about the matters that affects the learning style of the students. It is also known as having a “conference” with the teacher. -5048250333121000The shaded middle area is represents the efforts given by the teachers that are combination of both the preventive and the remedial it is known as the gray-area of operation. The responsibility here of the guidance is either one or the other is merely semantic.

    Yet the developmental school counselor will work with all the members of school administration, instruction, and the pupil personnel (student-giving bodies). All in all the phases here discuss the vital role of the guidance counselor, the teacher and other staffs have their major and minor work role in the students’ individuality, uniqueness and performance. E. Guidance Program and Services Areas of Guidance 1.

    Vocational Guidance -is a process of assisting the individual to choose an occupation, prepare for it, enter upon it, and progress in it. 2. Educational Guidance -is related to every aspect of education, school/colleges, the curriculum, the methods of instruction, other curricular activities, and disciplines. 3.

    AvocationalGuidance -helps the child to judiciously utilize the leisure time. 4. Socio-civic Guidance -it is very important that the students to be helped in acquiring in feeling of security and being accepted by the group; developing social relationship and in becoming tolerant towards to others. This is the task of social guidance. 5. Moral Guidance -helps in bringing the students into proper track and help in their all-round development.

    6. Health Guidance -the health guidance may be a cooperative effort of Principals, Doctors, Counselor or Psychologist, Teachers, Students and Parents. 7. Personal Guidance -the objectives of Personal Guidance are to help the individual in his or her physical, emotional, social, rural, and spiritual. 8. Leisure-time Guidance -Guidance for leisure is basically a part of personal guidance.

    Leisure generally refers to free time a person at his disposal. Leisure can be fruitfullyutilizefor two purposes: First, Leisure provides us time for personal development and second, it help the individual to be more productive by getting the necessary rest and recreation. Organizational Structure of a Guidance Program 2. 1 Factors in the Development of a Guidance Program Its program goals should be defined based on the scope/area it will cover Roles and functions of the people in the system Data, records, and resources at hand Training and qualification of the guidance counselor Time schedule and the number of clients must be given attention 2. 2 Organizational Structure of a Guidance Program 2. 2.

    1 Simple Structure Flow of Guidance Program 21240751905 Guidance Program00 Guidance Program2124075793750 Objectives00 Objectives21240751710690 Clients00 Clients3629025114808000236220011480800031146753168650031242001148080002625090656590 clear00 clear4117340645160accepted00accepted This is a simple structure of the program with the objectives directed to the benefits of the clients. 2. 2. 2 High School Guidance Structure for Public and Private Organizational Structure for a Small School This shows that instruction, discipline, and guidance are in one line.

    Organizational Structure for a Big School 2. 3 Procedures in Initiating a Guidance Program To ensure the wise and effective administration of the guidance program, the counselor should be a knowledgeable manager. He should consider several steps such as preparatory, implementing, and appraisal parts. He should gain the support of the people who aredirectly or indirectly involved through wise goal setting, planning, decision making, motivating, and appraising. 1. Preparatory part: Goal setting and planningany preparation should be done ahead.

    Attainable and realistic goals must be determined. They should be well written. As wise classroom managers, the guidance counselors have to be tactful in preparing their goals. 2. Implementing part: Coordinatingproper communication should be open to proper people/agencies. Directing/Managingthe guidance center leads in the delivery of its services with the help of the management staff.

    Developmentthere should be continuity of services. 3. Appraisal Evaluationa checklist is provided to gather both the positive and negative feedbacks. Future Designbased from evaluation, designing future plans/moves are done. Guidance Services 1.

    Basic Guidance Services Information service Function: to make available to pupils or students certain kind of information not ordinarily provided through the instructional program or during the regular period of instruction. Three Classifications: Occupational Information Educational information Social Information Objectives: To develop a broad and realistic view of life’s opportunities and problems at all levels of training. To create an awareness of the need and an active desire for accurate and valid occupational, educational, and personal social information. To provide wider understanding of the wide scope of educational, occupational, and social activities in term of broad categories of related activities. To assist in the mastery of the techniques of obtaining and interpreting information for progressive self-defectiveness. To promote attitudes and habits that will assist in the making of choices and adjustments productive of personal satisfaction.

    To provide assistance in narrowing choices progressively to specific activities which are appropriate to aptitudes, abilities, and interests and to the proximity of definitedecisions. Follow-up service Concerned with what happens to students while in school or after they have left schools. Purpose: To ascertain the progress and status of students within the various classrooms, courses, and curricular areas. To gain datawhich may identify weakness in the various phases of the school progress. To learn how former graduates are processing. To evaluate the effectiveness of the school’s placement activity.

    To learn why pupils leave before graduation. To discover grade levels at which most dropout occurs. To obtain opinions concerning needed modification of the curriculum in the light of the experiences of former pupils. Placement service A service within the guidance program which is designed to assist students in the selection of suitable courses or curricula, extra-class activities and part-time or full-time employment or appropriate career choices and skills. Types: Educational placement Occupational placement Job placement Counseling service Implies planned provision for serving unique need of pupils through the person relationship of counselor and counselee.

    Functions: Study the real life environment Define the problem situation Establish the parameter of the program Design a counseling model Pilot test model Introduce the system Operate the system Evaluate the system Eliminate the system 2. Functions of Guidance Services To improve self-understanding To increase student understanding of self in relation to others To emphasize relationships between academic pursuits and personal development To promote better understanding of the teacher to achieve such an important role in relating to life, the students should have understanding. To contribute to feeling of security To supplement teachers’ effort in assisting children with problems To provide for the accomplishment and attainment of long range goals To accumulate and interpret important information 3. Forms of Guidance Services Individual guidance It is where an individual’s personal needs, interests and attitudes are looked into for better understanding of himself. May be a meeting set by the counselor referred by the teacher, sought by the counselee himself, or arranged by parents.

    Group guidance Aimed at discussing common problems like tardiness, absences, poor academic performance or adjustment. Enables the counselors in the group to meet and solve the same problems commonly confronting the group. Homeroom guidance ordinarilyconducted by the class advisor and has . 2 credit , making it a requirement for graduation.

    Establishes a much better interaction since a working relationship among the members thrives. CHAPTER 2: PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELINGCounselor’s attitudes,skills ,characteristics One of the vital components of counseling is the attitude of the counselor. Some attitudes, such as being closed to new experiences, can impede the counseling process. The counselor attitudes of particular relevance to counseling fall into five categories: 1. Openness toward self 2. Openness toward clients 3.

    Openness toward colleagues 4. Openness toward supervisors5. Openness toward counseling willingness to learn, willingness to try new things and to see alternatives. Viewing then as individuals seeking assistance, as complex individuals who are not helpless, as partners in the process. Viewing them as colleagues, not competitors, with experiences and ideas that are valuable. Viewing them as colleagues with unique and relevant experiences.

    The counseling process is often a developing, evolving process wherein the client’s skills and resources are developed. The counselor does not solve the problem, but offers alternatives and teaches/facilitates the client’s problem-solving process. Other attitude a counselor must possess: – Delighted attention (smiling) – Loving Eye contact (without staring) – Exquisite listening (lean forward with interest) – Viewing the counselee as whole, wise, intelligent, utterly capable, and divine5. Skills for counseling are initially very similar to social skills. Counselors are usually interested in connection with others. Here are some ideas for social skills and how to express them which will be magnified in the counseling session.

    They smile and share their good mood with others. – They know how to “small talk” and don’t find it offensive or demeaning to do so. – They ask the people they interact with about themselves, expressing interest in their life and interests. They know that people like to talk about themselves, and will typically appreciate the audience. They understand that it is inappropriate (and often frightening) for people to share too much too soon. Small talk is a way of sharing very little, but still expressing interest in another person.

    After a little small talk, people feel more comfortable, and (depending on the relationship and the situation) deeper subjects may be brought up. They use body language to communicate their interest: * They lean forward slightly rather than reclining backwards * They look at people when they talk to them, making eye contact frequently * Their arms and legs are open, rather than crossed and closed. * They do their best to remember the contents of conversations, and show people they remember when they meet again. They know that people are appreciative of being remembered. * They are polite. For example, they say, “Thank you” when someone makes them a compliment, and “I’m sorry”, when they want to express concern or apologize.

    * They make sure they are reasonably well groomed, so that people don’t look at them and form a negative first impression. * They behave reasonably well, showing awareness that they are in a public place. For example, they don’t pick their nose or scratch their buttocks. * They are willing to be vulnerable as becomes appropriate to the situations they find themselves in. They aren’t closed people, but instead are willing to share themselves appropriately. They are sensitive to the possibility of oversharing (saying too much, too soon), and avoid doing that.

    – They use body language to communicate their interest:According to Cormier and Cormier (1985), the most effective helper is one who has successfully achieved a balance of interpersonal and technical components. They list six characteristics of effective counselors1. Intellectually Competent 2. Energetic 3. Flexible 4.

    Supportive 5. Goodwill 6. Self-aware counsellors must have thorough knowledge of many theories as well as the desire and ability to learn Counseling is emotionally draining and physically demanding. Counselors must have the ability to be active in their sessions Effective counselors are not tied to one specific theory or set of methods. Instead, they adapt what they do to meet the needs of their clients the counsellor supports the client in making his or her own decisions, help engender hope and power and avoid trying to rescue the client the nature of good will encompasses such qualities as the counselor’s desire to work on behalf of the client in the constructive way that ethically promotes client independence this characteristic includes knowledge of one’s self including attitudes and feelings about self, and the ability to recognize how and what factors affect those attitudes and feelings.

    Other characteristics: Open to, and aware of, their own experiences Aware of their own values and beliefs Able to develop warm and deep relationship with others Able to allow themselves be seen by others as they actually are Able to accept personal responsibility for their own behaviour Should have a realistic level of aspirationTYPES OF COUNSELINGA counselor’s assistance to an individual depends on what type of counseling he uses. It may be directive or clinical, completely counselor centered; it may be the non-directive or completely client-centered type; or it can be a combination of both types, which is known as the electic type. DIRECTIVE/CLINICALThis type, termed and described as the clinical method by Williamson, consists of the process and one treatment. Directive counseling allows the counselor to give the counselee information about himself, his opportunities and his problems.

    He may lead in the conversation, point out inconsistencies, or suggest the action to take. The counselor guides the discussion by testing the pupil, interpreting the test results and using them with school records and other records in the interview. The counselor does not judge, condemn or criticize. He evaluates facts objectively and explains the issue without offending the counselee. NON-DIRECTIVEThis method associated with Rogers, Strang and Waters is completely client-centered and places the responsibility on the client for exploring his own problems with emphasis on the individual and not on the problem. The counselor here does not give in formation.

    There are limitations to this type of counseling, according to Arbuckle, the clients’ IQ has to be considered. The individual may be too young or too old. Some individual are hostile to any outside help, while others are unable to express themselves. The student must be helped to make intelligent choices in terms of the future. ELECTIC COUNSELINGAlthough some writers are of the opinion that directive and non-directive counseling cannot be merged a theory has been made known as electic counseling.

    It is the combination of both directive/clinical and non-directive counseling. In other words, the responsibility of planning and carrying out the treatment of counseling rests with the counselor, leaving the development of insight and final decision to the counselee. CHAPTER 3: GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING SERVICESIndividual Inventory Services The process of accumulating and analyzing information about an individual through the use of an Inventory Form and through routine interview. Data may be used to check for students who may need counseling or specialized guidance services. Provides a synthesis of information about the individual which can be used to gain understanding of themselves as a person – their potential strengths and weaknesses, abilities, interests and needs.

    Covers the collection, organization and interpretation of the data about pupils/students. Information Obtained (for Individual Inventory Services) Individual Identification. Data (Pupil’s complete name, address, birthdate, gender). Family background – names of parents and siblings, their birthdates and birthplaces, parents religion and occupation, their hobbies and interests. 2. Cumulative Record.

    Information concerned with learner’s appraisal and should cover the entire span of their academic career – past and present school performance. Examples: Individual Profile Anecdotal Record Rating Scales Checklists Autobiography Self-Expression Essay Diaries and Daily Schedules Questionnaires Class Work Workshop output Structured Interviews Intake Interviews Session Summaries Interviews with others 3. Test Records. Provides information on the learner’s mental ability, aptitudes and interests.

    Information ServiceThis service makes available to students certain kinds of information not ordinarily provided through classroom instruction. It enables the counselor to give important facts concerning personal, social and educational adjustment. It includes the orientation among freshmen and incoming students, workshops, seminars and community extension services to disseminate information on the relevance of the Guidance Services to students’ adjustment and academic life as well as to provide information to ensure maximum welfare of students. This service provides valid information which are educational, social, personal and occupational in nature so that the student may be able to develop his/her decision making competencies. It is implemented through Group Guidance and information materials are also made available to the student through the Guidance bulletin board.

    TYPES OF INFORMATION SERVICESEducational Information. Valid and usable data about present and probable future educational requirements. Examples: Plan and layout of School PlanHistory and traditions of the schoolUse of the library and other school servicesPolicies governing school attendance, uniform, tardiness and etc. Occupational Information. Valid and useful data about positions, jobs and occupations. Examples:Conditions for workRewards offeredDuties and requirements for work applicationsAdvancement/Promotion patternsPersonal-Social Information.

    Valid and usable data about the opportunities and influences of the human being which will help learners to understand themselves better and improve their relationship with others. Examples:Boy-Girl RelationshipsPersonal appearanceoe,HomHoHome and Family appearanceSocManners and etiqutteCounseling ServicesIt is the core of guidance program that is a form of intervention that leads to a more effective behaviour. This is done where there is a pressing need to talk to the student or pupil urgently. Types of Placement ServicesGroup Counseling – a group activity aimed to assist EACH INDIVIDUAL member of the group to solve his/her problem and make adjustments on how he/she behaves in the group. Guidance Activities (for Group Counseling)Organizing Home Room Organizations Earliest form to bring about group guidance activities.

    Students/pupils are grouped into committees assigned for a particular task. Most of the time, a leader is chosen to spear head the activity. Usual groups/assignments: Sweepers of the Day; Front yard Cleaners. Lectures, conferences, programs, parties and convocationsIndividual Counseling – the counseling service is now more focused to one individual – how he/studies, plays or behaves in a group. Guidance Activities: (for Individual Counseling) Consultation – one-on-one scheduled guidance talk between the client and the guidance counselor.

    Voluntary Counseling/Walk-in Counseling – when an individual seeks the help of counselor to aid him/her in a difficult or challenging situation. Referral Counseling – a parent, faculty, counselor or other students recommends a consultation/appointment between the student and guidance counselor. Placement ServicePlacementThe act of placing or arranging. The state of being placed or arranged.

    Service The action of helping or doing work for someone. Placement Service means helping a person to get an appropriate place according to his qualifications and abilities, thus enabling him to get absorbed successfully in any occupation. – From the book Guidance and Counseling (Asha K. Kinra)Two things are important in placement: a.

    Ability for the task b. Satisfaction of the individual. Kinds of Placement Service: Educational Placement Service – helps student in the choice of subjects. Vocational Placement Service – helps students in finding their appropriate place in the occupational field.

    Placement ServicesFor making placement service effective it is essential to make students, teachers and others aware about its aims and objectives. Aims of Placement Service Placement service has the following aims. a) Helps in Looking for Part-Time Jobsb) Providing Full-Time Jobsc) Encouraging Extra-Class Activitiesd) Proper Selection of Curriculume. ) Helps in Training Programs: It also helps a student in choosing the right training program by:Making a desirable training choice, Locating training places for them, Drawing a realistic plan for desirable training for them, Facilitating registration of the student in the institution of his choice. Follow-up ServiceA continuous monitoring program designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention procedures in relation to student progress & adjustments.

    This service is undertaken as systematic evaluation of whether the guidance service in particular and the educational program in general have satisfied the needs of students. It refers to the formal and systematic monitoring of the individual progress of current students who have undergone academic advising, counseling, referral, placement, or any special intervention program. Returning students and those who are in academic probation are also monitored whenever neededAn integral part of guidance services is the follow-up It is concerned with what happens to students while in school or after they have left schoolsIntended to secure information about former students and provide continuing services for students after they leave school. This technique for evaluating the appropriateness and adequacy of the instructional program. Purpose of Follow-up 1. To ascertain the progress and status of students within the various classrooms, courses and curricular areas.

    2. To gain data which may identify weakness in the various phases of the school progress. 3. To learn how former graduates are processing.

    4. To evaluate the effectiveness of the school’s placement activity. 5. To learn why pupils leave before graduation. 6.

    To discover grade levels at which most dropouts occur. 7. To obtain opinions concerning needed modification of the curriculum in the light of the experiences of former pupils. Techniques of Follow-upFollow-up techniques includes interview, postcard-survey, or questionnaire Each has its own advantages and disadvantagesTools Used In Follow-Up 1. Conducting surveys. 2.

    Use of telephone. 3. The use of follow up letters. Importance Of Follow-Up Information obtained through follow-up techniques can be used for improving the curriculum stimulating better teaching, increasing the value of the guidance services and establishing better college and community relationshipsTypes Of Follow-Up Service In-School Follow-up Help diminish the number of drop-outs by knowing the causes/reasons why students leave school. Also helps students adjust to student life. Guidance Activities: One-on-One Consultation and Monitoring A test is given, results are kept and are communicated to the student concerned.

    Counselors continue to monitor the child’s behaviour every now and then. Parent Conference Counselors coordinate and gets in touch with the parents so the child’s behaviour is still observed even at home. Out-of-school Follow-upApplies to services extended even to the graduates to instill in them a sense of belongingness. It also helps the school analyse its effectiveness. Guidance Activities: Organizing alumni homecoming parties Organizing alumni associations Interviews with former students Interviews with employers Questionnaires for former students Questionnaires for employers Feedback from employersResearch and EvaluationResearch is a function where the counselor develops and implements research plans that would generate empirical data about students and student life that could be used to inform policy and decision-making in the school, especially on matters relevant to student welfare and development, and to inform the direction and suitability of the various guidance services, as well as of the other student services and programs provided. Evaluation is a guidance function where the counselor develop and implement assessment and evaluation plans that would provide soft and hard data on the quality, results, and impact of the various student services and programs.

    Evaluation data can be used as basis for enhancement of existing programs and development of new programs. Two types of EvaluationFormative EvaluationIt is conducted during planning and operation of the program/service/ activity. It is also used to improve the content and delivery, the process and content examination done by qualified persons. Summative EvaluationIt is conducted after the program/service/ activity and implemented to determine effectiveness.

    And informed decision to be made whether to continue, revise or terminate. CHAPTER IV: TOOLS USED IN GUIDANCE COUNSELLINGA. Methods of Collecting InformationIntroduction:A counselor must give accurate and usable information about jobs. Different jobs require different abilities, personalities and varied interest.

    Consequently, a counselor must have considerable information about occupations if he is to achieve successful guidance of his pupil. To choose a proper occupation is difficult of people because they normally have lack of knowledge about that occupation. For these kind of people occupational information is provided. It includes facts concerning the importance of an occupation , entrance requirements, opportunities for promotion, health and accident hazards compensations and other working conditions that are usually found in specific occupations or related group of occupations. 1.

    Occupancy SurveyOCCUPATION is a group of similar jobs in several establishments. INFORMATION are facts told or knowledge gained or given. By considering the meaning of above two words, we can conclude that facts or knowledge gained or given about the facts of job or an occupation is known as OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION. According To Shartle, “Occupational Information is the accurate and usable information about jobs and occupations”.

    Hoppock says, “Occupational Information includes any and all kinds of information, regarding any position, job or occupation, providing only that the information is potentially of a person who is choosing an occupation. 2. Follow-Up StudyThis service is designed to enhance student development by assisting them to select, and use, opportunities inside and outside the school. It is oriented to the preparation of an individual for admission to other educational, vocational or work-related programs.

    Its main purpose is to assist students to achieve their career goals, e. g. by assisting them with subject selection, or placement, in a class or school, based on the subjects offered. It takes into account the interests, aspirations and abilities of the learner.

    Where educational placement is concerned, a student should be allowed to choose the subjects he/she would like to pursue. Their subject choices should be determined by their self-image, career preference, and the availability of the subject option. It is the role of the counsellor or guidance teacher to ensure that the curriculum addresses the needs of the client. Career placement should also be seen as an integral part of a student’s career development and, as such, the counsellor or guidance teacher has to identify appropriate vocational or career placement centers, in accordance with the career aspirations of their pupils. This exploration is crucial for career decision-making, since it gives students an opportunity to gain an insight into a career which interests them. All students should be thoroughly prepared before career placement occurs, so that they can make the most of it.

    As a service, it strengthens the career guidance aspect of the school guidance and counselling program. It helps the students to know their strengths and limitations and, through this, achieve self-direction. This service offers the counsellor/guidance teacher an opportunity to collect, analyze, and use, a variety of personal, psychological and social data about the students. Not only does it offer the counsellor an opportunity to understand the pupils, but it also provides them with a guideline for the type of help required. Further, the counsellor/guidance teacher will be able to assist students/pupils to understand themselves better.

    B. Techniques Used In Collecting Data for CounselingKinds of Test given to CounselingTest – the most commonly used specialized technique in guidance and counseling. Found to provide the counselee with the means to demonstrate objectively his abilities, aptitudes, interests previously unrevealed, especially unexplored ones because of the counselee’s limited opportunities for activities in his field. Main purpose of Testing TechniqueTo determine the individual pupil’s achievement level and progressTo obtain data for diagnostic purposesTo know his aptitudesTo provide for the identificationTo improve instructionTo determine his existing self-concept, attitudes and personality patternTo ascertain social adjustmentTo identify under-achievers and over-achieversTypes of TestAchievement Tests – devised and administered to measure how well a person has learned as an outcome of instruction.

    Achievement test are used as learning measures of:The amount of learning The rate of learningComparison with others or with achievement of self in other areasLevel of learning in sub-areas, andStrengths and weaknesses in a subject matter area because of their extensive use and relatively easy task of identifying appropriate context measures. Intelligence Tests – measure general intelligence, the IQ of the counselee which determines one’s mental ability. They may be individual or group tests. Intelligence Quotient – a single global score which indicate the individual’s general intellectual level. IQ=MAMental AgeCAChronological AGEx100Aptitude Tests – measures the probable potentiality for development prior to training or schooling as tests in aptitude covered art, music, science, algebra, manual, and mechanical. Its value is the discovery of an individual’s ability to succeed in a specific field.

    Types of Aptitude TestSpecial Aptitude Tests – refers to those that seek to measure an individual’s potential ability to perform or acquire proficiency in a specific occupation or other type of activity. Vocational Aptitude Batteries Scholastic Aptitude Test – Scholastic academic aptitude tests measure one’s potential for performing in academic situations. Interest Inventory Tests – reveal the likes/ dislikes of a person in appraising his occupational preferences in a certain field of specialization. Personality Inventory Tests – measures the sum total of an individual’s overt behavior and inner feelings. It is the totality of what makes an individual different from one another.

    Trade Tests – designed to determine the skills, special abilitites and techniques that make an individual fit for a given occupation as tests for engineers, plumbers, carpenters, and mechanics. Diagnostic Tests – aimed to uncover and focus attention on weakness of individuals for remedial purposes. 2. ObservationThis is an oral and visual way of measuring what a person says and what a person does. It is basic to other guidance technique which does not necessarily pertain only to verbal language. Two Types of Observation:Natural Observation – In natural observation, we observe the specific behavioural characteristics of children or adults in natural setting.

    Participant Observation – It is that type of observation in which the observer becomes the part of the group which he wants to observe. Limitations of observationIt is very difficult to get trained observers. Untrained observers may gather superfluous and irrelevant data. It is subjectiveWith the help of observation, we can observe the external behaviour of the individual. Internal behaviour of the individual cannot be studied. Record may not be written with hundred per cent accuracy as the observation is recorded after the actions of the observerObservation is subject to two kinds of errors, sampling error and observer’s error.

    Interviews-An interview is a conversation with a purpose. It is a serious conversation directed toward adefinite purpose other than satisfaction in the interview itself. Advantage of InterviewIt is a widely used technique in guidance. It is very flexible. Interview is helpful in diagnosing a problemThe face-to-face contact gives very useful clues about the clients personality. Interview is useful to the client also because it enables him to think about the problem and about his self’.

    Interview provides a choice to the client and the counsellor to exchange ideas and attitudes through conversation. Kinds of InterviewStructured Interview – follows a predetermined plan of questioning which make use a list of questions/ checklist of general topics as a guide. Unstructured Interview – when the interviewer is free to develop the conversation along the lines that seem most suitable for him. Limitations of InterviewAn interview is a subjective technique.

    It lacks objectivity In the collection of data about the client. The bias and the prejudices of the interviewer enter into his interpretation of the data collected through an interview. The personal bias makes the interview less reliable and valid. The results of an interview are very difficult to interpret. The usefulness of an interview is limited.

    4. Home VisitationsA home visit program can show that teachers, principals, and school staff are willing to “go more than halfway” to involve all parents in their children’s education. These visits help teachers demonstrate their interest in students’ families and they provide opportunities for teachers to understand their students better by seeing students in their home environments. Teachers who have made home visits say they build stronger relationships with parents and their children and improve attendance and achievementsHome visits as a way to learn about their students and their home environments and to establish a much-needed connection with families and communities. A way for teachers to learn more about their students, get the parents more involved in their kids’ education, and bridge cultural gaps that might occur between student and teacher.

    Most teachers report their home visits have a lasting effect on the child, the parent, and parent-teacher communication5. Cumulative and Anecdotal RecordsAssessment Strategies and Tools: Anecdotal NotesAnecdotal notes are used to record specific observations of individual student behaviours, skills and attitudes as they relate to the outcomes in the program of studies. Such notes provide cumulative information on student learning and direction for further instruction. Anecdotal notes are often written as the result of ongoing observations during the lessons but may also be written in response to a product or performance the student has completed. They are brief, objective and focused on specific outcomes.

    Notes taken during or immediately following an activity are generally the most accurate. Anecdotal notes for a particular student can be periodically shared with that student or be shared at the student’s request. They can also be shared with students and parents at parent-teacher-student conferences. The purpose of anecdotal notes is to:Provide information regarding a student’s development over a period of timeProvide ongoing records about individual instructional needsCapture observations of significant behaviours that might otherwise be lostProvide ongoing documentation of learning that may be shared with students, parents and teachers. A Cumulative Record Card is that which contains the results of different assessment and judgments held from time to time during the course of study of a student or pupil. Generally it covers three consecutive years.

    It contains information regarding all aspects of life of the child or educed-physical, mental, social, moral and psychological. It seeks to give as comprehensive picture as possible of the personality of a child. “The significant information gathered periodically on student through the use of various techniques – tests, inventories, questionnaire, observation, interview, case study etc. ” Basically a Cumulative Record Card is a document in which it is recorded cumulatively useful and reliable information about a particular pupil or student at one place.

    Hence presenting a complete and growing picture of the individual concerned for the purpose of helping him during his long stay at school. And at the time of leaving it helps in the solution of his manifold problems of educational, vocational and personal-social nature and thus assisting him in his best development. According to Jones, a Cumulative Record is, “A permanent record of a student which is kept up-to-date by the school; it is his educational history with information about his school achievement, attendance, health, test scores and similar pertinent data,” If the Cumulative Record is kept together in a folder it is called Cumulative Record Folder (CRF). If the Cumulative Record iskept in an envelope it is called a Cumulative Record Envelop (CRE). If the cumulative Record is kept in a card it is called a Cumulative Record Card (CRC). Characteristics of Cumulative Record: The Cumulative Record is characterized in the following grounds: (i) The Cumulative Record is a permanent record about the pupil or student.

    (ii) It is maintained up-to-date. Whenever any new information is obtained about the pupil it is entered in the card. (iii) It presents a complete picture about the educational progress of the pupil, his past achievements and present standing. (iv) Itis comprehensive in the sense that it contains all information about the pupil’s attendance, test scores, health etc.

    (v) It contains only those information’s which are authentic, reliable, pertinent, objective and useful. (vi) Itis continuous in the sense that it contains information about the pupil from the time he enters for pre-school education or kindergarten system till he leaves the school. (vii) Whenever any information is desired by any-body concerned with the welfare of the child he should be given the information but not the card itself. (viii) Confidential information about the pupil is not entered in the CRC but kept in a separate file.

    Basic Principles that Should Govern the Maintenance of the CRC: Data contained in the cumulative record card (CRC) should be: 1. Accurate 2. Complete 3. Comprehensive 4. Objective 5.

    Usable 6. Valid (i) Keeping of record is a continuous process and should cover theholehistory from pre-school or kindergarten to the college and this should follow the child from school. The Card will furnish valuable information’s about the growth of a child and the new school can place him and deal with him to a greater advantage. (ii) All the teachers and the guidance workers should have access to these records.

    Matters too confidential may be kept at a separate place. The child concerned may have an opportunity to study his own Cumulative Record in consultation with thecounseller. (iii) The essential data should be kept in a simple, concise and readable form so that it may be convenient to find out the main points of life of the child at a glance. (iv) Recordsshould be based on an objective data. They should be as reliable as possible. (v) The record system should provide for a minimum of repetition of items.

    (vi) Itshould contain reliable, accurate and objective information. (vii) A manual should be prepared and directions for the guidance of persons, feeling out of using the records given in it. (viii) The record should be maintained by thecounsellorand should not be circulated throughout the faculty for making entries on it by other members of the staff. These entries should made by them on other forms and the entry in this card should be made very carefully bycounsellor. Types of Information Maintained in the-CRC: The types of information which are collected and entered or included in the CRC are as follows: 1. Identification Data: Name of the pupil, sex, father’s name, admission No.

    , date of birth, class, section, any other information that helps in easy location of the card. 2. Environmental and Background Data: Home-neighbourhoodinfluences, socio-economic status of the family, cultural status of the family, number of brothers and sisters, their educational background, occupations of the members of the family. 3. Physical Data: Weight, height, illness, physical disabilities, etc.

    4. Psychological Data: Intelligence, aptitudes, interests, personality qualities, emotional and social adjustment and attitudes. 5. Educational Data: Previous school record, educational attainments, school marks, school attendance. 6.

    Co-curricular Data: Notable experiences and accomplishment in various fields-intellectual, artistic, social, recreational, etc. 7. Vocational Information: Vocational ambitions of the student. 8.

    Supplementary Information: It is obtained by the use of standardized tests. 9. Principal’s overall remarks. Sources of Collection of Information: Information about every pupil or child for the maintenance in the CRC should be collected from the following sources: 1.

    Parents or guardian’s data form: Family background and the personal history of the child may be gathered from the parents who are asked to fill in the form. 2. Personal data form: In order to obtain information regarding thepupilsinterest and participation in extra-curricular activities and his vocational preferences the personal data is of great use. The pupil may be asked to give details ofhimself. This will supplement the information obtained from the parents data form. 3.

    School records: These include: (i) Records of achievement tests. (ii) Records of other tests. (iii) Admission and withdrawal record. 4.

    Other sources: These include: (i) Personal visits by the teachers (ii) Observations made by the teachers. Maintenance of the Record: The maintenance of the Cumulative Record Card should begin when the student enters school and should follow the student from class to class within a school and from school to school as he continues his progress. The class teacher will maintain the Cumulative Record. In view of the fact that he spends much time with the students he will be in a greater position to judge them from different aspects. He will maintain a diary or note-book in which he will note down from time to time his observations about his students. At the end of the year he will make the necessary entries in the Cumulative Record Card (CRC).

    It is very desirable that he consults his colleagues who also know the pupils. These entries should be made after careful consideration. 6. Case Study, ConferenceA case study is a about a person, group, or situation that has been studied over time. ” If the case study is about a group, it describes the behavior of the group as a whole, not behavior of each individual in the group.

    Case studies can be produced by following a formal research method. These case studies are likely to appear in formal research venues, as journals and professional conferences, rather than popular works. The resulting body of ‘case study research’ has long had a prominent place in many disciplines and professions, ranging from psychology, anthropology, sociology, and political science to education, clinical science, social work, and administrative science. [2][3]In doing case study research, the “case” being studied may be an individual, organization, event, or action, existing in a specific time and place.

    For instance, clinical science has produced both well-known case studies of individuals and also case studies of clinical practices. [4][5][6] However, when “case” is used in an abstract sense, as in a claim, a proposition, or an argument, such a case can be the subject of many research methods, not just case study research. Thomas offers the following definition of case study:”Case studies are analyses of persons, events, decisions, periods, projects, policies, institutions, or other systems that are studied holistically by one or more method. The case that is the subject of the inquiry will be an instance of a class of phenomena that provides an analytical frame an object within which the study is conducted and which the case illuminates and explicates. “According to J. Creswell, data collection in a case study occurs over a “sustained period of time.

    “One approach sees the case study defined as a research strategy, an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. Case-study research can mean single and multiple case studies, can include quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources of evidence, and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. [3] As such, case study research should not be confused with qualitative research, as case studies can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative data. Similarly, single-subject research might be taken as case studies of a sort, except that the repeated trials in single-subject research permit the use of experimental designs that would not be possible in typical case studies. At the same time, the repeated trials can provide a statistical framework for making inferences from quantitative dataCASE CONFERENCE: This is called to gain understanding and of determining sound approaches to severalproblems of counselees such as:unwise choice of coursereading disabilities social maladjustmentineffective study habitsachievement below that which isexpected of him. Case conference is donewithout the knowledge of the counseleeand it aims to avoid rushed approaches tohis problems.

    Hence, several persons areinvolved like the guidance counselor, theThis is the setting in a case conference. 7. AutobiographyIs the history of a person’s life written or told by that person. NATURE OF AUTOBIOGRAPHYAutobiographical works are by nature subjective.

    The inabilityor unwillingnessof the author to accurately recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information. Some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history. TYPES OF AUTOBIOGRAPHYThese four short types of autobiography are:Journals: daily written records of personal experiences and observations, usually not very emotional. Diaries: daily written records of personal thoughts and feelings, usually full of emotions. Letters: written messages addressed to a specific person or organization.

    Memoir: revolves around a specific time, place or relationship. More limited than the autobiography, it focuses on an important part of your life. It can be a coming-of-age memoir, focusing on your childhood years that made you who you are now. It can be a memoir of place, focusing on your hometown or a place you loved and where you spent a significant part of your life. It can be an ecological memoir and give your life from a spiritual point of view, or it might be a philosophical memoir and show the world through your eyes.

    It can be a historical memoir and focus on your life’s facts given in the form of reportage, or it can be a portrait and revolve around a relationship that shaped you as a person, inspired you or changed you. 8. Socio-metrics DevicesSociometric devices are methods that qualitatively measure aspects of social relationships, such as social acceptance (i. e. , how much an individual is liked by peers) and social status (i.

    e. , child’s social standing in comparison to peers). Types of Sociometric TestsInclude Negative Responses – Negative responses are helpful in differentiating between rejected and neglected children, and identifying social polarizations from large numbers of rejections. A rating scale, by requiring a response for each child, may ease the discomfort teachers feel about having students single out those they dislike.

    Bubble Art – Vacha and his colleagues (1979) recommend the use of the “bubble art” survey in which students are given a duplicated sheet of the names of classmates in bubble style and are instructed to color the letters of the three students they want most to work with one color, least another, their own a third, and the rest any other color. This procedure makes the test more interesting to students and tends to keep them too busy to try see the papers of others. Weighted scores – Compute a status rating based on weighted scores on acceptance scale: first choice +1, acceptance +. 5, indifference 0, unacceptance -.

    5, last choice – 1. Students with combined scores of zero and below may need help (Zeleny, 1960). Multiple Criteria Tests – Multi-criteria sociometric instruments measure more breadth of choices and whether students discriminate between companion choices for various criteria like: eat lunch with, field trip with, do a school project with, play a game with, sit in class with, invite to a party, newest friend (Roberts, 1986). The Ohio Social Acceptance Scale has students group each of their classmates under one of six headings: My very, very best friends, my other friends, not friends but okay, don’t know them, don’t care for them, dislike them.

    Maddux and Maddux (1983) adapted the scale so that students rate each classmate by telling how much they agree with the statement: “I want to sit by (or work with) this person. ” Responses are given on a continuum of agree strongly, agree, neutral, disagree, disagree strongly. Skills Matrix – Gresham (1982) suggests a complex process of having children rank their classmates using a 3, 2, 1, 0 continuum on each of thirteen skills: says nice things to others, says please and thank you, smiles at others, says hello to others, listens to others, helps others, shares with others, says excuse me, waits for turns, participates in school activities, fun to talk to, is liked by others, follows rules in games and class. (3 = a lot, 2 = sometimes, 1 = never, 0 = don’t know). Analysis of a matrix of scores could reveal skill deficits of the group and of individuals.

    Whole-group, small-group or individual instruction can be planned to build those skills. Using Sociometric Test Results – What Sociometric Test Results Can and Can’t Tell YouOf course the analysis of test results will depend on the sociometric question or questions asked. Regardless of the structure of the test, however, there are three main goals for sociometric testing:To measure classroom interaction patterns and their changes over time. To help plan intervention to improve the overall climate of the classroom.

    To help plan intervention for specific children seen as having status improvement needs. Define isolates (recessive, socially uninterested, or socially unskilled students). 9. Questionnaireis a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is not always the case.

    Types of questionnaire1. Structured questionnaire a)Have definite and concrete questions. b)Is prepared well in advance. c)Initiates a formal inquiry. d)Supplements and checks the data, previously accumulated. e)Used in studies of the economics and the social problems, studies of the administrative policies and changes etc.

    2. Unstructured questionnaire a)Used at the time of the interview. b)Acts as the guide for the interviewer. c)Is very flexible in working.

    d)Used in studies related to the group of families or those relating to the personal experiences, beliefs etc. A questionnaire can also be divided as the follows depending on the nature of the questions therein1. Open ended questionnaire a)Respondent is free to express his views and the ideas. b)Used in making intensive studies of the limited number of the cases.

    c)Merely an issue is raised by such a questionnaire. d)Do not provide any structure for the respondent’s reply. e)The questions and their orders are pre – determined in the nature. 2.

    Close ended questionnaire a)Responses are limited to the stated alternatives. b)One of the alternatives is simply YES or NO. c)Respondent cannot express his own judgment. 3. Mixed questionnairea)Questions are both close and open ended.

    b)Used in field of social research.4.Pictorial questionnaire a)Used very rarely.b)Pictures are used to promote the interest in answering the questions.c)Used in studies related to the social attitudes and the pre – judices in the children.10. Role PlayingRole playing, Rating scales and Checklists are probably three of those techniques being used to collect certain data for counseling. In this chapter, these three techniques will be defined as well as explained to determine its importance, details and other things that are needed for counseling processes and also in the principles of guidance and values education.This refers to the changing of one’s behaviour to assume a role, either unconsciously to fill a social role, or consciously to act out an adopted role.Research methodRole playing may also refer to the technique commonly used by researchers studying interpersonal behavior by assigning research participants to particular roles and instructing the participants to act as if a specific set of conditions were true. This technique of assigning and taking roles in psychological research has a long history. It has been used in the early classic social psychological experiments by Kurt Lewin (1939/1997), StanleyMilgram (1963), and Phillip Zimbardo. HerbertKelman suggested that role-playing might be “the most promising source” of research methods alternative to methods using deception (Kelman 1965). In EducationRole playing, a derivative of a sociodrama, is a method for exploring the issues involved in complex social situations. It may be used for the training of professionals or in a classroom for the understanding of literature, history, and even science. This also serves as one of the activities that can be used by the teachers.In Counseling TechniquesModelling – Modelling is used as a treatment that involves improving interpersonal skills such as communication and how to act in a social setting. Techniques involved in modelling are live modelling, symbolic modelling, role-playing, participant modelling and covert modelling.Live modelling involves the client watching a “model” such as the counsellor perform a specific behaviour, the client then copies this behaviour. Symbolic modelling involves the client watching a behaviour indirectly such as a video. Role-playing is where the counsellor role-plays a behaviour with the client in order for the client to practice the behavior.11. Rating ScalesThis allows teachers to indicate the degree or frequency of the behaviours, skills and strategies displayed by the learner. To continue the light switch analogy, a rating scale is like a dimmer switch that provides for a range of performance levels. Rating scales state the criteria and provide three or four response selections to describe the quality or frequency of student work.Teachers can use rating scales to record observations and students can use them as self-assessment tools. Teaching students to use descriptive words, such as always, usually, sometimes and never helps them pinpoint specific strengths and needs. Rating scales also give students information for setting goals and improving performance. In a rating scale, the descriptive word is more important than the related number. The more precise and descriptive the words for each scale point, the more reliable the tool.Effective rating scales use descriptors with clearly understood measures, such as frequency. Scales that rely on subjective descriptors of quality, such as fair, good or excellent, are less effective because the single adjective does not contain enough information on what criteria are indicated at each of these points on the scale.Low (1988) observes that “any rating scale has three basic functions. 1. The first is that it provides a number of possible answers to a question.2. The second function of a rating scale is that it permits the questioner to restrict the ‘conversation’ and focus on just those areas relevant to the research being conducted. 3. The third is that it forces all respondents to use the same set of words (or numbers) in their answers. Such standardization allows generalizations to be made within and between groups of respondents. These have a number of implications for the design of good rating scales. The first is that any data from a question open to multiple interpretations is itself uninterpretable. The second is that all values or points on a rating scale should describe the same dimension, say, ‘goodness’ or ‘importance’ but not a mixture of the two.”Examples of Rating Scale 1. Teacher Report Form (Achenbach, 1991)-Obtains teacher’s report on children’s academic performance, adaptive functioning, and behavioral/emotional problems2. Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991)-This allows student to be rated on positive or adaptive, behaviors and competencies.3. Behavior Rating Profile 2 (Brown and Hammerhill, 1990)-This can identify the students’ behavior particularly in their profile and in the classroom.12. Surveys and ChecklistAn assessment guideline listing skills, behaviours or characteristics to help guide teachers with their student’s records as they perform certain tasks. There are also student checklists that can be used by the students for self-assessment purposes.Checklists can be used for formative (ongoing) assessment to monitor students’ behavior and progress towards reaching stated goals. In this chapter, two kinds of checklists are emphasized. Teacher observation checklists Checklists for self- and peer assessments.Observation Checklist: Kay Burke (1994) describes an observation checklist as a strategy to monitor specific skills, behaviors, or dispositions of individual students or all the students in the class.” She suggests that teachers use observation checklists for formative assessments by focusing on specific behaviors, thinking, social skills, writing skills, speaking skills…” Checklists only indicate if a student can accomplish the listed objectives. Nothing is included about the quality of performance. In foreign languages, checklists, most often, state the language and cultural skills to be attained.Management Tips for Teachers Using Observation Checklists 1. Teachers may want to focus on one student, or on a few students at a time. In a classroom of 25, teachers may observe 5 students each day. However, all students should be observed within a given period of time. 2. Teachers may also want to observe students in different kinds of activities. 3. Teachers will need to record their observations immediately while they remember which students did what. 4. Teachers will need to evaluate students in terms of their own personal growth.

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