“rebirth”, new way of looking at the arts (new found interest), advances in art, technology, architecture, and literature
14th to 17th Century
When the Renaissance occurred
Supported art, influential family
Leonardo da Vinci
born 1452, Famous painter, wanted to see the world in a new way, painted Mona Lisa, used dissection
Roman/Greek belief that learning would lead to a better life
Many artists were also…
Inventors, architects, and engineers
Religion was important, art portrayed daily life more accurately
Used on 1D spaces to look 3D
Helped create 3D look
Painted by Michelangelo, completed in 1512
Human anatomy was studied by…
Artists, to make art more realistic
Leonardo da Vinci practiced this to get a better feel for human anatomy
Sculptures were created
Most famous sculpture was a soldier mounted on a horse
Medieval and Modern Times
Pico della Mirandola
Italian thinker who captured the spirit of adventure and confidence and human abilities
Study of rhetoric, grammar, poetry, and history
humanist, had a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts, father of humanism, wrote Sonnets to Laura, used vernacular
When did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
mid 1300s, height = 1500s
Cities like Milan, Venice, Genoa, and Florence thrived bc of trade from Muslim world
Florence was a symbol of ___ _____________ _______________
the Italian Renaissance
Cosimo de Medici
Had control of Florence gov. in 1434
Lorenzo de Medici
Known as “The Magnificent”, grandson of Cosimo, represented Renaissance ideal, patronized the arts
Known for the Duomo, studied Donatello’s sculptures, created Dome that was inspired by the Pantheon
The Last Supper
Done by Da Vinci, used perspective, paint that decayed over time
Sculptor/engineer/painter/ architect/poet, born in 1475, did sculptures: The Pieta, David, designed the Dome for St. Peter’s
Studied works of Da Vinci and Michelangelo, his paintings blended Christian and Classical styles, painted The School of Athens
wrote the Prince, described how to gain and maintain power, stressed that the end justifies the means, used deceit in politics
wrote The Book of the Courtier, describes virtues and manners someone should possess
Where did the N. Renaissance begin?
Jan Van Eyek
Developed new ideas for using oil paints to produce strong colors
German painter and print maker, known as the German Leonardo
Sir Thomas Moore
Friend of Erasmus, English humanist who pushed for social and economic reforms, executed for treason because he didn’t accept Church of England
Flemish painter used vibrant colors to paint peasant life
English poet and playwright
In Praise of Folly
Written by Erasmus, This used humor to explore the ignorant and immoral behavior of people
Dutch humanist, became a priest in 1492, translated the Bible into vernacular, wrote In Praise of Folly, protested the selling of indulgences
Describes any ideal society
Invented the printing press in mid 1439
French humanist/monk/physician/ Greek author, wrote in French vernacular
In 1517, German priest who sold indulgences to rebuild St. Peter’s
“God has given us the papacy, let us enjoy it”
German monk who composed 95 theses against Catholic Church, expelled from Church, believed he was a doomed sinner, rejected sacraments, permitted clergy to marry, thought that printing was God’s highest act of grace, wanted Jews expelled from Christian lands
Pardon that lessons a soul’s time in purgatory
Luther argued that salvation could be gained through __________ alone.
Peace of Augsburg
This stated that the prince could decide which religion, Catholic or Lutheran, to follow
Calvinist belief that God has long ago determined your salvation
Started Presbyterian Church in Scotland
Friend of Luther, court painter, painted portraits of Luther
Follower of Wycliffe, A Czech priest who was burned at stake for heresy, believed Christians should be able to read the Bible in their own language, popular in Eastern Europe until his death
A series of wars from 1500s- 1600s, Catholic Church attempted to combat corruption
Popes and Church teachers led ____________ lives.
Charged fees to:
Get married or baptized
Clergy members did this
taught “new ideas” abt Catholic Church, headed protestant sects, started the Calvinists
translated Bible into English, opposed Henry’s divorce of Catherine, executed
Founded schools and universities, helped poor
Thirty Years War
Devastated much of Germany in 1600s, killed 35- 40% of its people
Translated Bible into English
A full scale revolt erupted
Where Luther posted his 95 theses at All Saints Church
Summoned Luther to an assembly at Worms, Catherine of Aragon’s nephew
1524 Peasant’s Revolt
Germany, demanded to serfdom, took up Protestant beliefs
Luther denounced ____________ ___________
social order (respect for political authority), nobles killed 100,000
Believed only adults should be baptized, peaceful
Henry VIII’s 1st wife
Catherine of Aragon, divorced (bc no son)
Henry VIII’s 2nd wife
Anne Boleyn, beheaded
Henry VIII’s 3rd wife
Jane Seymour, died (during childbirth), had Edward
Henry VIII’s 4th wife
Anne of Cleeves, divorced
Henry VIII’s 5th wife
Catherine of Howard, beheaded
Henry VIII’s 6th wife
Catherine Parr, survived
Head of the Anglican Church, dismissed protestant views, had six wives, declared anyone who accepted protestant to be burned at stake, caused England to break from the church because he wanted a divorce
Council of Trent
Met on and off for 20 yrs., reaffirmed traditional Catholic views
Pope Paul III
Leader of the Catholic Reformation , strengthened inquisition
Ignatius of Loyola
Founder of Jesuits
Where the Jews lived in Venice
Teresa of Avila
Established a district of strict nuns devoted to a simple life of isolation and prayer
Frances de Sales
Frenchman who brought many Protestants back to Catholicism
Book of Common Prayer
Written in English, used by Anglican Church
The closing of monasteries and convents by Henry VIII, land was given to nobles
Henry VIII’s only son, sickly, crowned at age 9, died at age 15
Act of Supremacy
Made Henry VIII the sole head of the Church of England
Annulled Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon, supported reform, archbishop of Canterbury
The Church of England
Started by Parliament because of the king’s request, allowed Henry’s divorce
Refused to accept Henry as the new leader of the Church
Henry’s second heir, devote Catholic, daughter of Catherine of Aragon
Mary’s half sister, took throne after Mary, united the country, daughter of Anne Boleyn, helped avoid bloody wars, replaced Latin as language of Anglican Services
Modern reforms that resolved conflict between Protestants and Catholics
Catholic King of France, didn’t like Jews, Pope gave him the name “Defender of Faith” for denouncing Luther
Separation of Church and State
Anabaptist idea, religious tolerance
Baptists/ Amish/ Mennonites
Trace religion/ancestry to Anabaptists
Headed by Pope, kept hierarchy of bishops/archbishops
Salvation was earned through __________ and _________ _________
faith, good works
Schools were established to…
Society of Jesus
Jesuits, spread Catholic faith
Ignatius of Loyola
Headed Jesuits, was a missionary
Jews were required to wear a ____________ _____________
Pope Paul IV
Reversed lenient policy of Renaissance that restricted Jewish policies
Poland/ Lithuania/ Ottoman Empire
Where the Jews flocked to
Single force that keeps the planets in their orbits around the sun
A step in the scientific method, a possible explanation
Anton Van Leewenhoek
Perfected the single- lens microscope, first to see bacteria/cells/microorganisms, founder of microbiology
Proposed a sun- centered model of the universe, (heliocentric), wrote On Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
Came up with the first accurate and detailed study of human anatomy , published “On the Structure of the Human Body”
“I think, therefore I am”, Thought that human reasoning was the best way
Halian scientist, observed moons moving around other planets with telescopes, Catholic, “And yet it moves”, put on house arrest because his teachings went against the Catholic Church at the time, tried for heresy
Greek astronomer, taught that the earth was the center of the universe
Oval- shaped orbit
New approach to science that emphasized observation and experimentation
1500s to 1600s
Period of scientific revolution
found that planets don’t move in perfect circles
changed how science is conducted, stressed experiments and observation
Steps of the Scientific Method
Problem, Gather Info, Hypothesis, Experiment, Collect Data/Analyze, Repeat
Determined that matter is made of basic building blocks, used temperature and pressure to determine how particles behave
scientist, laws of motion, gravity, developed Calculus, developed experiments with light to show color spectrum
Thought that nature can be explained with uniformed laws
Danish astronomer, found evidence to support Copernicus
English surgeon, dissected corpses to learn about anatomy
French physician, introduced artificial limbs, came up with an ointment to heal wounds and prevent infection
English scholar, described circulation of blood for the first time, taught that the heart pumps blood to external areas of the body
Early form of chemistry, thought that anything could be turned into another thing
developed by Newton, used to prove gravity
All motion can be measured mathematically
What characteristic of the Renaissance does the quotation reflect?
“To it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills.”—Pico della Mirandola, 1486
C. a spirit of adventure and curiosity
Analyze the geographic locations of the Italian city-states. What role did trade play in the Renaissance?
D. wealth from trade fueled the Renaissance
How does the quotation connect to the Renaissance principle of humanism?
“Walk forwards in the radiance of the past.”—Petrarch
B. Humanity progresses by building upon past knowledge
Which Renaissance artistic techniques are featured in this painting by Leonardo da Vinci?
(The Last Supper)
B. perspective and realism
Which humanist ideals are most expressed in the sculpture David by Michelangelo?
D. emphasis on realistic anatomy and ancient Greek tradition
Which answer best summarizes the main idea of the quotation?
“How we live is so different from how we ought to live that he who studies what ought to be done rather than what is done will learn the way to his downfall rather than to his preservation.”—Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince
A. A successful ruler must be observant and practical, not idealistic.
What event revolutionized the way people accessed and consumed ideas and information during the Renaissance?
B. Gutenberg invented a printing press with movable type.
What valid conclusion that can be drawn from the data in the table?
A. An unprecedented spread of information helped the Reformation grow.
In what way does this passage and quotation describe a political effect of humanism?
He called for a translation of the Christian Bible into the vernacular. He scorned those who “. . . don’t want the holy scriptures to be read in translation by the unlearned . . . as if the chief strength of the Christian religion lay in people’s ignorance of it. . . .”
D. It is a demand that biblical teachings be made widely accessible to the public in an understandable form.
Summarize the main idea of the quotation.
“The many great gardens of the world, of literature and poetry, of painting and music, of religion and architecture, all make the point as clear as possible: The soul cannot thrive in the absence of a garden. If you don’t want paradise, you are not human; and if you are not human, you don’t have a soul.”—Thomas More
A. The arts, education, and spirituality make us human.
How does Shakespeare’s play, Julius Caesar, reflect central literary themes common throughout the Renaissance?
C. It explores universal human themes and portrays classical figures and subjects.
How does this engraving by the German artist Albrecht Dürer expand upon the work done by Italian Renaissance artists?
A. It blends anatomical realism with religious themes.
What prompted Martin Luther to take the actions described in the quotation?
“I have cast the die. . . . I will not reconcile myself to them for all eternity. . . . Let them condemn and burn all that belongs to me; in return I will do as much for them. . . . Now I no longer fear, and I am publishing a book in the German tongue about Christian reform, directed against the pope, in language as violent as if I were addressing the Antichrist.”—Martin Luther, 1520
B. Luther’s rejection of papal authority and his refusal to recant
Which characteristics belong in the Protestantism portion of the diagram?
B. priests can marry, bible printed in the vernacular, no papal authority
Which factor enabled the central ideas of the Protestant Reformation to gain acceptance throughout northern Europe?
A. the printing press
Which idea differentiates the Protestant doctrines of Calvinism and Lutheranism?
D. belief in predestination
Which Protestant teaching addresses the main idea of the passage?
“86. Again, “Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build this one basilica of St. Peter with his own money rather than with the money of poor believers?”—Martin Luther, 95 Theses
C. Churches should be simple and plain rather than ornate and grand.
Which is the best example of a theocracy?
A. A government run by religious leaders.
Which statement belongs in the final box?
C. Religious conflict spreads across Europe, bringing an era of change and upheaval.
Analyze the map. Which region was the most religiously divided?
B. Holy Roman Empire
Identify the person responsible for bringing stability after the religious turmoil that resulted in the formation of the Anglican Church of England.
D. Queen Elizabeth
The United States Capitol dome was inspired by the dome of the Pantheon, built in ancient Rome. Which Renaissance architect was also inspired by the Pantheon’s dome?
What radical new perspective did Copernicus’ drawing of the universe reveal?
B. a heliocentric perspective
The Scientific Method was based on the idea that…
C. the truth could come only through investigation.
Which thinker is credited with establishing the basic principles of physics, including natural laws that govern gravity and motion?
D. Isaac Newton