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    HN World History Ch. 10 The Renaissance and Reformation

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    “rebirth”, new way of looking at the arts (new found interest), advances in art, technology, architecture, and literature
    14th to 17th Century
    When the Renaissance occurred
    Medici Family
    Supported art, influential family
    Leonardo da Vinci
    born 1452, Famous painter, wanted to see the world in a new way, painted Mona Lisa, used dissection
    Roman/Greek belief that learning would lead to a better life
    Many artists were also…
    Inventors, architects, and engineers
    Religion/daily life/realistic
    Religion was important, art portrayed daily life more accurately
    Linear perspective
    Used on 1D spaces to look 3D
    Helped create 3D look
    Sistine Chapel
    Painted by Michelangelo, completed in 1512
    Human anatomy was studied by…
    Artists, to make art more realistic
    Leonardo da Vinci practiced this to get a better feel for human anatomy
    Life Size
    Sculptures were created
    Most famous sculpture was a soldier mounted on a horse
    Transition between:
    Medieval and Modern Times
    Pico della Mirandola
    Italian thinker who captured the spirit of adventure and confidence and human abilities
    Study of rhetoric, grammar, poetry, and history
    Francesco Petrarch
    humanist, had a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts, father of humanism, wrote Sonnets to Laura, used vernacular
    When did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
    mid 1300s, height = 1500s
    Trading contacts
    Cities like Milan, Venice, Genoa, and Florence thrived bc of trade from Muslim world
    Wealthy Merchants
    Supported arts
    Florence was a symbol of ___ _____________ _______________
    the Italian Renaissance
    Cosimo de Medici
    Had control of Florence gov. in 1434
    Lorenzo de Medici
    Known as “The Magnificent”, grandson of Cosimo, represented Renaissance ideal, patronized the arts
    Filippo Brunelleschi
    Known for the Duomo, studied Donatello’s sculptures, created Dome that was inspired by the Pantheon
    The Last Supper
    Done by Da Vinci, used perspective, paint that decayed over time
    Sculptor/engineer/painter/ architect/poet, born in 1475, did sculptures: The Pieta, David, designed the Dome for St. Peter’s
    Studied works of Da Vinci and Michelangelo, his paintings blended Christian and Classical styles, painted The School of Athens
    Niccolo Machiavelli
    wrote the Prince, described how to gain and maintain power, stressed that the end justifies the means, used deceit in politics
    Baldassare Castigilone
    wrote The Book of the Courtier, describes virtues and manners someone should possess
    Where did the N. Renaissance begin?
    Jan Van Eyek
    Developed new ideas for using oil paints to produce strong colors
    Albrecht Durer
    German painter and print maker, known as the German Leonardo
    Sir Thomas Moore
    Friend of Erasmus, English humanist who pushed for social and economic reforms, executed for treason because he didn’t accept Church of England
    Pieter Bruegel
    Flemish painter used vibrant colors to paint peasant life
    English poet and playwright
    In Praise of Folly
    Written by Erasmus, This used humor to explore the ignorant and immoral behavior of people
    Dutch humanist, became a priest in 1492, translated the Bible into vernacular, wrote In Praise of Folly, protested the selling of indulgences
    Describes any ideal society
    Invented the printing press in mid 1439
    French humanist/monk/physician/ Greek author, wrote in French vernacular
    Johan Tetzel
    In 1517, German priest who sold indulgences to rebuild St. Peter’s
    Leo X
    “God has given us the papacy, let us enjoy it”
    Martin Luther
    German monk who composed 95 theses against Catholic Church, expelled from Church, believed he was a doomed sinner, rejected sacraments, permitted clergy to marry, thought that printing was God’s highest act of grace, wanted Jews expelled from Christian lands
    Pardon that lessons a soul’s time in purgatory
    Luther argued that salvation could be gained through __________ alone.
    Peace of Augsburg
    This stated that the prince could decide which religion, Catholic or Lutheran, to follow
    Calvinist belief that God has long ago determined your salvation
    John Knox
    Started Presbyterian Church in Scotland
    Lucas Cranach
    Friend of Luther, court painter, painted portraits of Luther
    John Hus
    Follower of Wycliffe, A Czech priest who was burned at stake for heresy, believed Christians should be able to read the Bible in their own language, popular in Eastern Europe until his death
    A series of wars from 1500s- 1600s, Catholic Church attempted to combat corruption
    Popes and Church teachers led ____________ lives.
    Charged fees to:
    Get married or baptized
    Sold Salvation
    Clergy members did this
    John Calvin
    taught “new ideas” abt Catholic Church, headed protestant sects, started the Calvinists
    William Tyndale
    translated Bible into English, opposed Henry’s divorce of Catherine, executed
    Founded schools and universities, helped poor
    Thirty Years War
    Devastated much of Germany in 1600s, killed 35- 40% of its people
    John Wycliffe
    Translated Bible into English
    A full scale revolt erupted
    Wittenberg, Germany
    Where Luther posted his 95 theses at All Saints Church
    Charles V
    Summoned Luther to an assembly at Worms, Catherine of Aragon’s nephew
    1524 Peasant’s Revolt
    Germany, demanded to serfdom, took up Protestant beliefs
    Luther denounced ____________ ___________
    social order (respect for political authority), nobles killed 100,000
    Believed only adults should be baptized, peaceful
    Henry VIII’s 1st wife
    Catherine of Aragon, divorced (bc no son)
    Henry VIII’s 2nd wife
    Anne Boleyn, beheaded
    Henry VIII’s 3rd wife
    Jane Seymour, died (during childbirth), had Edward
    Henry VIII’s 4th wife
    Anne of Cleeves, divorced
    Henry VIII’s 5th wife
    Catherine of Howard, beheaded
    Henry VIII’s 6th wife
    Catherine Parr, survived
    Henry VIII
    Head of the Anglican Church, dismissed protestant views, had six wives, declared anyone who accepted protestant to be burned at stake, caused England to break from the church because he wanted a divorce
    Council of Trent
    Met on and off for 20 yrs., reaffirmed traditional Catholic views
    Pope Paul III
    Leader of the Catholic Reformation , strengthened inquisition
    Ignatius of Loyola
    Founder of Jesuits
    Where the Jews lived in Venice
    Teresa of Avila
    Established a district of strict nuns devoted to a simple life of isolation and prayer
    Frances de Sales
    Frenchman who brought many Protestants back to Catholicism
    Book of Common Prayer
    Written in English, used by Anglican Church
    The closing of monasteries and convents by Henry VIII, land was given to nobles
    Edward VI
    Henry VIII’s only son, sickly, crowned at age 9, died at age 15
    Act of Supremacy
    Made Henry VIII the sole head of the Church of England
    Thomas Crammer
    Annulled Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon, supported reform, archbishop of Canterbury
    The Church of England
    Started by Parliament because of the king’s request, allowed Henry’s divorce
    Loyal Catholics…
    Refused to accept Henry as the new leader of the Church
    Mary Tudor
    Henry’s second heir, devote Catholic, daughter of Catherine of Aragon
    Queen Elizabeth
    Mary’s half sister, took throne after Mary, united the country, daughter of Anne Boleyn, helped avoid bloody wars, replaced Latin as language of Anglican Services
    Elizabethan Settlement
    Modern reforms that resolved conflict between Protestants and Catholics
    Henry III
    Catholic King of France, didn’t like Jews, Pope gave him the name “Defender of Faith” for denouncing Luther
    Separation of Church and State
    Anabaptist idea, religious tolerance
    Baptists/ Amish/ Mennonites
    Trace religion/ancestry to Anabaptists
    Anglican Church
    Headed by Pope, kept hierarchy of bishops/archbishops
    Salvation was earned through __________ and _________ _________
    faith, good works
    Schools were established to…
    challenge protestants
    Society of Jesus
    Jesuits, spread Catholic faith
    Ignatius of Loyola
    Headed Jesuits, was a missionary
    Jews were required to wear a ____________ _____________
    yellow badge
    Pope Paul IV
    Reversed lenient policy of Renaissance that restricted Jewish policies
    Poland/ Lithuania/ Ottoman Empire
    Where the Jews flocked to
    Single force that keeps the planets in their orbits around the sun
    A step in the scientific method, a possible explanation
    Anton Van Leewenhoek
    Perfected the single- lens microscope, first to see bacteria/cells/microorganisms, founder of microbiology
    Nicolaus Copernicus
    Proposed a sun- centered model of the universe, (heliocentric), wrote On Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
    Andreas Vesalius
    Came up with the first accurate and detailed study of human anatomy , published “On the Structure of the Human Body”
    Rene Descartes
    “I think, therefore I am”, Thought that human reasoning was the best way
    Halian scientist, observed moons moving around other planets with telescopes, Catholic, “And yet it moves”, put on house arrest because his teachings went against the Catholic Church at the time, tried for heresy
    Greek astronomer, taught that the earth was the center of the universe
    Oval- shaped orbit
    Scientific Method
    New approach to science that emphasized observation and experimentation
    1500s to 1600s
    Period of scientific revolution
    Johannes Keppler
    found that planets don’t move in perfect circles
    Francis Bacon
    changed how science is conducted, stressed experiments and observation
    Steps of the Scientific Method
    Problem, Gather Info, Hypothesis, Experiment, Collect Data/Analyze, Repeat
    Robert Boyle
    Determined that matter is made of basic building blocks, used temperature and pressure to determine how particles behave
    Isaac Newton
    scientist, laws of motion, gravity, developed Calculus, developed experiments with light to show color spectrum
    Thought that nature can be explained with uniformed laws
    Tycho Brahe
    Danish astronomer, found evidence to support Copernicus
    John Banister
    English surgeon, dissected corpses to learn about anatomy
    Ambrose Pare
    French physician, introduced artificial limbs, came up with an ointment to heal wounds and prevent infection
    William Harvey
    English scholar, described circulation of blood for the first time, taught that the heart pumps blood to external areas of the body
    Early form of chemistry, thought that anything could be turned into another thing
    developed by Newton, used to prove gravity
    All motion can be measured mathematically
    What characteristic of the Renaissance does the quotation reflect?

    “To [man] it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills.”—Pico della Mirandola, 1486

    C. a spirit of adventure and curiosity
    Analyze the geographic locations of the Italian city-states. What role did trade play in the Renaissance?
    D. wealth from trade fueled the Renaissance
    How does the quotation connect to the Renaissance principle of humanism?

    “Walk forwards in the radiance of the past.”—Petrarch

    B. Humanity progresses by building upon past knowledge
    Which Renaissance artistic techniques are featured in this painting by Leonardo da Vinci?
    (The Last Supper)
    B. perspective and realism
    Which humanist ideals are most expressed in the sculpture David by Michelangelo?
    D. emphasis on realistic anatomy and ancient Greek tradition
    Which answer best summarizes the main idea of the quotation?

    “How we live is so different from how we ought to live that he who studies what ought to be done rather than what is done will learn the way to his downfall rather than to his preservation.”—Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince

    A. A successful ruler must be observant and practical, not idealistic.
    What event revolutionized the way people accessed and consumed ideas and information during the Renaissance?
    B. Gutenberg invented a printing press with movable type.
    What valid conclusion that can be drawn from the data in the table?
    A. An unprecedented spread of information helped the Reformation grow.
    In what way does this passage and quotation describe a political effect of humanism?

    He [Erasmus] called for a translation of the Christian Bible into the vernacular. He scorned those who “. . . don’t want the holy scriptures to be read in translation by the unlearned . . . as if the chief strength of the Christian religion lay in people’s ignorance of it. . . .”

    D. It is a demand that biblical teachings be made widely accessible to the public in an understandable form.
    Summarize the main idea of the quotation.

    “The many great gardens of the world, of literature and poetry, of painting and music, of religion and architecture, all make the point as clear as possible: The soul cannot thrive in the absence of a garden. If you don’t want paradise, you are not human; and if you are not human, you don’t have a soul.”—Thomas More

    A. The arts, education, and spirituality make us human.
    How does Shakespeare’s play, Julius Caesar, reflect central literary themes common throughout the Renaissance?
    C. It explores universal human themes and portrays classical figures and subjects.
    How does this engraving by the German artist Albrecht Dürer expand upon the work done by Italian Renaissance artists?
    A. It blends anatomical realism with religious themes.
    What prompted Martin Luther to take the actions described in the quotation?

    “I have cast the die. . . . I will not reconcile myself to them [the Roman Catholic Church] for all eternity. . . . Let them condemn and burn all that belongs to me; in return I will do as much for them. . . . Now I no longer fear, and I am publishing a book in the German tongue about Christian reform, directed against the pope, in language as violent as if I were addressing the Antichrist.”—Martin Luther, 1520

    B. Luther’s rejection of papal authority and his refusal to recant
    Which characteristics belong in the Protestantism portion of the diagram?
    B. priests can marry, bible printed in the vernacular, no papal authority
    Which factor enabled the central ideas of the Protestant Reformation to gain acceptance throughout northern Europe?
    A. the printing press
    Which idea differentiates the Protestant doctrines of Calvinism and Lutheranism?
    D. belief in predestination
    Which Protestant teaching addresses the main idea of the passage?

    “86. Again, “Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build this one basilica of St. Peter with his own money rather than with the money of poor believers?”—Martin Luther, 95 Theses

    C. Churches should be simple and plain rather than ornate and grand.
    Which is the best example of a theocracy?
    A. A government run by religious leaders.
    Which statement belongs in the final box?
    (see chart)
    C. Religious conflict spreads across Europe, bringing an era of change and upheaval.
    Analyze the map. Which region was the most religiously divided?
    B. Holy Roman Empire
    Identify the person responsible for bringing stability after the religious turmoil that resulted in the formation of the Anglican Church of England.
    D. Queen Elizabeth
    The United States Capitol dome was inspired by the dome of the Pantheon, built in ancient Rome. Which Renaissance architect was also inspired by the Pantheon’s dome?
    D. Michelangelo
    What radical new perspective did Copernicus’ drawing of the universe reveal?
    B. a heliocentric perspective
    The Scientific Method was based on the idea that…
    C. the truth could come only through investigation.
    Which thinker is credited with establishing the basic principles of physics, including natural laws that govern gravity and motion?
    D. Isaac Newton

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