Period in Europe beginning in about 1350 during which there was a new desire to learn more about the arts, sciences, and other parts of the world, a rebirth or revival
A man sometimes called the father of Italian Renaissance humanism.
a Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence
This was a movement away from religion that was furthered by humanists. It began in the Renaissance and put emphasis on worldly accomplishments and possibilities, taking some focus away from the Bible and the Catholic Church.
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that “the end justifies the means.” being feared is better than being loved
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
The first artist to have understood and used perspective. Florence Cathedral., Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446); built first dome
The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, especially to give an illusion of depth.
art technique that overlays translucent layers of color to create perceptions of depth, volume, and form
the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
The ranaissance artist who led the way in establishing a new style of employing deep space, modeling , and anatomical correctness.
Italian sculptor renowned as a pioneer of the Renaissance style with his natural, lifelike figures, such as the bronze statue David.
He was a true Renaissance man, who was gifted in math, painting, drawing, philosophy, physics and inventing, and had a had a great impact both in his lifetime and posthumously. He also studied botany, astrology, and human anatomy, among other subjects. He also painted the best-known picture in the Western world, the Mona Lisa/ La Gioconda.
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
a movement that developed in northern Europe during the renaissance combining classical learning with the goal of reforming the catholic church
FATHER OF CHRISTIAN HUMANISM, Dutch humanist who remained Catholic, Most celebrated of all northern humanists. Made new translations of the Greek and Latin versions of the New Testament to create “pure” editions. He wrote In Praise of Folly, the best-sell second to the Bible. Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy, the book inspired renewed calls for reform and influence Martin Luther. Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched
German Renaissance artist, was famous for using proportion, engraving, and wood cut
Jan Van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther’s protest against the sale of indulgences is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation. (p. 446)
A priest who set up a pulpit on the outskirts of Wuttenburg. He offered indulgences to any Christian who contributed money for the rebuilding of the Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome.
city in which Luther nailed his ninety five these on the church door
written by Martin Luther and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. It is vitally important to understand that these theses were used for the intent of displaying Luther’s displeasure with the Church’s indulgences
Diet of Worms
A meeting summoned by Charles V that commanded Martin Luther to abandon his ideas. Luther refused and was branded an outlaw.
French-born Swiss Protestant theologian who broke with the Roman Catholic Church (1533) and set forth the tenets of his theology, known today as Presbyterianism, in Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)., religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry’s death
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline. (p. 447)
Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus also known as the Jesuits
led Jesuit missionaries to Asia where by 1550 thousands of natives had been converted to Christianity in India, Indonesia, and Japan
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation