Kazakhstan and Pakistan
Globalization provides opportunities for developing countries to
progress economically and increase human development. This paper defines
the difference between economic development and human development and shows
that Pakistan is at the low end of human development, while Kazakhstan is
at and average level, considered a middle income country. Human development
goes beyond measures of GDP, literacy rates, and life expectancy. Factors
such as education, gender equality, welfare, and human rights are also very
In this paper we discuss the economic, social, and human development
of Kazakhstan and Pakistan in the era of globalization.
For the purpose of
this discussion, we treat economic, social, and human development as
essential the same, in contrast to economic growth of the respective
countries. The distinction between growth and development is important,
since we are focusing on the impact of globalization and development on
each country’s society.
Economic growth refers to the increasing ability of a nation to
produce more goods and services. Economic development implies that
individuals of that nation will be better off due to changes in economic
and social structures that will reduce or eliminate poverty. Economic
development can be measured in a number of different ways including the
Human Development Index, a Gender Empowerment Measure, a Human Poverty
Index and a Human Freedom Index. All of these measures were developed by
the United Nations Development Program.
Globalization can have both
negative and positive affects on a nation. It can impact levels of economic
growth a country may experience, impact levels of unemployment or impact a
country’s quality of life.
While, theoretically, having an increasing national output means
greater material welfare and a rise in living standards, it does not equate
to having higher levels of well being for individuals in that nation.
Economic growth can, in fact, have negative impacts on a nation including
environmental degradation and the loss of traditional cultural values. It
also may mean there is greater inequality between different classes in
society, that is, the gap between the rich and the poor may grow. It is for
these reasons that economic development measurements are also used.
Economic growth as a measure fails to account for other important
social and economic factors such as the size of the black market, domestic
work which is not given a financial value, the level of damage to the
environment and inequalities in income distribution. Various indicators
have been developed to compensate for the limitations of economic growth
measurements. Rather than just measuring the economic living standards in a
country, development indicators measure the welfare of individuals in that
country. The main development indicator used is the Human Development Index
(HDI), devised by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) to measure
the economic achievements of a nation in combining economic growth as well
as social welfare. The HDI takes into account three major factors:
. Life expectancy at birth: High levels of longevity are critical for a
country’s economic and social well being.
. Levels of educational attainment: The HDI measures adult literacy and
the ratio of people in primary, secondary and tertiary education.
. Gross Domestic Product per capita: seen as being a measurement of the
ability of people to access goods and services.
The HDI is essentially a score between 0 and 1. A score of 0 would
mean no human development has taken place and a score of 1 is the maximum
amount of human development.
In 2001, Kazakhstan and Pakistan were ranked
as number 76 and 144, respectively. Kazakhstan’s index was 0.765, which is
above the world average of 0.722, and can be considered a middle income
country with medium human development. The regional index for East Asia and
the Pacific coincides with the world average of 0.722.
Pakistan on the
other hand is ranked much lower at 144, with an index of 0.499. This
indicates that the country is far below the world average and even lower
than the average low income country with an index value of 0.561. It is
also in the category of low human development and does not even come close
the above mentioned regional average.
Globalization can impact a nation in a variety of ways.
effect of globalization for many nations is that it allows for them to
achieve higher levels of economic growth. With higher levels of trade,
world output will increase which should mean higher levels of economic
growth followed by increased standards of living. Globalization has also
affected unemployment rates. It has created millions of jobs throughout the
world. Twenty-seven million jobs worldwide .