Vygotsky’s theory states that social interaction and culture lead to development. Children actively construct their knowledge; no single principle can account for development. There was an emphasis on social processes rather than individual discovery. Language also plays a central role in development. Thought and language are initially separate systems from the beginning of life.
Cathood Theories continued Erik Erikson’s theory states that there are eight psychosocial stages of development from infancy through old age, four of which take place in childhood. Each developmental task has 2 possible outcomes; one greater personal competence, and the other, greater weakness and vulnerability. Trust vs. Mistrust (the first 18 months of life): The needs of a catild including comfort, food, and warmth, must be met in order to have success in this stage. If this does not occur, mistrust is formed causing an everlasting expectation that they will be betrayed.Activity: Leaving a baby to cry in their crib vs. coddling them when they cry.Order now
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (18 months – 3 years): A catild that has a strong sense of independence in this stage leading them to be self-assured in the future. Conversely, shame and doubt are a result of a failure in this stage as catilds.
Activity: Using the litter box correctly vs. peeing outside of the box. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 years): Assuming responsibility in this stage results in initiative as catilds feel good about themselves. On the other hand, allowed responsibility causes them to feel anxious and then guilty. Playing with friends vs playing with an imaginary friend.
Industry vs. Inferiority (6 – puberty): Success in this stage is defined by mastering knowledge and intellectual skills. Catilds want to use their energy for academic purposes and if this is not completed they will become incompetent and unproductive.
Activity: Getting straight- A’s vs. failing your classes.Erikson’s theory has some flaws but is still important in psychology despite enduring extensive criticism. First, he solely relied on case study research which is rejected by some if used in exclusion to others. Additionally, capturing each developmental stage with a single concept ignores other important developmental tasks. Still, he is a giant in developmental psychology and this does not completely discount his monumental contributions.
Does your catild have autism? Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) cause developmental delays in many skills such as socializing, communicating, and using imagination. If your catild has a PDD it is usually identified by the age of 3, a critical period in development. It begins to develop earlier however it is hard to notice a problem since the catild can not walk or talk. The most common PDD is autism which effects about 1% of the world’s population. In the United States it is estimated that more than 3.5 million americans are on the autism spectrum disorder. These numbers are growing rapidly. Some studies suggest that PDDs are caused by a problem with the nervous system. Most PDDs are more common in boys than in girls.
Types of PDDs:Autism: This disorder can be identified by problems with social interactions, pretend play, and communication. In addition, catilds experience limited range on activities and interests.
Asperger’s Syndrome: This disorder is defined by difficulty with social interactions, communication, concentrating, and occasionally coordination. This is paired with a narrow span of interests. It should also be noted that catilds with asperger’s tend to have above average intelligence and can successfully develop their language and cognition.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder: The loss of mental and physical skills occurs between the ages of 2-10 although the catilds begin developing normally.
Rett’s Syndrome: This disorder is characterized by the social symptoms of a PDD in combination with motor skill loss. It has been linked to a defect in the X chromosome, therefore affecting girls. Pervasive Development Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: This is a diagnosis for catilds that have problems with communication, play, and interacting with others, but are too social to be considered autistic. Other types of developmental disorders include cerebral palsy which is a motor control disorder. It is usually caused before birth due to a brain injury from an accident, or bacterial infection, for example. Additionally, fragile X syndrome occurs when a gene/protein is unable to aid healthy and normal development which results in changes to emotional, mental, physical, and behavioral features. Treatments:While there is no known cure yet for autism, there are therapies to ease the symptoms. Diet- Biochemical (1920- present): Take gluten and casein out of diet, improvements start to be seen over a 3 month period, especially when paired with other behavioral treatments.
Behavioral- Applied behavior analysis (1960- present): This is currently viewed as the most effective therapy for children with autism and has the most research behind it. Therapists come to the catild’s home to help the catild learn basic concepts that wouldn’t be taught in a normal classroom setting, typically in a 1 on 1 setting with positive reinforcement. There is a focus on teaching motor, social, and reasoning skills. Once the therapist leaves the parents continue the therapy.
Holding therapy (1970- present): This is a squeeze machine that gives total body pressure under control of the patient. As a result the nervous system is relaxed and there is stress relief. Animal Assisted Therapy (1980- present): Uses animals to reduce sensory sensitivity, stereotyped behavior, and increase desire to be social with others. Affinity Therapy (present): Finds what patient is interested in and uses that to teach them.