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DES 143 Final Vocab

Name four reasons why people wear clothes and give an example of each
• Protection
• Decoration
• Modesty
• Denote Status
What are the three main ways of constructing clothing? Describe how
these work and give an historical example of each method.
• Draped Dress: created by the arrangement around the body of pieces of fabric that are folded, pleated, pinned, and/or belted in different ways.
Usually fits loosely Egyptian/Greek
• Tailored Dress: Pieces are cut and sewn together, they fit the body more closely and provide greater warmth than draped garments; hence they are more likely to be warn in cool climates. Draped costume is more
characteristic of warm climates.
• Cut & Sewn: Tunic
Which textile fiber was most widely used in Mesopotamian costume?
Which in Egyptian costume? How did the use of each of these fibers contribute to the unique characteristics of the garments worn in each of
these civilizations?
Mesopotamian: WOOLà greater bulk and warmth than linen; clothes were designed to cover the body; easy to dye, sheep were readily available

Egyptian: LINENà A fabric that was comfortable in the heat of tropical climate and could be made into soft, sheer, drapable fabrics; wool was not considered clean and they were very hygienic; able to use for pleating

Name two factors that contributed to the differences between Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations and explain how they influenced the clothing worn.
1) Weather/climate- ex: in Egyptian culture, heads often shaved because weather was too hot and uncomfortable for long hairà use of wigs came about. Egyptian climate was standard throughout, whereas Mesopotamia had a variety of terrains with different weather.
2) Geography: Egyptians were bordered by the sea and desert, so they were protected from invaders and didn’t intermingle much with neighboring peoples/nations. Mesopotamian areas on the other hand were more easily accessed, and as a result there was more cross-cultural mixture
(ex: although different in ethnicity & language, Sumerians used and adapted to a lot of the Assyrian fashion and culture) (other: traditions,
religion)
Identify the means by which rank and status were identified in ancient Egyptian costume. Give examples of one type of costume or symbolic accessory, which would be worn by a) the lower classes, b) royalty, c) priests. Explain how you might recognize the class status within a visual image.
a) Lower class: plain white tunics with no decoration
b) Royalty: lots of jewelry, colored clothing, lock of youth, Postiche (king/royalty), pectoral necklace, sandals, uraeus (snake god, protective motif)
c) Priests: wore leopard/animal skins. Didn’t wear wool because it was considered unclean
Compare Minoan costume and culture with that of the later Greek periods.
Minoan: dress had flounces, peplos
• Tiny waist
• Perizoma (brief for men with codpiece?)
• No beards
• Wore perizomas
• Tightly rolled belt to make waist look small
• Might have been made from leather/iron
• Men depicted with long curly hair but rarely depicted with facial hair
• Seen wearing short skirts • Anklets, bare feet
• Three types of skirts for women:
o A skirt of uncertain construction that appears like a wide-legged trouser
o A flared skirt ornamented with horizontal bands of color
o A skirt made of tiers of ruffles
Greek: Wore chitons (doric, doric peplos-wool, and ionic)
• Loose hair
• Himations
• Chlamys
Describe the differences between the Doric Peplos, the Doric chiton
and the Ionic chiton
Doric peplos: highly patterned, less fabric, fitted (archaic style of chiton worn by women. Close fitting, made of wool, held together at shoulder with one straight pin)
• Doric chiton: no sleeves, loose fitting, linen, overfold at the top
• Ionic chiton: sleeves, patterned, linen, many Fibulas at shoulder (brooches)
Describe the clothing items worn by the typical Greek soldier
Chiton: worn underneath all the armor to protect the soldier from the metal
• Cuirass: breastplate made from leather/bronze. Plates were attached to fabric and held up by shoulder straps
• Greaves: shaped leather or metal plates that protected the legs
• Helmet: sometimes visored or masked; made from leather/bronze and had high crests to make the warriors look more fearsome
• Shield
• Leather sandals
Discuss some of the similarities and differences between Greek, Etruscan and Roman costume forms. In what ways did Greek costumes
influence Etruscan styles? In what way did Etruscan costumes influence
Roman styles?
Greeks:
• Clothing based much more on rectangular forms and emphasized draping
• Emphasized nudity of the body while Estruscans and Romans did not

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Estruscan 800BC-88BC
• Wore chitons like the Greeks, but Etruscan chitons were shorter with cut & sewn sleeves and used less fabric. They were more form fitting than
the cascading Greek chitons
• Estruscans had more distinctive wraps/cloaks for men that were made from wool
• The Etruscan tebenna (a woven garment with curved edges in a roughly semicircular/elliptical form) is thought to be forerunner of the ROMAN toga (which used to symbolize Roman citizenship)

Romans:
• Wore clothing similar to a chiton, which they called TUNICS. It is believed that they got these tunic chitons from the Etruscans (who got it from the Greeks)
• And yes, the toga DID find its origin from the Etruscan TEBENNA
• The Toga was an important piece of clothing, often used in Roan society to denote the status of people (citizenship, marital status, etc.)
• Similar to the Greek chitons, Roman togas has a HUGE array of styles and uses/symbolism AND it retained much of the draping similar to Greek draping

Greeks were more rectangular with their clothing, had lots of drapery and were okay with nudity. They also used mostly linens, which gave them the cascading effect

Etruscans and Romans used wool instead, which gave way to their heavier draperies. They also focused more on cut & sewn garments although some drapery is still evident. They also used more ornamentation and accessories
and in general just wore more clothing. They did not share the Greek appreciation of nudity.

Identify the Eastern influences incorporated into Byzantine costume.
Describe 3 ways Byzantine clothing differs dramatically from Roman.
Silk was incorporated, trade, sericulture-thanks to Constantinople’s strategic position on the Silk Road
• The designs were often of Persian origin and included a lot of depictions or Christian subjects
• Garments such as the clavis and toga that were used denote status became more ornamental and less about status
• Overall ornamentation of clothing was greatly emphasized. Lots of embroidery, applique, precious stones, and woven patterns seen on Byzantine garments
• After 1000 AD the tunics became more form fitting. Tunics with fitted sleeves would commonly be worn underneath shorter outer tunics with
wider sleeves. Hose (aka bifurcated garments) were worn under short tunics-this was considered barbaric during the reign of the Roman Empire
What effect did the geographical location of Constantinople have on the development of the Byzantine culture and textile industry?
Had to pass through Constantinople on the Mediterranean trade route so there was a lot of multi-cultural influence, including the use of silk…Sericulture (silk
production) soon became the dominant source of economics in the Byzantine empire. The emperor had a monopoly on silk and could charge enormous prices for Byzantine textiles.
What is the Bayeaux Tapestry? Why would a costume historian want to study this tapestry?
Not an actual tapestry but embroidered cloth, narrating different events in Western Europe beginning in 1064 AD. It depicts soldiers, peasants, kings, queens, commoners and their attire during that time period. A costume
historian would want to study it because it reveals what people during the era
actually wore on a day to day basis.
What were the Crusades? When did they begin? What effect did they have on clothing patterns and lifestyles of individuals in Europe?
The crusades were a series of Christian military expeditions sent out by various popes beginning in the 10th (1095) century to regain control of “The Holy Land” mainly Jerusalem) from the Muslims
• By the end of the crusades, new products and processes were imported to Europe. Crusaders learned technique of printing patterns on textiles. New Fabrics were brought back
• Food, spices, drugs, works of art were brought back as well
Trace the design of armor during the Middle Ages. Identify the effect changes in armor had on the development and use of other apparel items and grooming practices for men.
Chain-mail over tunic (protection)
• Poupoint (also called doublet or gipon): close-fitting, sleeveless garment with a padded front originated as military dress
• Cotehardie: variant of the surcote or outer tunic. Fitted at the waist, where I buttoned. It flared into a full skirt that was open at the front and was usually knee-length. Sleeves ended at the elbow and hung down like a tongue or longer flap
• Real armor
• Coats of plates: cloth or leather garment lined with metal plates
• Gambeson: padded undercoat that went over his close-fitting shirt, braise and hose
• Haubergeon: A shorter coat of mail went after
• Shape of the helmet became more rounded and still covered the entire face (leads to men keeping shorter, closer cropped haircuts. Long hair + stuffy helmets were very uncomfortable)
Explain the concept of “Parti Colored” clothing. Include in your answer a description of what it is, an example of how it might be used, as well as why and when this style came into fashion.
The search for unique patterns had led to the practice of sewing together sections of different-colored fabrics within one garment. Garments decorated in this way were called part-colored. 14th-15th century. Some examples of parti-colored hose show as many as 4 different colors in a single pair of hose. They were utilized in both men and women’s costume. Multi-colored and multi-patterned costumes resulting from the use of Heraldic devices that often recorded successive marriages of family.
What is a sumptuary law? Why were sumptuary laws passed? Why were sumptuary laws ineffective?
Laws passed attempting to limit the use of specific materials and forms of costume by the nobility. The prosperous merchant class did not always comply.
What time period is considered to be the beginning of the fashion system? What is meant by the term fashion? What are some of the events, which are credited for initiating this change?
Fashion is defined as “a pattern of change in which certain social forms enjoy temporary acceptance and respectability only to be replaced by others” “recurring cultural pattern found in societies having open ended class systems and noted that fashion becomes a matter of imitation of higher by lower classes in the common scramble for unstable and superficial status symbols.

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Open ended and imitation of higher classes are both aspects of medieval life in the 13th-15th centuries. Good evidence of vain attempts of the nobility to prevent the increasing affluent commoners from usurping those status symbols the nobility considered to be their own.

Name some of the reference materials (sources of evidence) costume historians use to decipher the past. Give at least 3 specific examples of source materials and the clothing item and time period they correspond with. What are some of the difficulties costume historians encounter when trying to determine information about historic clothing?
• Statues: Greek marble statues depicting people wearing chitons
• Paintings: Egyptian wall paintings depicting calasiris, Egyptian royalty wearing jewelry, Uraeus (snake god protective motif)
• Writing: Greek author Herodotus mentioning the story of doric peplos which used pins at the shoulders and women using those to stab messengers who brought news of a loved one’s death
• Mosaics: royal standard mosaic from 2600-2400 BC (war side/ peace side) depicts Kaunakeds

Much of the actual clothing itself has not survived over the years. Without the actual clothing and only renditions/depictions of them, historians can only
make assumptions, inferences, and educated guesses based on what HAS survived. Often, paintings and engravings only show clothing from the front,
which doesn’t give us all the information we need. Additionally, writing about clothing (such as in the middle ages) sometimes uses confusing terminology, different words are used for the same item of clothing or vice versa.

Explain the significance of slashing. What was it and how was it used? In what time period was it most prevalent?
Cutting or slitting the material of the garment to reveal the inner lining as a form of ornamentation, usually in sleeves or breeches
• It was most prevalent in (early) 16th century renaissance (specifically 1515-1530)
Why was it significant?
• Because it showed power and wealth
• The practice of slashing was introduced by Swiss army troops following their defeat of Charles the Bold (1433-1477), Duke of Burgundy, in 1477. As the tattered Swiss troops ransacked the villages of Burgundy, a region of present-day France, they cut up bits of tents and banners and threaded these scraps through holes in their own garments. The effect was to have brightly colored pieces of fabric poking out from underneath an outer garment. Upon return home, wealthy people begin to imitate the fashion and it soon caught on throughout Europe. Slashing remained popular in Europe through the 1500s.
Why is Spain the dominant political power in Northern Europe during the 16th century? What impact does Spain’s political power have on the clothing styles worn in European countries during the last part of the 16th century?
Charles V came into possession of large areas of land through various family connections, including the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, New World. Influx of gold from the new world caused “Golden Age of Spain”. Spain was very influential and powerful because of their wealth and prestige as a result of their exploration of the Americas, which led to political power and precious metals. They impacted the style through the use of their colors (black, white, silver and gold) higher collars, and more rigid, modest looks. Women’s dresses grew wider and bodices became more rigid. Spanish Farthingale, Spanish blackwork, ropa, bodices narrower.

Spain discovered the new world so they had more wealth.

Name 4 different types of headdresses used in any period up until 1790. We’ll define headdress as anything that sits on top of the natural head. Give: a) the correct term; b) the time period it was in use; c) how it was worn and who wore it; d) A description of the appearance including materials. You may also include a diagram.
English or Gable Hood: 16th century. Jeweled with biliments. Worn by Catherine of Aragon (wife of Henry VIII). Pointed in shape of Gable house with side panels called lappets and they were made to represent the houses of the time period
• French Hood: 16th century. Worn over coif and set a little further back on the head. Popularized by Anne Boleyn (wife of Henry VIII) More rounded in shape with a veil attached in the back and had jewels in the lining of the hood.
• Fontange: 17th century. Worn extended high above forehead and supported by a wire frame. Named after Madame Fontage (one of Louis XIV mistresses) It was an elaboration of the little white lingerie cap with tiers of ruffles, laces and ribbons. Fontange has lappets. Requires elaborate hairstyle to stay in place. Made of lace typically.
• Calash Bonnet: 18th century. Worn over powdered wigs outdoors. Worn by wealthy nobility. Named after French Carriages because of its collapsing ability. Typically made from silk with whalebone for structure.
Discuss the evolution of the ruff during Renaissance times. Who wore it, what was it made of, how was it made, and how did it change
over time?
During the mid to late 16th century the small, square collar at the neckline evolves into its own garment called the “ruff”, a starched piece of linen or lace. It grew in size, gaining the name the cartwheel ruff which required support from and underpropper. They were often the most expensive item worn. Many criticize it, saying it led to vanity and conspicuous consumption. A variation of the ruff that didn’t totally encircle the head was known as an open ruff or medici collar. As men’s style got more relaxed, many adopted the falling band collar version of the ruff which laid on the neck/shoulders and wasn’t rigid. Whisk or gollila collar of linen or lace laid on horizontally decreed by Philip IV of Spain to replace all other neckwear. Worn by the very wealthy, most prominent/popular styles of the time period were worn by queens/kings.

Made by taking the fabric and pleating it so that the pleats look like figure 8. Then it becomes lace…very expensive. Very stiff and wide.

Name 4 different types of headdresses used in any period up until 1790. We’ll define headdress as anything that sits on top of the natural head. Give: a) the correct term; b) the time period it was in use; c) how it was worn and who wore it; d) A description of the appearance including materials. You may also include a diagram.
English or Gable Hood: 16th century. Jeweled with biliments. Worn by Catherine of Aragon (wife of Henry VIII). Pointed in shape of Gable house with side panels called lappets and they were made to represent the
houses of the time period
• French Hood: 16th century. Worn over coif and set a little further back on the head. Popularized by Anne Boleyn (wife of Henry VIII) More rounded in shape with a veil attached in the back and had jewels in the
lining of the hood.
• Fontange: 17th century. Worn extended high above forehead and supported by a wire frame. Named after Madame Fontage (one of Louis XIV mistresses) It was an elaboration of the little white lingerie cap with tiers of ruffles, laces and ribbons. Fontange has lappets. Requires
elaborate hairstyle to stay in place. Made of lace typically.
• Calash Bonnet: 18th century. Worn over powdered wigs outdoors. Worn by wealthy nobility. Named after French Carriages because of its collapsing ability. Typically made from silk with whalebone for structure.
Discuss the evolution of the ruff during Renaissance times. Who wore it, what was it made of, how was it made, and how did it change over time?
During the mid to late 16th century the small, square collar at the neckline evolves into its own garment called the “ruff”, a starched piece of linen or lace. It grew in size, gaining the name the cartwheel ruff which required support from and underpropper. They were often the most expensive item worn. Many criticize it, saying it led to vanity and conspicuous consumption. A variation of the ruff that didn’t totally encircle the head was known as an open ruff or medici collar. As men’s style got more relaxed, many adopted the falling band collar version of the ruff which laid on the neck/shoulders and wasn’t rigid. Whisk or gollila collar of linen or lace laid on horizontally decreed by Philip IV of Spain to replace all other neckwear. Worn by the very wealthy, most prominent/popular styles of the time period were worn by queens/kings.

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Made by taking the fabric and pleating it so that the pleats look like figure 8. Then it becomes lace…very expensive. Very stiff and wide

Describe and discuss the evolution of female undergarments (everything worn under the outer garment) used by the upper classes during the Renaissance period. Discuss the garment shapes, the types of materials used, the purpose of these clothing items, and how these undergarments affected the overall appearance of the complete outfit. Give specific examples.
Chemise under gown, originally hidden and then begins to appear coming out of the neckline, laces and cuffs. Becomes highly embroidered/laced (blackwork) where it can be seen. Worn alone by peasants to work. Material:
smooth fine linen tays, corset like undergarment that provided shape. It flattened the breasts and shrunk the waistline. Busks made of wood or whalebone were inserted into the stays to provide more structure and shape

Farthingales hooped structures worn under skirts to widen and provide shape. Hoops and canes. Spanish=cone shaped, French=bell shaped

Also, used bum rolls (English) which were tied to waist to support the shape of the skirt.

Name four different styles of men’s breeches worn in the 16th or 17th centuries. Describe and draw a simple diagram of each style.
Pumpkin Breeches: enlarged and wider due to panes or panels of contrasting fabric and padded by bombast
• Venetians: typical knee breeches that were loose fitting and tapered in at the knee
• Canions: fitted tubular extensions that supplemented the abbreviated trunk hose
• Galligasikins or Slops: full trunk hose that resemble unpadded bloomers. Look like hip hop Bermuda shorts
• Petticoat Breeches: Almost like bubble skirt, and they don’t taper back like other breeches since they are so full in size
The 17th century is marked with continuing political unrest and social turmoil. Explain how this affected fashion and give specific details of military influences seen on clothing in the 17th century.
Social unrest led European rulers to establish absolute monarchies. The royal courts of European monarchs provided a stage for the display of the latest fashions. There was a lot of military influence in the men’s fashions. Men wore whisks or lace collars. Knee length breeches replaced trunk hose that occasionally had ruffles called canions at the knees. They wore their spurs on the heels. V shaped waistlines. Carried swords. Their shoes were often decorated with rosettes. Women-plain fabric, sleeves shorter, less full, deep neckline, falling brand
collar.
What are some of the significant changes in women’s clothing from the 16th to the 17th century? Describe the materials used and how the clothing was constructed and worn.
As for women’s styles, the old styles continued into the new century. A new style was not established until c. 1630. A softer silhouette with a slightly elevated waist replaced the wide farthingale. A wide lace collar edged the usually low neckline. Bodices lengthened and narrowed shaped into a long “v” at the front. Skirts were either open; showing a contrasting petticoat, or closed. Materials were similar, typically silk, however patterns became more minimal. Mantua developed.
Define the concept of conspicuous consumption and explain how it can influence clothing styles. Give at least three specific examples from the time periods between the 14th-18th centuries. Identify the time period in your
answer.
Spending of money for and acquiring luxury goods and services to publicly display economic power. 15th century=gloves or slashing, partlets. 16th century=ruff, cravat, 17th century=embroidery, mantua with long tiered train, red heeled mules, falling bad collar.
Who was Louis XIV? Explain how he influenced fashion; include specific details of styles prevalent during his time period.
Louis XIV was the king of France for 72 years and he and the French Court were considered the center of fashion during the beginning of the 18th century. He had many mistresses whom were also very influential to fashion during the times. Men in justacorps, waistcoats, breeches, hose, and periwigs. Women in mantua (full gown with attached pieces) with stays.

He moved to the palace of Versailles and this benefited him because he had control of what the Portuguese bought and wore, which meant that he had the control over the economy. This also led to his courtier to stop planning against him and focus more on the fashion.

Explain the different ways that information about fashion was disseminated during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. In an era without television, how did people know what was fashionable?
Fashion dolls, fashion plates and fashion magazines. In France, during the times of King Louis XIV, they looked to him, his French court, and his mistresses to know what was fashionable.

16th century: fashion dolls, fashion plates
17th century: fashion plates w/ fabric on them
18th century: magazines

Describe how each of the following affected or was interpreted in apparel styles during the 18th century
a. Rococo art movement Lighter, more refined/delicate. More pattern. Floral details, delicate embellishments

b. Anglomania Casual/leisure/informal wear, more practical

c. Marie Antoinette very trendy, even when it was damaging to her, distance herself from the French court/dress/customs (example of order of dress)

d. Madame de Pompadour set up salons that brought people together, wore silk satin fabrics, Rococo/brocaded fabrics, little delicate hairstyles (later a big poof hairdo was named after her), influential in French taste and fashions, maintains influence (face depicted on jewelry). Engageantes, lace necklace/choker

e. international trade Trade with the Far East brought Asian textiles to Europe providing luxurious silks and printed cottons for fashionable garments, inspired different garments

f. Macaroni Club members keeping up with fashion was important, especially for British dandies called Macaroni’s, whose styles were subject to Italian influences. They exaggerated fashions and implemented slimmer silhouettes that emphasized their physical features. They were known as the trendsetters
of their time.

Discuss the evolution in children’s clothing during the 17th and 18th
centuries. In
addition to describing the clothing styles include in your discussion a
commentary on the social forces and/or philosophical thought which
influenced the way in which children were dressed.
In the 17th century children were dressed similarly to female adults, regardless if they were a boy or girl. In the 18th century boys start dressing as boys and their garments become more relaxed/informal. People started to realize, the English especially, the practicality of clothing and how it needed to not only meet social needs but physical as well. They followed Rousseau’s teachings and saw kids as individuals and not mini adults. With the less restricting clothing, it was easier for them to play.
Describe the major differences between English style and French
style in the second half of the 18th century. What were some of the
factors that contributed to these different styles?
English=more casual, less formal
French Rococo style=more frivolous

Factors: Industrial Revolution
• French were more frivolous because they were center of fashion, court dress Crazy wigs
• England had different parliamentary system so more relaxed style

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DES 143 Final Vocab
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Name four reasons why people wear clothes and give an example of each
• Protection • Decoration • Modesty • Denote Status
What are the three main ways of constructing clothing? Describe how th
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DES 143 Final Vocab
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