AP Euro Renaissance and Middle Ages
What is the translated meaning of the word Renaissance?
What was being “rebirthed” with the Renaissance?
classical greek and roman culture and knowledge in western europe
What two classical cultures provided the influence for the Renaissance?
greek and roman
Geographically, where did the Renaissance begin?
western europe, italy
What kind of society was Renaissance Italy – urban or rural?
urban (social elite)
Be able to identify and define the following values of the Renaissance:
focuses on humans and their values, capacities, and worth. emphasized human potential to attain excellence and promoted direct study of the literature, art, and civilization of classical Greece and Rome.
emphasized human potential to attain excellence and promoted direct study of the literature, art, and civilization of classical Greece and Rome.
The act of introducing something new.
Religious skepticism or indifference. The view that religious considerations should be excluded from civil affairs or public education.
What is the meant by the Renaissance or universal man?
good at a lot of things. ie Leonardo da Vinci, painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, scientist
Explain the role of trade in the development of the Renaissance in Italy.
italian states (birthplace of the renaissance) increased trade in the med sea and the north atlantic seaboard. collapse of hanseatic league in the northern europe
What types of products allowed the Italian merchants to generate wealth?
silk, cotton, spices
What is a monopoly?
the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.
What was the Hanseatic League?
confederation of merchant guilds and their market town. dominated baltic maritime trade and coast of n europe
How did the fall of the Hanseatic League aid the Italian states in trade?
trade profit was spread and not given exclusively to the League.
What were some of the new industries that developed in the Italian states?
textiles (wool, silk), printing, mining, metallurgy, glass, weapons
What Italian city became the new banking city of Europe?
What Italian family dominated the Italian banking industry?
What were the five major Italian states at the beginning of the Renaissance?
Venice, Genoa, Florence, Milan, Papal States
What type of government did each have?
Republic (people and elected reps. limited republic, multiple dominic families)
What was the Peace of Lodi (1454)?
ended warfare between italian states
What does phrase “balance of power” mean?
literal meaning, so no one person or group has too much power. supposed to prevent war
What two European powers entered into Italian politics and upset the balance of power?
France and Spain
What is the name of Machiavelli’s book?
What is the focus of Machiavelli’s book?
power acquisition and expansion of political power. leadership
What do the following phrases mean?
“By any means necessary.”
“The end justifies the means.”
A good outcome excuses any wrongs committed to attain it.
What role does morality play in Machiavelli’s philosophy?
moral when he can; immoral when he needs to be
According to Machiavelli, what is the status of man’s human nature?
What subjects make up the humanities and the liberal arts?
Mathematics, astronomy (science), music
Who is considered the “father of Italian humanism”?
Who was the biggest influence on Petrarch?
haha you gave away the last answer. anyways, Cicero a Roman author
What two classical civilizations did humanists study?
Greek and Roman
What is civic humanism?
intellectual movement of italian renaissance where cicero, intellectual and statesman, though humanists should be involved in government and use rhetorical training in state services
According to civic humanists what should humanist scholars do?
should be involved in government and use rhetorical training in state services, live an active life for their state
According to Valla, what language should humanist scholars use in their writings?
What Greek philosopher was the biggest influence on the Neoplatonists?
According to Ficino, what was the true end of human existence?
to ascend toward union w/ God
According to Ficino, what was Platonic love?
just like people are bound in common humanity by love, so is the universe
What is hermeticism?
intellectual movement 15th cent, taught divinity is in all aspects of nature; alchemy magic, theology, philosophy. continued to 17th cent and influenced scientific revolution
According to Mirandola, what is the potential of mankind?
unlimited, humans get what they choose to be what they will
What was the study of the liberal arts intended to create?
to have people with wisdom and virtue encourage others to be like them
What did Vittorino add to the traditional study of the liberal arts?
physical ed. javelin, archery, running hunting, etc)
What did humanist scholars/historians emphasize as the cause of human events?
What did Guicciardini use to analyze historical and political events?
political and military history via personal examples and documentary sources (evidence)
What is Johannes Guttenberg given credit for inventing?
What was the first book printed using movable metal type?
What was the impact of the printing press?
made the printing process easier
Identify and define the six characteristics of Renaissance art:
Elements of equal emphasis (symmetry), focal point, or center point of interest
Geometric and parallel perspective adding a three dimensional quality in PAINTING. creating a sense of depth
Life like human and animal anatomy, realistic shading, realistic natural landscapes
Portrayal of human nature/behavior and emotion and other human characteristics
Focus on Biblical stories or figures (heroes). However, religious message downplayed. Humanization of the divine – giving human characteristics to Biblical figures
Greece and Rome –
Greek and Roman mythological heroes and stories
Be able to apply the six characteristics of Renaissance art to major works of art of the Renaissance.
Renaissance art and artists:
see hyperlinks in ppts. matching
The Sacrifice of Isaac; the doors of Florentine baptistery
The Expulsion; the Tribute Money
The Dome of the Florence cathedral; the church of San Lorenzo
Leonardo da Vinci
The Vitruvian Man; the Last Supper; the Battle of Anghiari
The School of Athens
The Pietas; the David, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; the Last Judgment;
Jan van Eyck
Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
Peter Bruegel the Elder
The Peasant Wedding; the Harvesters
What were some of the distinctive characteristics of the art of the early Renaissance?
perspective, relationship between people and landscape. human body, nude, human emotion, self portrait. apply to artwork
What were some of the distinctive characteristics of the art of the high Renaissance?
“mastery” perspective, idealization of nature and human form through use of accurate art. Rome – cultural center of ren cuz of art. popes – major patrons of artists
How did the style of the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian artists?
N: detail – mirror thing. christ-like portrait thing. everyday life I:not as much detail. no everyd
What is meant by the term “the new monarchies of Europe” during the Renaissance?
the idea of the centralized monarchal state (ruling of a king over a large territory, aided by development of allegiance to a nation state (country) and a reduction in power of nobility
Explain how the following states fit or do not fit the definition of the “new monarchy”:
1450s civil wars. lancasterv’s york (wars of rises). 1485 – Yorks defeated henry tudor established new tudor dynasty. did not have army, so relied on nobles to get troops. king henry got $ from crown lands, judicial fees/fees, and custom duties. won favor of middle class not taxing them. He could leave england w/ stable and prosperous gov’t and enhanced status for monarchy
aragon and castile – strongest independent christian kingdoms of middle ages. west – portugal, north – navarre south – granada (muslim). isabella (castile) ferdinand (argon) married – unification of spain. instituted military, forced jews and muslims out. middle class lawyers in gov’t. didnt let pope choose officials. persecution led Jews to convert to christianity. they expelled all professed jews from spain (150k/200k fled). battled muslims to protect granada. 1502 – isabella expelled muslims. to be spanish was to be catholic
The Holy Roman Empire –
they didn’t develop a strong monarchy authority. they didn’t rise up w power. the marriages, rather than military success, is what brought about they success of the hapsburgs
What group completely ended the existence of the Ottoman Empire with the takeover of the city of Constantinople?
the ottomans conquered constantinople and eliminated byz empire
Where was John Wyclif from?
What were the key beliefs of Wyclif?
that there was no basis in Scripture for papal claims of temporal authority and advocated that the popes be stripped of their authority and their property
Whose power and authority did the teachings of Wyclif directly challenge?
What were the followers of Wyclif called?
Where was John Hus from?
Prague Czech Republic
What were the major criticisms of Hus of the Catholic Church in Bohemia?
the worldliness and corruption of the clergy and the excessive power of the papacy within the Catholic Church. Many clergymen were also German, and native Czechs resented them dominating Bohemia
What were the followers of Hus called?
What was the response of the Roman Catholic Church to the criticisms of Hus?
They summoned him to council and arrested him, condemned as a heretic. he was burned at stake
What was stated in the following documents of the Roman Catholic Church and how did these documents affect the power of the Roman Catholic Church:
a general council of the church received authority from God
it held all of the general councils and ensured that church reform would continue
that appeals to a council over the head of a pope were heretical
What were some of the general criticisms of the Roman Catholic Church during the period of the Renaissance?
the ways they pursued interests in the Papal States and Italian politics, including bloodshed, and leading armies against enemies
What was the Little Ice Age?
a period of cooling after the Medieval Warm Period
What was the effect of the Little Ice Age on Europe?
Shortened growing seasons and disastrous weather conditions, including severe storms and constant rain, leading to widespread famine and hunger
What was the relationship between food production and population by 1300? How did the famine and malnutrition contribute to the effects of the Black Death?
Europe reached full capacity they could support w/ current agricultural production and farmed all land possible
Where did the Black Death originate?
The bubonic plague form spread from black rates infested w/ yersinia pestis bacterium w/ fleas in Asia
How did the Black Death move from Asia to central and western Europe?
from black rates infested w/ yersinia pestis bacterium w/ fleas
What animal / bug were responsible for passing the plague into the European cities?
fleas on rats
What were the two major types of plague (the Black Death)?
bubonic and pneumonic
What were the symptoms of each type of plague?
bubonic: high fever, aching joints, swelling of the lymph nodes, and dark blotches caused by bleeding beneath the skin. pneumonic: bacterial infection spread to the lungs, resulting in severe coughing, bloody sputum, and the relatively easy spread of the bacillus from human to human by coughing.
How or Why did the Black Death receive its name?
because of the dark patches on the skin caused by subcutaneous bleeding
How much of Europe’s population was lost to the plague between 1347-1351?
25 – 50
Examine the map entitled “the Spread of the Black Death” – how would you describe the pattern for the spread of the Black Death through Europe?
starts in Sicily (for europe) and makes it’s way going counter-clockwise snaking around and through Europe
How did the plague affect the way people lived their life knowing that they could die quickly?
people began to live for the moment; some threw themselves with abandon into sexual and alcoholic orgies
According to contemporaries, what were some of the theories to the cause of the plague?
1.God sent people to spread it because of unfair human behavior. 2. a fume released from an earthquake started it because these fumes have been proven to be contaminated and dangerous. 3. jews wanted to kill christians, so they poisoned well/springs
Who were the flagellants?
those who resorted to extreme asceticism to cleanse themselves of sin.
What did the flagellants do to gain forgiveness for man’s sins?
What actions did the flagellants commit that led to their condemnation by Pope Clement VI?
scourged themselves, created mass hysteria, killed jews and attacked opposing clergy. thought plague was 2nd coming
What are pogroms?
worst organized massacres
What happened to Jews during the time of the Black Death?
they were thought to have poisoned wells and were killed, many by cremation
To where did many of Europe’s Jews flee to escape persecution?
Russia and especially to Poland, where the king offered them protection. Eastern Europe became home to large Jewish communities.
How did plague affect labor in Europe?
labor went down so prices for labor went up
What did laborers begin to demand because of the plague?
more money for their work
What happened to the incomes of aristocrats because of the plague?
dropped more than 20%
What was the general cause of the peasant revolts in both France and England?
wanted higher wages and economical stances issues along with culture tensions
How did the nobles deal with the demands of the peasants and the revolts?
complied initially, but then took them away
Why did the workers in the Italian cities revolt?
the woolen industry depressed, but the wool workers saw their real wages decline when the coinage in which they were paid was debased.
How did the Italian nobles deal with the urban revolts?
the people got some rights, like participation in government, but those were also taken away
What two countries fought in the Hundred Years War?
england and france
What did the king of England, Edward III, claim to have over France?
all the French territories previously held by the English monarchy except for the duchy of Gascony.
What territory did Philip VI seize from Edward III that was the immediate cause of the Hundred Years War?
the duchy of Gascony (edward wouldn’t give it to him so he seized it)
Which country won at the Battle of Crecy?
english, much better prepared; french just attacked
What weapon gave the English an advantage at the battle?
Which country won the Battle of Poitiers?
england yet again. last battle of phase I of the war
According to the Peace of Bretigny
What did King Edward renounce?
his claims to the throne of France in return for John’s promise to give up control over English lands in France.
What happened to the size of Gascony?
Which country won the Battle of Agincourt?
english. only lost 300 and french lost 6,000
What additional territory did the English reconquer after Agincourt?
Normandy and they forged an alliance with the duke of Burgundy, which led Charles VI to agree to the Treaty of Troyes
What did the King of England, Henry V, receive from the Treaty of Troyes?
was married to Catherine, daughter of Charles VI, and recognized as the heir to the French throne.
What peasant woman “saved” France and the French king?
Joan of Arc
Who inspired this peasant woman?
her faith and her favorite saints. if you mean who did she inspire, it’s the french army
Who became the King of France after being inspired by the military leadership of Joan of Arc?
the son of charles VI, who wasn’t the official heir because of ToT.
After the English captured Joan of Arc, what was she accused of by the Inquisition?
What happened to Joan?
she was burned at the stake
Which country eventually won the Hundred Years War?
What weapon aided the French in their victory over the English?
What power did the English Parliament gain as a result of the Hundred Years War?
control of taxes; king edward couldn’t levy a direct tax w/o parliament’s consent
What are the two houses of Parliament?
the House of Lords and House of Commons
According to the Golden Bull issued by Charles IV, how was the Holy Roman Emperor elected?
four lay princes and three ecclesiastical rulers would elect the emperor. keeps german states a conferderation
What was the major conflict between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV of France that began the events leading to the Great Schism?
representative of the Roman pope excommunicated the patriarch of Constantinople, and the patriarch excommunicated the Roman pope in return.That dual excommunication caused a formal split within the Christian church, dividing it into the Eastern Orthodox Church based in Constantinople and the Western Catholic Church
What did Pope Boniface VIII state in the papal bull, Unam Sanctam?
that the bible says christians should have power of spiritual and material things , both managed by knights and kings but controlled by priests/pope
What did Pope Boniface VIII do to Philip IV after the issuance of Unam Sanctum?
he wanted to excommunicate him and take over temporal authority
How did Philip IV respond to the actions of Boniface VIII?
but king sent a small contingent of French forces to capture Boniface and bring him back to France for trial
Who was elected to the papacy after the death of Boniface?
clement V in avignon
What was unique about the new pope?
Where did the new pope move after being elected to the papacy?
Avignon, lay just across the river from the territory of King Philip IV, so it seemed the french were in control of papacy
What city had been the traditional seat of power of the papacy?
What is the Petrine Doctrine?
belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by Christ that has since passed on to each Pope.
Why did people believe that the pope was under the control of the French king?
avignon is very close to french lands and 113 of 134 new cardinals were french
What did the citizens of Rome demand after the death of Pope Gregory IX?
threatened that the cardinals would not leave Rome alive unless they elected a Roman or at least an Italian as pope
Who was elected to the papacy?
italian Pope Urban VI
How did the French cardinals respond to the election of Urban VI?
cardinals (the French ones) withdrew from Rome in late summer and were finally free of the Roman mob, they issued a manifesto, saying that they had been coerced by the mob and that Urban’s election was therefore null and void. elected their own clement VII as new pope
What was the Great Schism of the Roman Catholic Church?
the issue with having two popes
What is a schism?
a split or division between strongly opposed sections or parties, caused by differences in opinion or belief.
What was the first Great Schism of Christianity?
same things as 106
How did the Great Schism reflect the political divisions of the European countries?
the countries were all split up in 2 parts because of the 2 popes and allies of countries will follow them and enemies will follow the other
What were the main arguments of Marsiglio in Defender of the Peace with regards to papal power and authority?
denied that the temporal authority was subject to the spiritual authority, as many popes had maintained. Instead, he argued that the church was only one element of society and must confine itself solely to spiritual functions. Furthermore, Marsiglio argued, the church is a community of the faithful in which all authority is ultimately derived from the entire community. The clergy hold no special authority from God but serve only to administer the affairs of the church on behalf of all Christians. Thus, final authority in spiritual matters must reside not with the pope but with a general church council representing all members.
What was conciliarism?
a movement in fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Europe that held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with a general church council, not the pope. It emerged in response to the Avignon papacy and the Great Schism and was used to justify the summoning of the Council of Constance
How did the Great Schism finally end?
after the three competing popes either resigned or were deposed, a new conclave elected Cardinal Oddone Colonna, a member of a prominent Roman family, as Pope Martin V
How did the Great Schism affect the spiritual activity of people with regards to salvation?
lead to a decline in prestige and respect for the institutional church, especially the papacy, so good works were being practice
Why did people begin doing good works?
to be seen in good light from God and go to heaven
What is a pilgrimage?
a journey, especially a long one, made to some sacred place as an act of religious devotion
What is salvation?
being saved, from sin and the devil especially, leading to heaven
What is mysticism?
immediate experience of oneness with God (RCC)
What did the Modern Devotion movement encourage people to do in order to find salvation?
serve needs of others (-Groote)
What is vernacular?
the everyday language of a region, as distinguished from a language used for special purposes.
What was the language of the Roman Catholic Church?
Consequently, what language were most books and essays printed in during the Middle Ages?
latin but vernacular was common like vernacular italian
What book(s) did Dante author?
How do Dante’s books reflect the Middle Ages?
its his journey through hell, very religious
How do Dante’s books reflect the Renaissance?
it’s humanistic because he knows some of the people and stuff
What did Petrarch author?
he wrote many sonnets
What was the focus of Boccaccio’s Decameron?
it is in the time of black death and reflects christian morals and values
What was the focus of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales?
told by a group of twenty-nine pilgrims journeying from the London suburb of Southwark to the tomb of Saint Thomas à Becket at Canterbury. english society, corruption of church
What new characteristics of painting began to appear in the art of Giotto?
realism – emotion in the people’s faces, more attention to detail in general
What were the impacts of the following Middle Ages inventions:
Clocks revolutionized use of time. time was determined by natural rhythms (daybreak and nightfall) or church bells that were rung at three-hour intervals, corresponding to the ecclesiastical offices of the church. planning and organizing.
were expensive. the high cost of parchment forced people to write in extremely small script; eyeglasses made it more readable.
parchment -> cheaper paper made from cotton rags. more subject to insect and water damage than parchment, but medieval paper was actually superior to modern papers made of high-acid wood pulp.
Gunpowder and Cannons
Gunpowder and cannons made castles, city walls, and armored knights obsolete.
How did the following events begin to weaken the system of feudalism of the Middle Ages: ??
The Black Death
peasants got better wages and freedom
The Hundred Years War
The peasant warriors were very prevalent in the battles (crecy, etc)
The Cannon and gunpowder
armor wasn’t effective anymore, professional armies instead of knights