cultural achievements of the fourteenth through sixteenth centuries. Economic growth laid the basis for this to happen. It was a rebirth of artistic energies
Name the 5 major Italian city-states
Kingdom of Naples, Papal States, Republic of Venice, Republic of Florence, Duchy of Milan
this city-state was the first artistic and literary manifestations of the Italian Renaissance
Florence’s Way of Making Money
towards the end of the 13th century merchants and bankers form Florence acquired control of the Papal banking. They had offices all over Europe; the profits from loans, investments, and money exchanges would come back into Florence’s urban industries
the reputation of King Edward III of England’s debts forced only some into bankruptcy. The Black Death and Ciompi Revolts of 1378 shook politics a lot but the banking only some. They had driving enterprise, technical know-how , and were very competitive. All of that helped them to stay on top
Northern Italian cities that were associations of free men seeking absolute political and economic independence from local nobles. The merchant guilds formed the communities and built and maintained city walls, regulated trad, raised taxes, and kept civil order. Many communes came up in Milan, Florence, Genoa, Sienna, and Pisa. They all had to win independence form feudal nobles. Many nobles settled in communes and married mercantile aristocracy, creating a new social class, urban nobility. The Urban Nobility made commune citizenship dependent on property qualification, years of residence in the city, and social connections. Only a tiny percentage of males had these qualifications to vote and hold office.
these people hated that they couldn’t vote and were heavily taxed, and wanted to gain power. They wanted places in the government and equal taxation. During the 13th century, they used armed force and violence to take over city governments and replace them with Republican governments. This was done in Bologna, Sienna, Parma, Florence, Genoa, and other cities. However, they practiced the same political influence to the classes below them; poor, unskilled, or new immigrants. They never won over other groups’ support and couldn’t establish civil order within their cities
despots or 1-man rulers. The despots pretended to observe the law while actually manipulating it to conceal their basic illegality
rule of merchant aristocrats. They had constitutions but through schemes, a small, unrestricted class of wealthy merchants had all the judicial executive, and legislative functions. In 1422, Venice had a population of 84,000 but only 200 men had the power. Florence had 40,000 but 600 men ruled
popular by depots and oligarchs in the 15th century. It was the area where the prince made laws, received ambassadors, made appointments, and took meals. It allowed despots or oligarchs to show their wealth
Why did Italy remain dis-unified?
people were passionately attached by political loyalty and they loved their local feeling
Government of Venice
they had a constitution and were a Republic by name but an oligarchy of merchant aristocrats ran the city
Government of Milan
also called a Republic but the despots of the Sforza family ruled harshly and dominated the smaller Northern cities
Government of Florence
government was a Republican with power in several councils of state. However, between 1434-1494 the power was in the Medici family. Though not publicly Cosimo (1434-1464) and Lorenzo (1469-1492) ruled behind the scenes
Government of Papal States
during Babylonian Captivity many Roman families ruled. Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503) and son Cesare Borgia reasserted the papal authority in their lands
Government of Naples
it was disputed between the Aragonese and French in 1435 it was given to Aragon
Pope Alexander VI
from 1492-1503 he aided militarily and politically through his son Cesare Borgia in the Papal States
Pope Alexander VI illegitimate son. He was the hero in “The Prince” because he wanted to unite Italy by conquering and exacting obedience form the people in the Papal States
How was Italy different from states in Northern Europe?
The major Italian city-states (Florence, Milan, Venice, Papal States, and Naples) controlled the smaller states (Sienna, Mantua, Ferrara, and Modena). The major ones competed against each other to gain teritoy in the smaller ones. Northern Europe was moving to civilization but Italy was a jungle wher the powerful dominated the weak
How was the balance of power principle illustrated in Italian city- states?
When one state was gaining too much power, the other states combined to make a balance of power against the big threat. They would shift alliances (this happened till 1494). After that (1494) they put embassies with resident ambassadors in capitals where political and commercial ties needed to be monitored
What was the Peace of Lodi (1454)
in 1454 Venice went to war vs. Milan for Francesco Sforza’s title of Duke of Milan. Cosimo de’ Medici of Florence (a supporter of Florentine- Venetian alliances) aided Milan. Florence and Naples also went against Venice and the Papal States. At the Peace treaty, Venice gained territories for recognizing Sforza’s right to the Duchy.
What major diplomatic innovation came out of the Peace of Lodi?
Modern diplomacy. Permanent embassies with resident ambassadors in capitals where political and commercial issues need to be monitored
(1452-1498) a Dominican Friar who predicted the French invasion of Florence. In his sermons he attacked paganism and moral vice of the city (Milan) the undemocratic government of Lorenzo de’ Medici, and Pope Alexander VI corruption. Ordinary people backed him, he became Florence’s religious leader, and contributed to Medici’s falling. However, the people grew tired of him, he was excommunicated by the Pope and executed. He showed that not all people shared the worldly outlook of the elite and there was much internal state instablilty
Charles VIII (r.1483-1498)
French King who invaded Italy in 1494. He went down the peninsula with little problems, and Florence, Rome, and Naples soon fell before him
Hapsburg- Valois Wars
between Spanish and French. ends in 1599 with a Spanish victory. They often battled in Italy.
in 1519 he was crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Under his reign the cities suffered from war, especially in the sack of Rome in 1527 by imperial forces under him