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Dance Apprec Final Exam

Katherine Dunham
-classically trained in ballet
-Travelled to West Africa& Haiti, movement shaped by these experiences
-own dance company
-Afro-Caribbean and Modern Dance movement
-influenced jazz, “Mother of Black Dance”
Alvin Ailey
-student of Lester Horton
-started own company in 1950s
-combines modern, jazz, and world ethnic dance
-choreographed Revelations
Talley Beatty
-member of Katherine Dunham Dance Company
-blend of modern and jazz w/ African American themes
-The Road of the Phoebe Show (1959) life on railroad line
-formed own touring company
Dance Apprec Final Exam

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Garth Fagan
-Jamaican born
-Studied w/ Graham, Ailey, and Pearl Primus
-blends modern, jazz and world dance
-Choreographed the Lion King on Broadway
Pearl Primus
-brought attention to African and Afro-Caribbean dance in 1940s
-repertory based on African traditions and “mastered” native dances
-director of first performing arts organization of its kind in 1961 on African continent
-Strange Fruit
Modern dance today
-border between modern dance and classical ballet is blurred
-Many contemporary choreographers cross over to different genres
Tap dance
-a rhythmic, percussive dance style performed wearing shoes w/ metal taps and executing intricate footwork
-first influences dance back to 16th century
-blend of Irish Jig, African dance, and European folk dance
-First appeared in Minstrel Shows
Minstrel Shows
-parodies of black culture, often in ‘blackface’
-African Americans began performing after the Civil War
-popular form of entertainment by 1900 because of variety of performers and family oriented theaters
Nicholas Brothers
“Stormy Weather”
-rhythmic style and flashy
Bill ‘Bojangles’ Robinson
-soft shoe style
-First black performer to have regular employment in white theaters
Fred Astaire
-Broadway/Ballroom style “class act”
Gregory Hines
-known for rhythmic tap and improvisational skills
-found fame during tap renaissance of the 1980s
-starred in many tap films
Savion Glover
-known for “hard core tap rap”
-Bring in da Noise, Bring in da Funk
“Jazz Age” and Vaudeville
-many film stars got started in Vaudeville and transitioned to Broadway
soundscape of Vaudeville era and first ‘jazz music’ w/ polyrhythms and freer style of play or improvisation
Jazz dance
“melting pot” of ballet, tap, social, ethnic, and modern dance forms
-first influences back to 17th century w/ African Slave trade
-influenced by groundedness of African dance
-emotional response to social occurrences
Beginning of Jazz music
in New Orleans. Syncopated rhythms w/ a strong beat (ragtime) and the blues in Chicago
Characteristics of jazz
-syncopated rhythms and music
-high energy
-fusion of many social dance forms, ballet and modern
-use of isolation
-changes w/ times
Harlem Renaissance
-exclusive clubs opened for high society whites
-Charleston, Blackbottom, Lindy Hop
-jazz dance inseparable from jazz music
-African American dancers and singers
-Savoy ballroom: no color lines, up to 7 bands every night
-Vaudeville circuit became obsolete w/ TV, radio, Broadway and film
-major events changed context of jazz dance
-dance moved northward, evolved to swing and ballroom
Jack Cole
-set standard for theatrical jazz
-“Father of Theatrical Jazz Dance”
-innovative technique using movements from Indian and Asian cultures
-never stopped moving
-invisible barre
4 pioneers of jazz
Jack Cole, Luigi, Matt Mattox, Gus Giordano
Matt Mattox
-powerful&challenging choreography
-created own syllabus and barre
Gus Giordano
-style emphasized strength and undulating movement from pelvis, chest and arms
-Anthology of American Jazz Dance
Bob Fosse
-famous for style of turned in knees, use of isolations, slouched shoulders, and precision of movement
-dancer, director and choreographer for Broadway, film and TV
-Chicago, Sweet Charity, Damn Yankees
-sensual style of choreography
The Black Cook was the first theatre piece to use dance to further the storyline
Shuffle Along became the first African American musical
Josephine Baker
popularized the Charleston, Blackbottom, and many other social dances of the 20s
Seymour Felix instituted the design of lyrics, script, music, and dance as equal partnerships
Gene Kelly
sense of athleticism and well-trained dancer, considered himself a dancer who happened to tap but not a tap dancer
Agnes DeMille
Oklahoma choreographer
Jerome Robbins
choreographed West Side Story
Michael Bennett
choreographed A Chorus Line
Susan Stroman
choreographed Contact
Social dance (6)
-reflective of the culture its in
-varies between cultures
-can be individual, group, w/ partner
-gender, race, and age can determine who dances
-traditional forms constantly evolving
-many forms have changed entirely due to social acceptance
Lindy Hop
-Created in Harlem nightclubs of the 1930’s
-Frankie Manning
-Athletic, fast paced, done w/ partner
-developed in African American communities
-led to Jitterbug of 1940s and Hustle of 1970s
-when white community did it: slower/less tricky
-known as “swing dance”
Ballroom dance
-originated in the 1950s
-more conservative
-Has roots in European, African, and South American dance
-has migrated to all parts of the world
-Originally performed exclusively by white dancers
-many hip movements omitted and balletic moves added in
Rock n Roll
-conservatism was abandoned by the younger generation
-white youths mimicked movements of black American singers
-Chuck Berry, Chubby Checker, Little Richard
-The Twist, the Monkey, Mashed Potato, Frug
Freestyle dancing
-emerged in late 1960s
-direct reflection of times: Civil Rights Movement, Vietnam War, illegal drug use (Woodstock)
-overwhelming feeling of freedom
-new music and merge developed in 1970s
-Bus Stop
-Partner dancing popularized due to movies like Saturday Night Fever
-Set the scene: nightclubs, glamor, romance
Hip Hop/Break dancing
-emerged in 1970s, popular in 1980s
-rap music, MTV
-became a voice for inner city minority groups
-often associated w/ graffiti art, DJ, certain fashion, language
Hip hop
-developed as a form of “street dance”
-African and jazz vocabulary with a new improvisational movement
-often adopted as a professional or concert dance form
Break dancing
-mainstream in 1983 from Flashdance movie
-was initially done by gangs as form of competition
-Virtuosity, B-Boys B-Girls
-popping and locking
-short, flashy demonstrations
-street style
Other social dance forms
-Slam Dancing/Moshing developed in 1980s
-Music video and pop culture dancing
-Rave dancing
-Competitive dance on TV shows
Dance today
-crosses all dance genres, world concert dance forms, folk dances, and performance art
-wide variety and unpredictability for audiences
-reaches more audiences
-constantly changing w/ times
-hard to categorize by genre
-old traditions always revitalized
-vocabulary&language changing
-Technology/film/internet have changed how its filmed and viewed
-new wave of dance fusion genres
Characteristics of dance today (7)
1)blend of theatrical dance forms, cultural folk dances, athleticism and minimalism
2)technique very specific to choreographer’s vision
3)subject matter is limitless
4)environments of where dance is performed is in correlation with the choreography
5)blurred gender lines
6)less restraints on costuming
7)extensive use of technology and imagery
-formed in 1971 as a result of an improvisational class at Dartmouth
-focus on collaboration to create works that are athletic, visually stimulating, and rely on the human body
-created by Moses Pendleton in 1981 after he split from Pilobolus
-more acrobatic and circus-like
Bill T. Jones
-combines energetic, forceful movement w/ film and dialogue
-many pieces based on his personal experiences
Mark Morris
-combines European folk dance, classical music, and storytelling in his choreography
-known for his ‘gender jokes’ and humor in subject matter
Pina Bausch
Proponent of Tanztheatre, a form of expressionalist and dramatic dance
Jump Rhythm Jazz Project
-created by Billy Siegenfeld in 1980 in Chicago
-one of the only jazz specific companies still in existence in the US today
-focuses on ‘rhythm first’ method of choreography and performance
Mia Michaels
-known for her choreography and serves as a guest judge on So You Think You Can Dance
-has Emmy awards for her contemporary style of choreography
Dance Styles&Genres of the 21st century
Improvisation, Creative Movement, Contemporary Dance, Lyrical Dance
-individualized movement dependent on the dancer
-often called organic or authentic movement
-relies on trail and error, experimental learning
-spontaneous and educational
Creative Movement
-similar to improvisation but different in that it is about the exploration of ideas
-process not product
Contemporary Dance
-fusion of jazz and modern
-limitless music, subject matter
Lyrical dance
fusion of ballet and jazz
Artistic Director
-responsible for the overall aesthetic and artistic vision of the company
-makes all decisions relative to artistic issues
-choreography or hiring other choreographers
Stage Manager
-“calling the show”
-gives direction for sound and lighting cues
-assumes a majority of the responsibility once the show is underway
Lighting designer
-helps to provide a theatrical feel to the atmosphere
-blend of practicality and artistry
costume designer
-designs, constructs costumes for dance shows
-gives audience insight into characters
-has to keep mobility in mind
-may also be responsible for hair and makeup
set/scenic designer
-have been collaborating w/ choreographers since 16th century
-set would enhance vision and mood of the show
-one of the most important collaborators
-live/original score versus pre-recorded
-financial constraints
Careers in dance
-teacher:university education
-program/managing director
-private studio owners and teachers:
based on personal philosophy, requires payment for lessons
Serge Diaghilev’s Choreographers
Najinsky, Balanchine, and Fokine
A famous work of Martha Graham’s that depicts life on the frontier
Appalachian Spring
Modern Dance is based on the characteristics of
free use of torso and limbs and use of parallel
Michel Fokine
a choreographer for Ballet Russes and created 5 reformation principles to govern choreography
“star system”
developed by Petipa and created a castle system of dancers in the Classical Period
First Romantic Ballet
La Sylphide
Some of the Five Major Principles of Govern Ballet Choreography
create new forms of movement for each period, eliminate pantomime entirely, and ballets should be a collaborative effort
Ballet Comique de La Reine
was considered the first ballet because it centered around one theme
The most popular classical ballet
Swan Lake, choreographed by Marius Petipa
Ted Shawn
the husband of Ruth St. Denis and co-creator of Denishawn
Characteristics of post modern dance
use of traditional forms in new ways, spontaneous and improvisational, and the use of irony
Twyla Tharp was a student of
Merce Cunningham and Paul Taylor
Trisha Brown began dancing with
the experimental dance company of Judson Dance Theatre
Martha Graham’s technique
contraction and release
Doris Humphrey’s technique
fall and recovery
Martha Graham
choreographer known for the use of psychological themes in his/her work
Characteristic of Classical Ballet
emphasis on aerial footwork and technique
The shift of countries leading ballet in the Romantic, Classical and Contemporary Periods went in this order
France to Russia to France
Twyla Tharp’s use of complex phrasing and pedestrian movement can be seen in her two pieces
Movin Out and Baker’s Dozen
Alwin Nikolais
post modern choreographer known for his use of lighting, costumes, sets and music to create a strong visual stage environment
Pierre Beauchamps
developed five basic positions of the feet in ballet
Fanny Elssler
famous Romantic Era ballerina who toured Europe and the US with Marie Taglioni
Balthasar de Beaujoyeux
ballet master to Catherine de Medici
Merce Cunningham
known for his take on the post modern movement: “movement for movement’s sake”
Afternoon of a Fawn
famous work choreographed by and initially performed by Vaslav Nijinsky
Loie Fuller
dance focused on a shifting play of lights and colors on the costumes she wore, which she kept in constant motion and movement of her arms
George Balanchine
served as the last choreographer for Ballet Russes until Diaghilev’s death in 1929
Rudolf von Laban
developed movement system of modern dance in Germany
Trisha Brown
rejected society’s conventions in dance and often gave dancers problems to solve while performing
Marius Petipa
choreographed Swan Lake and Don Quixote, among others
Louis XIV
responsible for moving ballet from courts to Italian style stages
Grand Pas de Deux
developed by Petipa to showcase the entrances, solos, and virtuosic spectacle of principal dancers
Lester Horton
African American dancer and teacher whose pieces often dealt with bigotry and war, and who took his studies to the West Coast
Adolph Bolm
created San Francisco Ballet
Court ballets
this was based on Greek mythology, crusade tales, Roman history, Christian ceremonials, and Old Testament stories and was developed in the Renaissance Period
10 functions of dance
1)outlet for creativity/expression
2)form of entertainment
3)form of social affirmation or tribal unity
4)religious worship
5)physical strength
6)social/recreational outlet
8)cultural education
5 Universal Characteristics of Dance
Action that becomes movement
Energy & effort
In Ancient period, dances combined
music, poetry, and movement
Dance in the Paleolithic Period
involved basic steps like walking, hopping and swaying, imitated animals and nature, and provided a connection w/ ancestors
What affects your personal aesthetic?
religion, peers and family, and connection with the performers
it is important that people view art
with an open mind
Renaissance means
Evidence proving dance existed
a series of rock paintings depicting dance
Original dances and dance dramas of Japan
influenced by the cultures of China and India and were passed down from generation to generation
Renaissance court dances were performed
in the ballrooms of palaces and by courtiers
In the Ancient Period, dance’s function was
to enhance intellect
In the Contemporary Period, dance’s function was
to change and advance with the times
Danse Macabre
the “dance mania” of the middle ages, the “dance of death” and the fanatical and unbalanced movements associated with the Black Plague
Dance rituals first originated in the
Paleolithic Period
Three most influential countries in the Ancient Period
China, Greece, and India
Examples of court dances from the Renaissance period
pavane, minuet, and allemande
6 Reasons dance changed in the Ancient Period
2)organized religion
3)centralized gov
4)class distinctions
5)agricultural developments

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Dance Apprec Final Exam
Katherine Dunham -classically trained in ballet -Travelled to West Africa& Haiti, movement shaped by these experiences -own dance company -Afro-Caribbean and Modern Dance movement -influenced jazz, "Mother of Black Dance"
2021-02-24 03:17:43
Dance Apprec Final Exam
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