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    Dance Apprec Final Exam

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    Katherine Dunham
    -classically trained in ballet
    -Travelled to West Africa& Haiti, movement shaped by these experiences
    -own dance company
    -Afro-Caribbean and Modern Dance movement
    -influenced jazz, “Mother of Black Dance”
    -student of Lester Horton
    -started own company in 1950s
    -combines modern, jazz, and world ethnic dance
    -choreographed Revelations
    Talley Beatty
    -member of Katherine Dunham Dance Company
    -blend of modern and jazz w/ African American themes
    -The Road of the Phoebe Show (1959) life on railroad line
    -formed own touring company
    Garth Fagan
    -Jamaican born
    -Studied w/ Graham, Ailey, and Pearl Primus
    -blends modern, jazz and world dance
    -Choreographed the Lion King on Broadway
    Pearl Primus
    -brought attention to African and Afro-Caribbean dance in 1940s
    -repertory based on African traditions and “mastered” native dances
    -director of first performing arts organization of its kind in 1961 on African continent
    -Strange Fruit
    Modern dance today
    -border between modern dance and classical ballet is blurred
    -Many contemporary choreographers cross over to different genres
    Tap dance
    -a rhythmic, percussive dance style performed wearing shoes w/ metal taps and executing intricate footwork
    -first influences dance back to 16th century
    -blend of Irish Jig, African dance, and European folk dance
    -First appeared in Minstrel Shows
    Minstrel Shows
    -parodies of black culture, often in ‘blackface’
    -African Americans began performing after the Civil War
    -popular form of entertainment by 1900 because of variety of performers and family oriented theaters
    Nicholas Brothers
    “Stormy Weather”
    -rhythmic style and flashy
    Bill ‘Bojangles’ Robinson
    -soft shoe style
    -First black performer to have regular employment in white theaters
    Fred Astaire
    -Broadway/Ballroom style “class act”
    Gregory Hines
    -known for rhythmic tap and improvisational skills
    -found fame during tap renaissance of the 1980s
    -starred in many tap films
    Savion Glover
    -known for “hard core tap rap”
    -Bring in da Noise, Bring in da Funk
    “Jazz Age” and Vaudeville
    -many film stars got started in Vaudeville and transitioned to Broadway
    soundscape of Vaudeville era and first ‘jazz music’ w/ polyrhythms and freer style of play or improvisation
    Jazz dance
    “melting pot” of ballet, tap, social, ethnic, and modern dance forms
    -first influences back to 17th century w/ African Slave trade
    -influenced by groundedness of African dance
    -emotional response to social occurrences
    Beginning of Jazz music
    in New Orleans. Syncopated rhythms w/ a strong beat (ragtime) and the blues in Chicago
    Characteristics of jazz
    -syncopated rhythms and music
    -high energy
    -fusion of many social dance forms, ballet and modern
    -use of isolation
    -changes w/ times
    Harlem Renaissance
    -exclusive clubs opened for high society whites
    -Charleston, Blackbottom, Lindy Hop
    -jazz dance inseparable from jazz music
    -African American dancers and singers
    -Savoy ballroom: no color lines, up to 7 bands every night
    -Vaudeville circuit became obsolete w/ TV, radio, Broadway and film
    -major events changed context of jazz dance
    -dance moved northward, evolved to swing and ballroom
    Jack Cole
    -set standard for theatrical jazz
    -“Father of Theatrical Jazz Dance”
    -innovative technique using movements from Indian and Asian cultures
    -never stopped moving
    -invisible barre
    4 pioneers of jazz
    Jack Cole, Luigi, Matt Mattox, Gus Giordano
    Matt Mattox
    -powerful&challenging choreography
    -created own syllabus and barre
    Gus Giordano
    -style emphasized strength and undulating movement from pelvis, chest and arms
    -Anthology of American Jazz Dance
    Bob Fosse
    -famous for style of turned in knees, use of isolations, slouched shoulders, and precision of movement
    -dancer, director and choreographer for Broadway, film and TV
    -Chicago, Sweet Charity, Damn Yankees
    -sensual style of choreography
    The Black Cook was the first theatre piece to use dance to further the storyline
    Shuffle Along became the first African American musical
    Josephine Baker
    popularized the Charleston, Blackbottom, and many other social dances of the 20s
    Seymour Felix instituted the design of lyrics, script, music, and dance as equal partnerships
    Gene Kelly
    sense of athleticism and well-trained dancer, considered himself a dancer who happened to tap but not a tap dancer
    Agnes DeMille
    Oklahoma choreographer
    Jerome Robbins
    choreographed West Side Story
    Michael Bennett
    choreographed A Chorus Line
    Susan Stroman
    choreographed Contact
    Social dance (6)
    -reflective of the culture its in
    -varies between cultures
    -can be individual, group, w/ partner
    -gender, race, and age can determine who dances
    -traditional forms constantly evolving
    -many forms have changed entirely due to social acceptance
    Lindy Hop
    -Created in Harlem nightclubs of the 1930’s
    -Frankie Manning
    -Athletic, fast paced, done w/ partner
    -developed in African American communities
    -led to Jitterbug of 1940s and Hustle of 1970s
    -when white community did it: slower/less tricky
    -known as “swing dance”
    -originated in the 1950s
    -more conservative
    -Has roots in European, African, and South American dance
    -has migrated to all parts of the world
    -Originally performed exclusively by white dancers
    -many hip movements omitted and balletic moves added in
    Rock n Roll
    -conservatism was abandoned by the younger generation
    -white youths mimicked movements of black American singers
    -Chuck Berry, Chubby Checker, Little Richard
    -The Twist, the Monkey, Mashed Potato, Frug
    Freestyle dancing
    -emerged in late 1960s
    -direct reflection of times: Civil Rights Movement, Vietnam War, illegal drug use (Woodstock)
    -overwhelming feeling of freedom
    -new music and merge developed in 1970s
    -Bus Stop
    -Partner dancing popularized due to movies like Saturday Night Fever
    -Set the scene: nightclubs, glamor, romance
    Hip Hop/Break dancing
    -emerged in 1970s, popular in 1980s
    -rap music, MTV
    -became a voice for inner city minority groups
    -often associated w/ graffiti art, DJ, certain fashion, language
    Hip hop
    -developed as a form of “street dance”
    -African and jazz vocabulary with a new improvisational movement
    -often adopted as a professional or concert dance form
    Break dancing
    -mainstream in 1983 from Flashdance movie
    -was initially done by gangs as form of competition
    -Virtuosity, B-Boys B-Girls
    -popping and locking
    -short, flashy demonstrations
    -street style
    Other social dance forms
    -Slam Dancing/Moshing developed in 1980s
    -Music video and pop culture dancing
    -Rave dancing
    -Competitive dance on TV shows
    Dance today
    -crosses all dance genres, world concert dance forms, folk dances, and performance art
    -wide variety and unpredictability for audiences
    -reaches more audiences
    -constantly changing w/ times
    -hard to categorize by genre
    -old traditions always revitalized
    -vocabulary&language changing
    -Technology/film/internet have changed how its filmed and viewed
    -new wave of dance fusion genres
    Characteristics of dance today (7)
    1)blend of theatrical dance forms, cultural folk dances, athleticism and minimalism
    2)technique very specific to choreographer’s vision
    3)subject matter is limitless
    4)environments of where dance is performed is in correlation with the choreography
    5)blurred gender lines
    6)less restraints on costuming
    7)extensive use of technology and imagery
    -formed in 1971 as a result of an improvisational class at Dartmouth
    -focus on collaboration to create works that are athletic, visually stimulating, and rely on the human body
    -created by Moses Pendleton in 1981 after he split from Pilobolus
    -more acrobatic and circus-like
    Bill T. Jones
    -combines energetic, forceful movement w/ film and dialogue
    -many pieces based on his personal experiences
    Mark Morris
    -combines European folk dance, classical music, and storytelling in his choreography
    -known for his ‘gender jokes’ and humor in subject matter
    Pina Bausch
    Proponent of Tanztheatre, a form of expressionalist and dramatic dance
    Jump Rhythm Jazz Project
    -created by Billy Siegenfeld in 1980 in Chicago
    -one of the only jazz specific companies still in existence in the US today
    -focuses on ‘rhythm first’ method of choreography and performance
    Mia Michaels
    -known for her choreography and serves as a guest judge on So You Think You Can Dance
    -has Emmy awards for her contemporary style of choreography
    Dance Styles&Genres of the 21st century
    Improvisation, Creative Movement, Contemporary Dance, Lyrical Dance
    -individualized movement dependent on the dancer
    -often called organic or authentic movement
    -relies on trail and error, experimental learning
    -spontaneous and educational
    Creative Movement
    -similar to improvisation but different in that it is about the exploration of ideas
    -process not product
    Contemporary Dance
    -fusion of jazz and modern
    -limitless music, subject matter
    Lyrical dance
    fusion of ballet and jazz
    Artistic Director
    -responsible for the overall aesthetic and artistic vision of the company
    -makes all decisions relative to artistic issues
    -choreography or hiring other choreographers
    Stage Manager
    -“calling the show”
    -gives direction for sound and lighting cues
    -assumes a majority of the responsibility once the show is underway
    Lighting designer
    -helps to provide a theatrical feel to the atmosphere
    -blend of practicality and artistry
    costume designer
    -designs, constructs costumes for dance shows
    -gives audience insight into characters
    -has to keep mobility in mind
    -may also be responsible for hair and makeup
    set/scenic designer
    -have been collaborating w/ choreographers since 16th century
    -set would enhance vision and mood of the show
    -one of the most important collaborators
    -live/original score versus pre-recorded
    -financial constraints
    Careers in dance
    -teacher:university education
    -program/managing director
    -private studio owners and teachers:
    based on personal philosophy, requires payment for lessons
    Serge Diaghilev’s Choreographers
    Najinsky, Balanchine, and Fokine
    A famous work of Martha Graham’s that depicts life on the frontier
    Appalachian Spring
    Modern Dance is based on the characteristics of
    free use of torso and limbs and use of parallel
    Michel Fokine
    a choreographer for Ballet Russes and created 5 reformation principles to govern choreography
    “star system”
    developed by Petipa and created a castle system of dancers in the Classical Period
    First Romantic Ballet
    La Sylphide
    Some of the Five Major Principles of Govern Ballet Choreography
    create new forms of movement for each period, eliminate pantomime entirely, and ballets should be a collaborative effort
    Ballet Comique de La Reine
    was considered the first ballet because it centered around one theme
    The most popular classical ballet
    Swan Lake, choreographed by Marius Petipa
    Ted Shawn
    the husband of Ruth St. Denis and co-creator of Denishawn
    Characteristics of post modern dance
    use of traditional forms in new ways, spontaneous and improvisational, and the use of irony
    Twyla Tharp was a student of
    Merce Cunningham and Paul Taylor
    Trisha Brown began dancing with
    the experimental dance company of Judson Dance Theatre
    Martha Graham’s technique
    contraction and release
    Doris Humphrey’s technique
    fall and recovery
    Martha Graham
    choreographer known for the use of psychological themes in his/her work
    Characteristic of Classical Ballet
    emphasis on aerial footwork and technique
    The shift of countries leading ballet in the Romantic, Classical and Contemporary Periods went in this order
    France to Russia to France
    Twyla Tharp’s use of complex phrasing and pedestrian movement can be seen in her two pieces
    Movin Out and Baker’s Dozen
    Alwin Nikolais
    post modern choreographer known for his use of lighting, costumes, sets and music to create a strong visual stage environment
    Pierre Beauchamps
    developed five basic positions of the feet in ballet
    Fanny Elssler
    famous Romantic Era ballerina who toured Europe and the US with Marie Taglioni
    Balthasar de Beaujoyeux
    ballet master to Catherine de Medici
    Merce Cunningham
    known for his take on the post modern movement: “movement for movement’s sake”
    Afternoon of a Fawn
    famous work choreographed by and initially performed by Vaslav Nijinsky
    Loie Fuller
    dance focused on a shifting play of lights and colors on the costumes she wore, which she kept in constant motion and movement of her arms
    George Balanchine
    served as the last choreographer for Ballet Russes until Diaghilev’s death in 1929
    Rudolf von Laban
    developed movement system of modern dance in Germany
    Trisha Brown
    rejected society’s conventions in dance and often gave dancers problems to solve while performing
    Marius Petipa
    choreographed Swan Lake and Don Quixote, among others
    Louis XIV
    responsible for moving ballet from courts to Italian style stages
    Grand Pas de Deux
    developed by Petipa to showcase the entrances, solos, and virtuosic spectacle of principal dancers
    Lester Horton
    African American dancer and teacher whose pieces often dealt with bigotry and war, and who took his studies to the West Coast
    Adolph Bolm
    created San Francisco Ballet
    Court ballets
    this was based on Greek mythology, crusade tales, Roman history, Christian ceremonials, and Old Testament stories and was developed in the Renaissance Period
    10 functions of dance
    1)outlet for creativity/expression
    2)form of entertainment
    3)form of social affirmation or tribal unity
    4)religious worship
    5)physical strength
    6)social/recreational outlet
    8)cultural education
    5 Universal Characteristics of Dance
    Action that becomes movement
    Energy & effort
    In Ancient period, dances combined
    music, poetry, and movement
    Dance in the Paleolithic Period
    involved basic steps like walking, hopping and swaying, imitated animals and nature, and provided a connection w/ ancestors
    What affects your personal aesthetic?
    religion, peers and family, and connection with the performers
    it is important that people view art
    with an open mind
    Renaissance means
    Evidence proving dance existed
    a series of rock paintings depicting dance
    Original dances and dance dramas of Japan
    influenced by the cultures of China and India and were passed down from generation to generation
    Renaissance court dances were performed
    in the ballrooms of palaces and by courtiers
    In the Ancient Period, dance’s function was
    to enhance intellect
    In the Contemporary Period, dance’s function was
    to change and advance with the times
    Danse Macabre
    the “dance mania” of the middle ages, the “dance of death” and the fanatical and unbalanced movements associated with the Black Plague
    Dance rituals first originated in the
    Paleolithic Period
    Three most influential countries in the Ancient Period
    China, Greece, and India
    Examples of court dances from the Renaissance period
    pavane, minuet, and allemande
    6 Reasons dance changed in the Ancient Period
    1)Verbal LANGUAGE
    2)organized religion
    3)centralized gov
    4)class distinctions
    5)agricultural developments

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