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    chapter 22

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    Who was Ibn Battuta? What did he do?
    Moroccan legal scholar & one of the world’s greatest travelers; made pilgrimage to Mecca & Delhi
    What did Ibn Battuta serve as?
    qadi (judge) for government of sultan of Delhi
    What happened to Ibn Battuta in 1341? What stopped it?
    appointed to head embassy to China; a storm
    Where did Ibn Battuta visit?
    Southern Chinese port cities (Quanzhou & Guangzhou; returned to Morocco in 1349)
    Where did Ibn Battuta travel?
    Granada in Southern Spain & sahara desert to visit Mali empire
    Who recorded Ibn Battuta’s travels?
    Marco Polo
    What did nomads provide?
    political foundation for interaction
    When was the bubonic plague? Where did it originate?
    mid-14th century; Western China
    What did European marines do with Africans and Asians?
    established direct connections with them
    What were motives for long-distance travel between 1000 = 15000 CE?
    trade, diplomacy, missionary activity
    What were the two principal networks of trade routes merchants relied on?
    for delicate goods the silk roads; for bulky goods sea lanes
    When was Melaka founded?
    What was Melaka?
    principal clearinghouse of trade in E Indian Ocean; safe market, welcoming & fair taxes
    What happened in the middle of the 13th century with the Mongol campaigns?
    economic disruption thru Eurasia (China & Southwest Asia; Song & Abbasid dynasty toppled); Mongols laid political foundation for surge in long-distance trade along silk roads
    Who was Marco Polo? Who was his father? Uncle? What did they do?
    best-known long-distance traveler of Mongol times
    Niccolo & Maffeo
    first European merchants to visit China; 1271: all went to China, met Kublai (liked Marco, let him pursue adventures & sent him on missions); 17 yrs later Marco returned home to Venice via sea route
    What did Marco Polo’s stories do?
    influenced European readers; travels increase European participation economy of E hemisphere
    What did Khubilai Khan and other Mongol rulers of China do?
    didn’t trust Chinese subjects -> appointed foreigners to administrative posts
    What happened in the 13th century with the Mongol-Christian diplomacy?
    went across Eurasia
    How did Mongols and western Europeans connect?
    potential allies against Muslims
    What did Pope Innocent IV do?
    invited Mongols to become Christians – didn’t work
    What did the Mongol ilkhan of Persia plan to do in 1287?
    invade Muslim-held lands of SW Asia; capture Jerusalem & crush Islam
    How did Mongol ilkhan of Persia plan do that? What did that person do?
    dispatched Rabban Sauma (Nestorian Christian); met with kings of France & England, the pope – mission failed
    What did Ilkhan Ghazan do?
    converted to Islam; ended possibility of alliance
    Where did Ibn Battuta serve? What did he do?
    Maldive Islands & traveled to east and west Africa
    consulted w/ Muslim rulers & offered advice on Islamic values
    What did Sufis do?
    spread Islam: peacefully, emphasized piety & devotion to Allah, tolerated traditional deities
    What did Roman Catholic missionaries do?
    spread Christianity; lands where Europeans extended influence after year 1000
    Who was John of Montecorvino? What did he do?
    Italian Franciscan who went to China in 1291
    most active Roman Catholic missionaries; first archbishop of Khanbaliq (1307); translated new Testament & book of Psalms into Turkish; built several churches in China; only converted few Asian peoples to Christianity
    Where did sugarcane originate?
    Southwest Asia and North Africa during the Abbasid empire
    When was sugarcane introduced in Europe?
    during Crusades
    What did Mongols learn from Chinese military engineers in the 13th century?
    What did they do with gunpowder based weapons?
    incorporated in in their arsenal (Chinggis Khan)
    When did gunpowder reach Europe?
    mid-13th century
    What happened in 1300 CE?
    little ice age
    What did the Norse do during the little ice age?
    abandoned Greenland
    Where did the Bubonic plague start?
    Yunnan region of southwestern China
    How did the bubonic plague spread?
    1340s: travelers spread disease along trade routes to W of China; 1346: Black Sea ports; 1347: Mediterranean basin via Italian merchants; 1348: most of western Europe
    What were some symptoms of the bubonic plague?
    lymph nodes, internal hemorrhaging, black or purple swellings
    What were the regions that avoided the plague? Why?
    northernmost regions of Europe (cold weather); India & sub-Saharan Africa
    What did the disease do to society?
    labor shortages = social unrest; W Europe, ppl – higher wages; authority resist change; peasant rebel
    Why did the Yuan dynasty fall?
    financial mismanagement, assassinations & factional fighting & bubonic plague
    What did Hongwu do?
    established Ming dynasty
    What did Hongwu reestablish?
    Confucian edu & civil service systems
    What did the emperor do?
    Emperor ruled China directly, w/o aid of chief ministers
    What were mandarins?
    central government to local authorities
    What could eunuchs not do?
    build family fortunes
    Why did the Ming dynasty fell?
    Manchu invaders
    What did the Manchu invaders found?
    How did the Manchu invaders recover economically?
    rebuild irrigation systems; promoted manufacture of porcelain, lacquerware, fine silk, cotton; domestic trade surged
    What did Manchu actively promote?
    Confucianism & neo-Confucianism
    What was the Yongle Encyclopedia?
    book of Chinese cultural traditions
    What did Italy, Spain, France, England, and Russia do in the late 15th century?
    devised techniques of gov enhanced their power
    What were the foundations for emergence of powerful monarchies?
    taxes & armies
    Where did state-building start?
    Why did Italy tax people?
    independent administration and army
    What was the Hundred Years’ War?
    France & England fighting over control of French lands
    Why did France & England impose taxes?
    devised techniques of gov enhanced their power
    Authority of central government was over what?
    feudal nobility
    What is one way England was different from France?
    England didn’t maintain a standing army
    How was Spain united?
    marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon & Isabel of Castile
    What did sales tax support?
    standing army
    How did they complete the reconquista?
    conquering Granada from Muslims
    What did they do in 1419?
    seized Southern Italy
    What did Ivan do?
    declared Russian independence from Mongol rule (stopped paying tribute to Mongol khan)
    What was Novgorod?
    autonomous city-state governed affairs through town council; prosperous trading city; member of Hanseatic League of Baltic
    When was the Renaissance?
    Who were the Italian painters? What did they rely on?
    Masaccio & Leonardo da Vinci; linear perspective
    Who were the sculptors?
    Donatello & Michelangelo Buonarroti
    Who was Filippo Brunelleschi? What was he inspired by? What did he do?
    Florentine architect; Pantheon (Roman temple 2nd century CE); reinvented equipment & designs for large dome
    Florentine architect; Pantheon (Roman temple 2nd century CE); reinvented equipment & designs for large dome
    What did Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam do?
    published 1st edition of Greek New Testament w/ revised Latin translation & copious annotations; classical Greek & Roman language
    What did Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch) do?
    went through Europe searching for manuscripts of classics; 15th cent: Italian humanists met w/ Byzantine scholars & enlarged classical Greek & Latin works
    What were medieval ethical teachings? Renaissance?
    most honorable calling: monks & nuns dedicated lives to Church & God
    inspiration from Cicero (classical author): possible to live virtuous life w/ affairs in world
    What did Renaissance art reflect?
    increasing European participation in E hemisphere
    What did Giovanni Pico della Mirandola do?
    Oration on the Dignity of Man; made attempt to harmonize diverse teachings of philosophers and religions & show how big the desire European scholars had to understand the world: failed
    Who were the most active in reviving networks of long-distance trade and communication after epidemic?
    China & Western Europe
    What did Ming emperors not want?
    foreigners in China
    What did they let foreigners do?
    trade in supervised ports of Quanzhou & Guangzhou
    What did they do?
    refurbish Chinese navy built in Song dynasty & allowed merchants to participate in trade in Japan & SE Asia
    What did Emperor Yongle do? Why?
    organized 7 naval expeditions to established Chinese presence in Indian Ocean basin because he wanted to have imperial control over foreign trade w/ China & to impress foreign peoples
    When were the expeditions?
    1405 – 1433
    Who were the expeditions led by?
    Zheng He (Muslim from Yunnan in SW CHina; rose through ranks of eunuchs)
    Where were the first three? Fourth?
    SE Asia, India & Ceylon then Persian Gulf & Arabia then African coast
    How did they treat the local people?
    gave gifts received back; respect local deities
    Why did the expeditions end?
    new Mongol threat from NW = financial support = no more voyages = no more Chinese presence in Indian Ocean Basin
    What did European mariners do? Why?
    wanted to dominate Atlantic & Indian Ocean basins; expand Roman Catholic Church & profit from commercial opportunities
    What did Prince Henrique of Portugal do?
    campaign to spread Christianity & increase Portugese influence; 1415 Moroccan city of Ceuta seized
    What did he discover in the Atlantic?
    discovered Madeiras & Azores Islands, Cape Verde islands, Fernando Po, Sao Tome, Principe off west African coast
    What did he try to colonize? Why didn’t it work?
    Canary Islands; no they were inhabited by kingdom of Castile
    What did he cultivate?
    Where did the Portuguese go in the middle of the 15th century?
    went to W African coast; originally traded manufactured items for African gold & slaves; increased volume of slaves by sending them to new destinations
    What did slaves work as?
    laborers or domestic servants in Europe
    What did Bartolomeu Dias do?
    sailed around the Cape of Good Hope & entered Indian Ocean; 1489: Vasco de Gama cruised up East African coast & took advantage of seasonal monsoon winds to sail across Arabian Sea
    What did Christopher Columbus do?
    stopped in Canary islands to get supplies & repairs; ships crossed Atlantic ocean & reached San Salvador; returned to Spain w/ nothing, but news that he found it, but found America

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