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    Classical Revivals

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    What gave rise to Romantic thinking? What did Romantic thinking do?
    The Enlightenment’s own tradition of questioning everything undermined the 18th century sense of optimism, and developments in society and also encouraged a retreat from unbridled confidence. Thus a new element of doubt arose concerning the ability of reason to solve all new problems. Romantic thinking tended to challenge the establishment.
    What encouraged stylistic revivalism in architecture?
    The increased knowledge of history, geography and culture, combined with colonisation generated multiple influences, which encouraged stylistic revivalism.
    What was the Battle of Styles?
    In 19th century Europe it was constantly asked what the style of the century was. This gave rise to the Battle of Styles, which was the battle for supremacy between the classical and the Gothic.
    What types of thinking are classical revival, and gothic revival often associated with?
    Classical revival styles are often associated with Enlightenment thinking and the Gothic Revival with Roman thinking.
    What is eclecticism?
    This is where one building has multiple styles.
    What is pluralism?
    This is where one architect has different styles for different building types.
    What are the four main types of architectural styles that were revived?
    Ancient Greek Architecture gave rise to Greek Revival Architecture, Ancient Roman Architecture gave rise to Roman Revival Architecture, Renaissance Architecture gave rise to Renaissance revival, or Italianate Architecture, and Baroque Architecture gave rise to Baroque Revival Architecture.
    What are the three Greek Classical orders?
    Greek Doric, Ionic and Corinthian.
    What are the three Roman Classical orders?
    Roman Doric, Tuscan and Corinthian.
    What is the defining feature of a Doric column?
    A Doric column has a simple disk at the top, nothing decorative.
    What are the defining features of an Ionic column?
    An Ionic column is thinner than the other columns and has two scrolls called a volute at the top.
    What is the defining feature of the Corinthian column?
    The Corinthian column has a leaf design at the top.
    How can we recognise Tuscan and Roman Doric orders?
    They are quite like the Greek Doric, but not fluted.
    What is the Composite order?
    The Composite order is a combination of the Ionic and Corinthian orders.
    What are the three main parts that make up the classical entablature?
    The architrave at the bottom, the frieze in the middle, and the cornice at the top.
    What are some features of the Parthenon, designed by Iktinos and Kallitrates in 447-432BC, situated in the Athens Acropolis, Greece?
    It has a series of columns that supports the structural load of the roof. The pediment has a decorated frieze. One thing that’s different of the Doric order is the alternating pattern along the frieze. This basic form has been taken up for many other building designs, e.g. temple fronts.
    What are some features of the Panthon, Rome, Italy, 100-125 AD?
    It has a temple front with a series of columns at the front. It has a round arch, and a dome with a coffered ceiling (each of the squares in the ceiling is called a coffer). The coffers get smaller as the dome gets smaller. It has an oculus at the top of the dome.
    What is one of the key things the Romans developed in terms of architecture, and how was this significant?
    They developed the use of the round arch, which enabled them to span larger distances than the Greeks. Putting arches next to each other allowed them to create aqueducts and to create domes.
    During what time period, and where, was Renaissance architecture built?
    During the 15th and 16th century in century.
    What aspects of classical architecture use, and not use?
    They used pilasters, round arches, had lines of symmetry and really strong axes. They did not really use the temple front.
    What is a pilaster?
    This looks like columns, but squashed against the building so they are flat.
    What is a Palazzo?
    This was a building type developed during the Renaissance. It is a large house for merchants with a courtyard in the middle.
    Who designed Queen’s House, Greenwich, London, England, 1619-1622, 1629-1637 and what are some features of it?
    Inigo Jones was one of Britain’s main Renaissance architects and designed Queen’s House, which sits behind Baroque architecture designed by Christopher Wren. British Renaissance buildings are simpler than Italian ones. On Queen’s House, there is one arched window in the centre of the building, which is symmetrical.
    What is Baroque architecture? What was introduced with Baroque Architecture?
    This was a reaction against the regularity of classical architecture. They wanted passion and decoration. Curved walls were introduced.
    Who designed S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, Italy, 1634-1641; façade 1665-1667 and what are some features of it?
    Francesco Borromini designed this building, which has a real theatricality to it. It has lots of curving, both inside and out. The dome has its own intricate ceiling that is kind of derived from a coffered ceiling, but using oval shapes instead. The dome also includes an oculus.
    Who designed the buildings on front of S. Carlo alle Quattro and what are some features of these?
    Christopher Wren, one of Britain’s best-known Baroque architects, build Greenwich hospital, London, England, 1692-1752 in a baroque style. The Greenwich hospital includes elements such as domes and columns, but put together in a different way.
    Who designed the Arc de Triomphe, Paris, France, 1806-1835 and what are some features of it?
    Jean-François Thérèse Chalgrin was the architect. The Arc de Triumph celebrated the new French Empire. The typology of a triumphal arch came from the ancient Roman world. It has a round arch, or a barrel vault (many arches put together so that you get a thick arch) and is heavily carved an ornamented, something that was associated with the Roman world, as the Romans tried to make a statement with their architecture, rather than the Greeks, who simply tried to be elegant.
    Who designed the Madeleine, Paris, France, 1806-1845, and what are some features of it?
    Pierre Vignon designed the building, which has a giant Corinthian order: a series of columns running around it. We know it’s Roman revival not Greek revival because it’s massive- showing off, not understated. It is raised on a base, and was built as a secular building- a temple to the glory of the French Empire.
    What is Empire style?
    The particular Roman Revival undertaken by Napoléon.
    Who designed the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA, 1817-1826 and what are some of its features?
    Thomas Jefferson designed the main university building, which is basically an imitation of the Roman Pantheon. However, although it is a large building, it is only 2/3rd the size of the original. The professors’ houses also had round arches and temple fronts.
    At what stage did the Greek Revival take over?
    From the middle part of the 19th century.
    Who designed the British Museum, London, England, 1824-1847 and what are some of its features?
    Robert Smirke designed the British Museum, which is one of the key examples of Greek revival architecture. When you go through the main door of the British Museum you come out into a courtyard space. It’s considered to be more restrained and understated than something like the Madeleine. It follows the Ionic order with volutes.
    What addition did Sydney Smirke design for the British Museum?
    Sydney Smirke, Robert Smirke’s brother, designed the Reading Room, which sits in the courtyard of the British Museum.
    Who designed the Glyptothek (Sculpture Gallery), Munich, Germany, 1816-1830, and what are some of its features?
    Leo von Klenze designed the Glyptothek, which has a triangular pediment, ionic columns, a line of symmetry (with a bay on either side) and niches with sculptures in them, with a miniature pediment above each of the niches. The interior is very creative with more of a Roman revival inspiration, as it has round, domed ceilings.
    Why were Leo von Klenze and Karl Schinkel two of the most important German classical revival architects?
    Leo von Klenze and Karl Schinkel (whose work is mostly situated in the north of Germany) were in competition with each other and both started being inventive when they created with revival architecture, using some unconventional elements.
    Who designed Walhalle, Regensburg, Germany, 1830-1842 and what are some features of it?
    Walhalla, designed by Leo von Klenze, is a kind of recreation of the Parthenon. It celebrates the German Empire and German culture, as well as all of the German Empire’s heroes. It doesn’t have the round arches of the Glyptothek and is more restrained, more Greek in its revival style.
    Why did museums as a building type really take off in the 19th century?
    This may be to do with colonisation; there were many things from different parts of the word to display.
    Who designed das Altes Museum, Berlin, Germany, 1823-1830 and what are some features of it?
    Karl Friedrich Schinkle designed the Altes Museum, which takes elements of Greek architecture and uses them in conjunction with Roman architecture. It appears like the Pantheon within a Greek revival setting, and has a Pantheon type coffered ceiling leading up to an oculus. It also has a classical porch, making it two-storey. The portico was the classical element, but Schinkel uses a mezzanine.
    What is a defining feature of the Nikolaikirche, Potsdam, Germany, 1830-1844?
    It has a giant, tall dome that dwarves the temple front.
    What was the Renaissance Revival?
    The Renaissance Revival was not concerned with temple fronts, but with revivng the kind of merchant housing of the 15th century and adorning them with classical elements like pilasters. Planning was important, with the most important part of the building being larger and the least important part being smaller.
    When did Renaissance revival architecture being being known as Italianate architecture?
    Renaissance architecture became freer and freer, and more asymmetric, until it became known as Italianate architecture instead.
    What is one significant example of Baroque revival architecture, and what are some features of it?
    The Paris Opera House, Paris, France, 1861-1875, designed by Charles Garnier, was elaborate and huge. The Grand Staircase is a significant part of its design, as going to the Opera was all about parading and seeing whom else was there.

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