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    Birth Control Research Paper (1591 words)

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    This paper explores the intricacies of birth control and the taboo surrounding contraception by providing thorough explanations of this commonly misunderstood topic. With nonbiased irrefutable facts it makes it nearly impossible to ignore what many try so hard to . Within this paper there will be an outlined history of the development of birth controls, and how contraception has gotten to the place that it is today. While birth control should be handled on a scientific basis, the United States, however, has made it a political dilemma.

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    Education on the topic of birth control is critical, because ignorance creates taboo, which in turn adds fire to the flame. Because the average age for a male to lose their virginity is 16.9, and 17.2 for women, it is important to educate youth with the tools they need to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Without the knowledge of how to fight unwanted pregnancies, we lose accountability and power over our own situation. Teaching abstinence has served to be more subjective than it is practical, leaving sexually active people uniformed. Contraception is an issue that should be taught in school, because ignoring it only increases the chances of unprotected sex, in turn leading to unwanted and teen pregnancies. The ethical dilemma of birth control is a constantly debated topic, in which men should take more responsible in the matter of contraception. Through today’s society we are taught that women are the one who should be held responsible for the prevention of pregnancies. There is a lot of responsibility when it comes to children, which begs the question: are there other options to help hold men accountable? We are aware of the common intervention options that men have such as condoms, vasectomies, and the infamous ‘pull out’ method. But there are currently three encouraging new methods of male contraception which will help men gain more control in the birth control community. So far, a gel, pill, and a nonsurgical vasectomy are the most recent studies being tested today for men. The idea is to create a hormone that suppresses the male’s sperm count. It is designed to work similarly to the female gel birth control. With this revolutionary proposal, however, comes obstacles. Overcoming the male biology, rigorous side effects, and women being the primary focus due to the intricacy of pregnancy and child birth are just a few of the issues preventing male birth control from taking off.

    A prevalent and opinionated topic that tends to get ignored in America would be contraception, or what is more commonly known as birth control. There seems to be a widespread ignorance and obliviousness when it comes to this topic. There is a certain societal taboo about the topic that doesn’t allow women and men to openly discuss the topics, nor politicians to rightfully represent female rights on the issue. Birth control is a preventative measure that helps in controlling fertility and avoiding unwanted pregnancies. The idea of birth control is to avoid the feasible egg and sperm cells from joining together to form a fertilized embryo. Not only does hormonal birth control become a viable preventative measure for women who wish to prevent unplanned pregnancies, but it also serves many other purposes that aid other female reproductive issues. Through the media and other extrinsic sources, it seems as though ignorance on the topic of birth control has become a popular taboo topic that people tend to be extremely opinionated of which they do not fully understand. We allow the beliefs and prejudices of others to become our own, without reason or question, which inevitable negatively effects society and those directly and indirectly involved; therefore education, history, and acknowledgement are the only solutions to the stigma that surrounds contraception.

    Over the course of centuries what we now know today as modern birth control has evolved tremendously over generations. Around 3000 B.C condoms consisted of materials such as linen sheaths, fish bladders, and animal intestines. It later evolved around 1500 to introduce the first spermicides, which were made of materials such as chemically soaked cloth sheets that would dry before use. 1873 marked a monumental moment in history which introduced the Comstock Act, which made the distribution of birth control through the mail across the US a federal offense. This act was passed by the US prohibition information, advertisement, and the distribution of both controls. The first birth control clinic in America was opened in 1916 by Margaret Sanger. She would later be sentenced to 30 days in jail with allegations of “maintaining a public nuisance” (cite) the following year. This did not stop the work she had started because after her release she continued with her work. With the help of Sanger, the federal ban of birth control was removed in the year of 1938. Womb veils, or diaphragms, became prevalent means of birth control.

    In 1950, while in her 80s, Sanger underwrote the research necessary to create the first human birth control pill. She raised $150,000 for the project. The first oral contraceptive, Enovid, was approved in 1960, by the US Food and Drug Administration. The next step in moving forward, was in 1960 concerning birth control and married couples. In a court case Griswold v. Connecticut, gave married couples the right to use birth control. According to the Constitution, the right to use birth control is an individual’s right to privacy. But even with this ruling, 26 states still denied millions of unmarried women the right to birth control. The FDA took another step forward in 1968, by approving intrauterine devices (IUD). The earliest versions to hit the market were Lippe’s Loop and Copper 7. A concern arose over the safety of oral contraceptives (the Pill). In 1970, Feminists took their argument to the Hill in various well-publicized Congressional hearings. The results were a change in the formulation of the pill, as well as the packaging. The current look of the pill insert is how that came about. Birth control became legal for everyone to utilize in 1972. A Supreme Court case, (Baird v. Eisenstadt), paved the way for this change and marital status was not a factor. For the first time, the IUD came under fire. In 1974, the sale of the Dalkon Shield IUD was suspended by the FDA. Seven documented deaths and a growing number of infections occurred among users. Due to the backlash and the escalating costs of lawsuits, most IUDs were slowly taken off the market, which also included IUDs that were not implicated. During the 1980s, a new copper IUD, ParaGard (1988) was release onto the market. Along with a new IUD, low dosage hormonal pills were introduced, and a new emergency contraception was introduced, known as the Yuzpe regimen. During the 1990s, many new products were developed for women wanting alternatives for birth control. The first contraceptive implant Norplant was developed in 1990. In 1992, DepoProvera, the first injectable method was developed. A female condom, FC1/Reality was released in 1992 and a dedicated emergency contraceptive, Plan B was released in 1999. The beginning of the 2000s, brought changes in method availability, as well as improvements in safety and effectiveness. The first was Mirena, a new levonorgestrel-releasing IUD. In 2001, a hormonal patch called Ortho Evra was introduced to the market. Also, in 2001, the Nuvaring, a vaginal ring was introduced. This was followed by Essure, a method of transcervical female sterilization, in 2002, a single-rod implant, called Implanon was introduced, and in 2006, an improved version of the female condom, FC2 was introduced in 2009. Along with the growth of the contraceptive market, there were changes. Norplant, the first implant was taken off the market in 2002. Even though the market was running strong with the products available, pharmaceutical companies developed a new emergency contraceptive Pill in 2010 called Ella. In 2013, Skyla, a new levonorgestrel-releasing IUD was introduced. Also, in 2013, Plan B One-Step becomes available without a prescription. This was after lengthy protracted regulatory and legal battles. Even though women now have many choices of birth control, research is still needed about methods that protect against STIs, as well as birth control for men. Plus, barriers still exist for some women in certain parts of the world trying to gain access to reliable contraceptives.


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