a Dominican friar in Florence who preached against sin and corruption and gained a large following; he expelled the Medici from Florence but was later excommunicated and executed for criticizing the Pope; wanted to overthrow the Medici Dynasty
Pope Alexander VI
A corrupt Spanish Renaissance pope whose immorality sparked debate about the integrity of the Catholic Church.
Pope Julius II
The “Warrior-Pope”; most involved in war and politics; personally led armies against enemies; instituted reconstruction on St. Peter’s Basilica.
Pope Leo X
This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
created the first standing army and issued Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, expelled English from France, gave powerful jobs to educated men from the middle class rather than the nobility, and improved the taxation system
Who: King of France aka “the Spider”
What:He controlled the nobility and expanded trade and industry. He strengthened the monarchy of the Valios Family, could raise taxes on command, and came to power after the defeat on Charles the Bold and the elimination of the dukes of Burgundy.
When: ruled 1461- 1483
Why: He achieved 4 goals: (we went to any means to achieve them)
1. Strong monarchy
2. Excellent reputation abroad
3.law and order
4. Successful trade connections
signed Concordat of Bologna with Pope Leo X which rescinded the Pragmatic Sanction but gave the French king the power to select bishops and consequently influence religion in France
first Tudor king of England from 1485 to 1509
Established Court of the Star Chamber
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England’s break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Ferdinand and Isabella
This was the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition. Made Spain a STRONGLY christian nation
wrote The Book of The Courtier. Described the ideal of a Renaissance man who was well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, and accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, and had a modest but confident personal demeanor. It outlined the qualities of a true gentleman.
Christine de Pisan
“The City of Ladies” Began a new debate over the proper role of women in society. Europe’s first feminist, and well educated in France
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics.
Pico della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
The European inventor of the printing press, which allowed books to be printed quickly and economically. He used his invention to print copies of the Bible. This innovation aided the spread of Renaissance and Reformation ideas throughout Europe.
greatest of the NORTHERN Humanists, wrote “In Praise of Folly” which satirized what he felt were problems in the Church, translated the New Testament into Latin
English statesman who opposed Henry VIII’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded, wrote Utopia