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    Zika Virus Annotated Bibliography

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    Blocker, J. (2018). Global Perspective of Infectious Disease. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 33(2), 45–47. Retrieved from

    The author of this journal explains the global and international risk associated with travel to warm locations and individuals contracting the Zika virus. The author explains that the Zika virus is a single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus transmitted by mosquito bites. The mosquitos that are thought to be infected are of the Aedes family because they prefer the warmer tropical climates. The author states that out of all mosquito borne illnesses that the Zika virus is the most concerning due to the effects on reproductive health. Zika virus incubation period is unknown but the author states it is thought to be 12 days long. Symptoms of the virus are vague and mild symptoms that could potentially last up to 1 week. It continues to say that the woman who contracts the virus while pregnant is at the most risk of transmitting the disease to the fetus. Also the journal states if a woman is infected prior to pregnancy the risk of transmitting the disease to the fetus once she becomes pregnant is slim. In conclusion the author continues to relay the importance of preventative education to be made an international priority because the Zika virus is considered to be a preventable infectious disease.

    Oduyebo, T., Polen, K. D., Walke, H. T., Reagan-Steiner, S., Lathrop, E., Rabe, I. B., … Johansson, M. (2017). Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure – United States (Including U.S. Territories), July 2017. MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 66(29), 781–793.

    The authors of this article address how to care for pregnant women with Zika exposure. The authors explain how the Zika virus has declined since the first reported outbreak in 2015. The authors listed recommendations for the care of pregnant women. Pregnant women are to be asked about possible Zika exposure before and during the pregnancy. The women that have possible exposure and accompanied by symptoms should be tested to formulate a diagnosis for the cause of the symptoms. If a pregnant woman presents asymptomatic but has possible exposure diagnostic testing such as the (NAT), nucleic acid test should be performed as soon as possible. The authors explain that if the pregnant woman has continued travel or sexual exposure then the individual will need ongoing routine testing. The article also states that if the mother had recent exposure and the fetus has findings via prenatal testing consistent with congenital Zika virus syndrome then the mother should be tested to confirm the cause of the birth defects. In conclusion, the authors want to make sure health care providers are aware of these recommendations to prevent further outbreak and spread of the virus.

    Romero, L., Koonin, L. M., Zapata, L. B., Hurst, S., Mendoza, Z., & Lathrop, E. (2018). Contraception as a Medical Countermeasure to Reduce Adverse Outcomes Associated With Zika Virus Infection in Puerto Rico: The Zika Contraception Access Network Program. American Journal of Public Health, 108, S227–S230.

    The authors are focusing on the Zika outbreak in Puerto Rico resulting in contraception access to prevent pregnancy in women. Contraception is explained in this journal to be a medical countermeasure to decrease the accidental pregnancy during the outbreak of the Zika virus. The journal explains how Puerto Rico has a very limited access to contraceptives. Due to associated fetal abnormalities such as microcephaly the CDC and the CDCF established a contraception network called (Z-CAN), the Zika Contraception Access Network. The network included physicians stationed across Puerto Rico that provided same day contraceptive counseling as well as FDA approved reversible contraception drugs. The authors continue to explain how the women did not have to be of a certain age or have insurance coverage to receive Z-CAN services. In conclusion, the author’s state that the purpose of Z-CAN was to meet an urgent public health need by providing child bearing age women with option to contraceptives during the Zika outbreak to prevent pregnancy and decrease fetal abnormalities.

    Salazar, V. (2016). The Zika Virus : Background, Issues, and U.S. Response Considerations. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Retrieved from

    Throughout the first chapter the author explains the basics of the Zika virus. The author explains in late 2015 a birth defect called microcephaly was said to be a possible result from the mother being infected by the Zika virus. The Zika virus is transmitted through mosquito bites but could also be transmitted from a pregnant woman to the fetus, sexual contact, and blood products. At this time the author states there is no commercial diagnostic test available but if suspected the state health department is to be notified to facilitate testing that only the CDC can perform. The author states how the rapid increase of the birth defect started the public health emergency of international concern demanding expanded monitoring, nation cooperation, and the sharing of information with hopes to stop the spread of the virus. In conclusion, the author continues to explain there is no vaccine to prevent transmission but avoiding bites from infected mosquitoes is the most preventative measure at this time.


    Barrett, M. (2018). The malign rise of the anti-vaxxers. New Statesman, 147(5419), 17. Retrieved from

    This article reports the rise of the “anti-vaxxers” is causing a major surge in Measles outbreaks all over the world. The author explains how the “anti-vax” movement started by Andrew Wakefield, a former doctor who is known for proclaiming the MMR vaccine is linked to autism. Even though there has been many studies proving his work to be “fake science” there are still millions of followers refusing to vaccinate their children due to following his “anti-vax” movement. The theory explained in the article is the “anti-vax” followers believe the MMR vaccine to contain mercury that includes thimerosal, which the author claims has not been used in a vaccine for over 18 years now. The author states how vaccines came about by the English physician Edward Jenner. The article also states that with the MMR vaccine, living forms that are weakened prime our immune system to kill the real thing if the individual was to become infected with the disease. In conclusion, the author states that vaccine can destroy the disease and the more people that receive the MMR vaccine the less number of vulnerable individuals are out there for the virus to infect. The author could be bias assuming she is pro vaccination by the article above.

    Measles (Rubeola). (2017, March 03). Retrieved November 7, 2018, from

    The CDC reports that measles is highly contagious virus that lives in the respiratory tract of an infected person. The virus can easily spread through coughing or sneezing. The CDC states that the virus can live up to 2 hours from when the infected individual coughed or sneezed in any type of airspace environment. The measles can be spread up to 4 days before the rash appears and 4 days after the rash goes away. In conclusion, the CDC reports that the measles is so contagious that if one individual has it then there is a 90 percent chance everyone who came near the infected person will become infected if not already immune.

    Cutler, N. (2018, November 05). Measles cases top last year’s total; almost 50 cases in one county. Retrieved November 7, 2018, from

    The author is discussing the outbreak of the Measles in Rockland County in New York. Rockland County has recently had 46 confirmed cases and 9 suspected cases reported by the county health department. The area affected was where an orthodox Jewish festival was taking place and an individual that had recently traveled to Israel attended the same festival. The author reports that the Orthodox Jewish school vaccination rates vary from 40 to 100 percent. The article tells that of the individuals infected none were fully vaccinated and the outbreak was connected to Israel. For this reason the state of New York has banned unvaccinated students from attending school in certain communities if the vaccination rate is 70 percent or lower. The article states that the World Health Organization says that herd immunity is achieved when the community has a 95 percent member vaccination rate. In conclusion, the author states that the CDC reports during the 2017 to 2018 school year kindergarten age have a vaccination rate of 94.3 percent nationwide. This article is proving the outcomes and scenarios behind what can happen if everyone is not vaccinated appropriately.

    Measles. (2018, September 07). Retrieved November 7, 2018, from

    The article explains what the Measles is. Measles is typically a childhood infection that is cause by a virus. This disease is almost completely preventable by a vaccination. If this disease is contracted it can be lethal in a small child. The article states that due to vaccination death rates have decreased but the disease continues to take the lives of thousands of small children each year all over the world. Symptoms of the Measles are typically seen from 10-14 days from exposure. The most common symptoms listed in this article are fever, dry cough, runny nose, sore throat, and inflamed eyes. There are many risk factors including not being vaccinated, international travel. In conclusion, the article explains that Measles is contagious but there is preventative measure such as isolation of the infected individual as well as receiving the vaccination.

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    Zika Virus Annotated Bibliography. (2022, May 10). Retrieved from

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