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    World History Ch. 11

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    “Rebirth”; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome; shift in focus from groups to individuals
    A philosophy that focused on human potential and achievements; did not abandon belief in God, but led to the false idea that man is good and that he is independent of or superior to God
    The liberal arts; the study of history, science, and grammar, as well as classical literature and philosophy
    To develop well rounded individuals (educational goal)
    What was the goal of Renaissance education?
    Classical age of Greece and Rome
    What period of history did the Renaissance humanists admire?
    Where did the Renaissance begin?
    They commissioned talented artists to design buildings, decorate churches, and carve statues
    When increased trade brought revived wealth to Italian cities, how did these cities display their newly acquired wealth?
    affluent bankers and merchants
    Who became the patrons of these artists?
    Sponsors of artists
    the Medici family
    In addition to the Roman Church, what family became the most famous patron (sponsor) of Renaissance learning and art?
    Lorenzo de Medici
    Who was the most notable and most generous patron of the Medici family?
    Il Magnifico (“The Magnificent”)
    Nickname for Lorenzo de Medici
    city of Florence
    Birthplace of the Renaissance; home of the powerful Medici
    Italian Humanist writers
    Which writers looked to the literature of ancient Greece and Rome for inspiration?
    1. Francesco Petrarch
    2. Baldassarre Castiglione
    3. Niccolo Machiavelli
    Name the Italian Humanist writers.
    Francesco Petrarch
    – Father of Humanism
    – Loved poetry and the classical writings of Greece and Rome
    Baldassare Castiglione
    – Wrote books on etiquette (social behavior)
    – Wrote “The Courtier” which describes the ideal Renaissance gentleman.
    Niccolo Machiavelli
    – Wrote several important works on government.
    – Wrote “The Prince” which tells readers that the successful ruler uses forces when necessary since “it is much safer to be feared than loved.”
    Northern Humanist writers
    Which writers had a greater interest in religious matters and gave more attention to Christian sources (the Bible) than to classical sources?
    1. Desiderius Erasmus
    2. Sir Thomas More
    3. Miguel de Cervantes
    4. William Shakespeare
    Name the Northern Humanist writers.
    Desiderius Erasmus
    – Most honored and influential scholar of the Renaissance
    – Wrote “In Praise of Folly” where he uses satire against society
    – Became a leading advocate of church reform, yet he refused to break with the Roman Catholic Church
    – Became the first to publish a Greek New Testament
    Sir Thomas More
    – Wrote “Utopia” which is about his vision of an ideal society in which people live in peace and harmony
    – Devoted much of his life to serving his country (England)
    Miguel de Cervantes
    Spanish writer best remembered for “Don Quixote” which satirizes chivalry and chivalric literature
    William Shakespeare
    – Greatest playwright of all time
    – Born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, England
    – Wrote 154 sonnets and 38 plays
    – Renaissance literature reached its peak in his works.
    1. Emphasis on physical world.
    2. Supported by secular patrons.
    3. Artists wanted to be well known.
    4. Realistic 3-dimensional feel
    5. Important secular people painted.
    6. Painting and sculpting is the focus.
    What are the 6 themes of Renaissance Art?
    1. Giotto di Bondone
    2. Masaccio
    3. Sandro Botticelli
    Name the early Italian painters?
    Giotto di Bondone
    – Father of Renaissance Painting
    – His paintings contained a more realistic portrayal of people and scenes.
    – Most famous for his frescoes (paintings on wet plaster).
    – Never mastered the technique of perspective (3-dimensional appearance on a flat surface)
    Masaccio (Tommaso Guidi)
    By means of shading (contrasting light and dark), he created a 3-dimensional effect in his paintings
    Sandro Botticelli
    Added movement to Renaissance art
    High Renaissance
    During this period, the center of culture was Rome and the papacy became the major patron.
    1. Leonardo da Vinci
    2. Raffaello Sanzio (Raphael)
    3. Michelangelo Buonarroti
    Name the High Renaissance painters.
    Leonardo da Vinci
    – Ultimate Renaissance man
    – Poet, musician, sculptor, and architect
    – Most famous for his paintings “The Last Supper” and the “Mona Lisa.”
    Raffaello Sanzio (Raphael)
    – Completed many paintings and frescoes in his short lifetime.
    – Famous for paintings of Mary and Jesus; sweet-faced Madonnas in which he idealized motherhood.
    – HIs famous work “The School of Athens”
    Michelangelo Buonarroti
    – Adopted by Lorenzo de Medici
    – Most famous for painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
    Late Renaissance
    During this period, the city of Venice became a leading center of culture. The people of Venice were wicked and materialistic.
    1. Tiziano Vecelli (Titian)
    2. Jacopo Robusti (Tintoretto)
    Name the Late Renaissance painters.
    Tiziano Vecelli (Titian)
    – Known for his rich use of color
    – Especially remembered for his portraits
    – One of the few Renaissance painters to grow wealthy through his work.
    Jacopo Robusti (Tintoretto)
    – Combined the bright colors of Titian and the masterful drawing of Michelangelo
    – HIs works exhibit a dramatic excitement full of tension and action.
    Albrecht Durer
    – German painter
    – Sometimes called Leonardo of the North
    – Best remembered for his woodcarvings and engravings
    – First artist to sign even his most insignificant drawings
    Hans Holbein the Younger
    – German painter
    – Became the official court painter of Henry VIII
    – Considered the finest portrait painter of the Northern Renaissance
    Jan van Eyck
    – One of the founders of the Flemish school of painters
    – Started out as an illustrator
    – One of the first to use oil paints
    Pieter Brueghel
    – Flemish painter
    – Best remembered for his genre painting (a type of painting that depicts landscapes of real life)

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