The subject for this thesis is a survey on the building wastes minimisation in Malaysia Construction Industry. Nowadays, building and destruction waste that produced in the site is increasing and going larger part of the waste disposed in Malaysia landfill. This research is selected and carried out chiefly due to the waste stuffs from site have been mostly generated and most of the Construction Industries in Malaysia have non been rehearsing by utilizing 4Rs Concept to minimise the waste on site.
This is might do serious impact to the environment. The building waste has generated a important sum of waste to the Earth that causes major impact on the planetary. Therefore, solutions have to be implemented to minimising the building waste to cut down the impact of the environment.
Rising disposal costs and decrease in figure of landfills create a demand to seek for options to cut down, reuse, recycle and replace of building waste being generated. Under this averment, execution of building waste direction can be one of the evident solutions for the industry to minimise waste and waste disposal, finally cut downing costs incurred during the procedure and lending to the planetary “ Environmental-friendly ” motion ( Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010 ) . The building waste will increase from clip to clip in during the development of really big undertakings particularly located in Town country. Therefore, the necessity of happening appropriate solution to cut down the potency of building waste been generated.
Nowadays the waste direction is non an option any longer but necessary. It must be earnestly concerns and implement a utile tool to minimise the building waste on site. Therefore, Reused and Recycle has been known as one of the best solution to recycle the waste stuffs into recycled contents and turn into useable stuffs. Sadly though, our national domestic recycling rate still excurse around a mere five per centum ( Bernama, 2006 ) . Presently in Malaysia, it is still non much of the building industry pattern of 4Rs Concept. Thus, implementing of 4Rs Concept is one of the methods to work out the stuff waste to minimise the waste.
Harmonizing to Yusoff ( 2010 ) has seemingly stated that wastages affect non merely to the environment but besides incur excess costs. In Malaysia, there is a immense potency in reuse and recycle of building waste into alternate stuffs that is useable in Malayan Construction industry if implement right. This will hopefully convey about building revival ( Yusoff, 2010 ) . In many of the developed states have started to implement reuse and recycle of the building stuffs sharply.
The building wastes affect non merely the environment but besides incurred excess cost has been spent on the new stuff. This is chiefly due to maybe the un-used stuff on site has been damaged and extra cost demand to reorder the stuff. Therefore, there is a demand of implementing a good stuff storage to avoid damaging the stuff. Other than that, the method of reuse and recycle of waste has been mostly used on other developed counties. This means that there are has the immense potency in reuse and recycle of waste stuff on site in Malaysia. Thurs, implementing 4Rs Concept to cut down the excess cost incur on the unneeded stuffs and besides reuse and recycle of building waste in the Malayan building industry. This will hopefully minimise the building waste from being mostly generated on site.
It is evidently that most of the building industries may bring forth or bring forth a enormous sum of dust and besides solid waste from sites. These dusts and solid waste will go forth onto the sites for decennaries or merely dump into the sea that may do to H2O pollution non merely to our state but besides damaging the universe. In order to let building waste to be minimized, it is either by pull offing the stuff decently such as provide a good housework, provide proper stuff storage and so on or utilizing 4Rs Concept such as cut down, reuse, recycle and replace of stuff waste on site.
Most of the buildings industries generate tonss of dust that can be wholly cease because in every building industry during activities in on traveling, there will be waste occurred no affair what method used to forestall it. It is depend on how the undertaking direction cut down the waste to the minimal.
In Malaysia, bulk of the building industry do non take advantages or practise of utilizing reuse and recycle method and at the terminal the stuff wantonness on the building site. Consequently, this will do increasing of load on landfill lading and operation on site. Thurs, it is clip for Malaysia to get down to pull off the stuff properly and besides rehearse utilizing recycle and reused to minimise the stuff waste on site. Therefore, it is advisable to all building industries in Malaysia should get down to rehearse 4Rs Concepts in order to minimise the building waste.
The purpose of this thesis is chiefly to transport out survey sing to minimise the building waste in the building industry. The Malayan building industry should implement several methods to minimise the building waste stuff such as provide proper direction for the stuff, reuse and recycle method and so on. Therefore, all the solution should be implementing in all building industry in order to accomplish the purposes of this survey.
Aims of Undertaking
To place the types of waste that can be used to recycle or recycle in building industry.
To analyze the benefits of building waste minimisation in building industry.
To give out recommendation on how to get the better of the building waste job in building industry.
What are the types of waste that can be used to recycle and recycle in building industry?
What benefits can the building waste minimisation contribute to the building industry?
Which types of method can be implemented to get the better of the building waste job in building industry?
Background of Study
Nowadays many buildings industries around the universe have produced a enormous sum of waste into this universe. Many of the waste produced from the buildings site has been dump on all over the topographic points and it will increase from clip to clip comparatively with development of rural and urban countries if building industries did non managed them decently. Therefore, building waste direction plays an of import function to minimise or command the sum of waste that produce from the building site.
The Malayan building industry has now chiefly concerns sing to the sum of building waste generated in Malaysia. In many of the developed states have been utilizing reuse and recycle of building waste. Therefore, reuse and recycle have been recognised as one of the most feasible scheme to command and minimise the waste on site. In most of undertakings, more than half of the building wastes are reclaimable stuffs.
There are several writers have been highlighted schemes for waste minimisation. One of the schemes that find perennial reference in the literature is the scheme referred to as 3Rs – cut down, reuse, recycle. ( Shekdar, 2008 ; Wang et al. , 2008 ; Kibert and Languell, 2000 ; Teo and Loosemore, 2001 ) . Therefore, there is a good chance to implementing 4Rs construct instead than 3Rs. This is chiefly due to the 4Rs Concept is a better and feasible scheme that can be used to command and minimise the building waste.
Scope of Study and Limitation
This research is chiefly concentrating on the building wastes minimisation in Malayan building industry. In this research, a instance survey of building wastes minimisation in Malayan building industry which chiefly concentrating on metropoliss or town country such as Kuala Lumpur.
First, this research is carry out to guarantee whether that the practise of reuse and recycle waste has been implemented in Malayan building industries. Besides that, to look into the current tendency of the waste direction in Malayan building industry in order to happen out the waste minimisation method that provides smooth flow of procedure.
Second, this research is transporting out by questionnaires to the relevant respondents that have the accomplishments and cognition sing to the research subject. Not all respondents has the cognition that can lend to the research subject due to non many respondents had the experience and cognition sing to the building waste minimisation.
The marks of the respondents are chiefly focus on who have the experiences and cognition sing to the building waste minimisation in Kuala Lumpur such as contractors, specializers, professionals, undertaking director, etc.
Contribution of the survey
First of wholly, this research is carried out due to assorted grounds. The chief ground of this research is to cut down the cost of building stuff and disposal. Due to this ground less waste will be generated means that a decreased measure of stuffs will be purchased and less waste taken to landfill will cut down gate fees for disposal every bit good. This will better recovery patterns and actuate a sustained alteration in waste direction practise in future. In order to cut down the cost of building stuff, reused and recycled building waste is the best solution to dispose the waste stuffs in the building industry.
Second, reused and recycled is an economically feasible option. Using reused and recycled, the waste stuffs on site will non be dumped randomly and sent to incinerators of burned on-site or sent to landfill sites. Contractors could merely direct the stuffs to recycling Centres. From recycling of building wastes, contractors could reimburse their losingss and do a healthy net income out of it. This method is already been used in the United States.
In Malaysia, reused and recycled is still non normally practise. Therefore, there is much potency to lend on the market for recycled building wastes. Therefore, our state non merely cut down the landfill sites but besides cut down a batch of disbursals on building stuff to building industry.
The building industry produces significant sum of waste, which is about four times of that produced in families thereby accounting for more than 50 per cent of the waste deposited in a typical landfill ( Ferguson et al. , 1995 ; Coventry and Guthrie, 1998 ) . This means the rise of disposal costs and decreases in figure of landfills that create a demand to seek for other solutions to either cut down, recycle and reuse or supplying a good stuff storage direction for the stuff from being harm and lead to building waste.
Last, the contractors in every building industry should be rehearsing 3Rs Concept or supply proper developing sing on efficiency of the material storage direction. This will hopefully to forestall losingss in the building industry because the sum of building waste generated is equal to waste of money in the building company. This research is carried out to look into the best options to minimise or dispose the waste from the site in order to do the company addition net incomes.
This research will be focus on the benefits of the building waste direction, the types of waste used to recycle or recycle and the method used to get the better of the building waste in order to minimise the building waste in Malaysia building industry.
The phases of the research methodological analysis can split into 4 phases, which are:
Phase 1 – Literature Review and the Pilot Study
Phase 2 – The Technique of Data Collections
Phase 3 – The Result of Analysis and Findingss
Phase 4 – The Conclusion and Recommendation of Data Analysis
Phase 1 – Literature Review and the Pilot Study
The literature reappraisal is a critical and in depth rating of old research. The literature reappraisal serves to show and more understanding and cognition of theoretical and research issues related to research subject. In order to roll up information in the literature reappraisal, the secondary beginnings is implement which included diary articles, books, newspapers, magazines, on-line beginnings, senior thesis, etc. Therefore, a comprehensive of literature reappraisal sing to the building waste minimisation in Malayan building industry is carry out. These will hopefully supplying some utile information in transporting out the research subject in literature reappraisal. The literature reappraisal act as a usher to detect more cognition sing to the research subject.
Phase 2 – The Technique of Data Collections
Primary beginning can be collected through instance survey, questionnaire and interview. These are the effectual alternate solution that enables to roll up equal and solid information sing to research subject. The questionnaire study technique is chosen to roll up the information.
Questionnaire will be the primary informations aggregation which was selected as study method for this research. The information aggregation is based on the “ open-ended ” questionnaires will be given out 20-50 respondents to relevant individual who has the experience and cognition in building waste direction. The questionnaire was designed in several subdivisions and classs, the questionnaires will be distribute to the building industry companies located in metropolis country of Kuala Lumpur. The mark respondents to administer the questionnaire are chiefly focus on the individual who has cognition sing to the types of waste used to recycle or recycle, the benefits of the building waste direction and the method to get the better of the building waste.
Secondary beginning can be collected through diary articles and journal reappraisal. In this secondary beginning, carry out survey as much diary articles as possible in order to understand and supply aid on this research subject. Other than that, other secondary beginning in including books, newspapers, magazines, cyberspace beginnings, senior thesis will besides be carried out to carry on this thesis. The information that has been review or analyze must associate to the research subject in order to transport out this research expeditiously.
Phase 3 – The Result of Analysis and Findingss
The informations can be collected through appraising in questionnaire method. The construction of the inquiries is based on the research subject which is minimising building waste in the Malayan building industry. Approximate 20-50 sets of inquiries are send to the relevant respondents who has the experience and cognition with the building waste minimisation. The respondents are chiefly targeted on the undertaking director, specializers, professionals, etc.
After the information of questionnaires has been collected and gathered, the analysis consequence will be analysed and present into saloon charts, pie charts or histogram signifier with accounts in inside informations sing to the informations collected. Form the information that had been collected, composing up of the content of the thesis is used in this phase to compose up the consequence of analysis and findings that cover the chapters proposed in every each of the undermentioned subdivision.
Phase 4 – The Conclusion and Recommendation of Data Analysis
In this phase, the overall consequence of the study is combined and gathered, so come out with the decision of the information analysis. After consequence analyse of the information is taken, recommendation of the informations analysis from the study is suggested sing to the building waste minimisation in Malaysia building industry.
The building wastes minimisation in Malayan building industry
To place the types of waste that can be used to recycle or recycle in building industry
To analyze the benefits of building waste direction in building industry
To give out recommendation on how to get the better of the building waste job in building industry
( Secondary beginning )
Technique of Data Collection
( Primary beginning, Questionnaires )
The Result of Analysis and Findingss
A instance survey about the fire protection system in commercial edifice
A set of inquiry will be distribute to the commercial edifice ‘s users to dertermine theier cognition about fire safety
An interview would be carry out to the fire safety professionalSTAGE 3
Decision and Recommendation
Figure 1.1: The Flow Chart of the Research Methodology
Summaries of Chapters
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Research
The Chapter 1 for the undertaking and thesis is debut to the research. Under this chapter, the research worker needs to explicate to the reader that the ground that taking the thesis rubric and briefly introduce the research rubric. The research ends for this research besides one of the of import parts to be included in this chapter. The purpose, aims and hypothesis to be tested for the research rubric should be clear before start. A research content is a basic demand to be prepared before proceed to the following phase. This is to brief the whole procedure of thesis to the reader before read the content.
Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal
Literature reappraisal is to present the types of stuffs that can be reuse and recycle in Malayan building industry, the building waste direction that may take benefits to the Malayan building industry and urge on how the building waste job can be overcome in Malayan building industry. In this chapter, literature reappraisal will done by carried out surveies on Articles from the cyberspace, on-line beginnings, books and diaries sing to the building waste in Malayan building industry, the types of peculiar waste stuff that can be used to recycle and recycle in order to minimise the waste in Malaysia and urge some solution to get the better of the job sing to building waste.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
In this chapter will explicate about the research methodological analysis used in order to transport out this research. This chapter consists of the range of this chapter, the statement of the research purpose, the rational of questionnaire, research samples and in conclusion the method of analysis. In the first phase, the rule of waste direction that usually manage in Malayan building industry. The 2nd phase will be presenting the benefits of waste direction that may take benefits to the Malayan building industry. After that, present the types of waste stuff that can be used to recycle and recycle and urge the most effectual ways to get the better of the waste job in Malayan building industry. In order to accomplish effectual and efficient feedback from the respondent, all the design questionnaire should run into with all the research aims.
Chapter 4: The Result of Analysis and Findingss
In this chapter will analyze the consequence from the questionnaire that collected from the relevant respondents. The intent of this chapter will analyze the informations collected and to analyze the information that obtained to charts or histogram from the respondents sing of that peculiar rubric.
Chapter 5: Decisions and Recommendations
In this chapter will sum up the decision and recommendation regarding of the undertaking and thesis on this research subject. Base on the consequence that obtained, the research worker should compose down the decision and recommendation on this research subject. This will reason all the information obtained and summarize the major decision to briefly explicate what this research subject is all about.
As a decision, a brief debut has been stated in this chapter sing to the building waste minimisation in Malayan building industry. Besides that, background of building waste in the industries is reviewed and come out with several factors such as cut down, reused, recycle and replace. Next, job statement has been stated the jobs that face in the current building industries sing to the waste, therefore 4Rs Concept is implement to minimise the waste. Therefore, the purpose and aims is carried out to find the research subject. Other than that, the range of the survey has besides carried out to come out with the location that the research worker traveling to concentrate and what are the targeted respondents. Last, research methodological analysis is carried out to find the method used to roll up the informations such as primary and secondary beginnings. After the information collected, analysis of the consequence will be conducted to analyze the information obtained into charts and histogram.
Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal
In this chapter, literature reappraisal is traveling to transport out in deepness survey on the overview of the Malayan Construction industry. After that, present the types of waste that usually generated in Malaysia and the method to get the better of the building waste from site in order to minimise the waste produce on site. The procedure of this is to look into whether Malaysia building industry has practise and carried out the 4R Concept in order to minimise the waste on site.
2.2 The overview of the Malayan building industry
Figure 2.1: National GDP and Construction GDP of 2006 to 2009
In Figure 2.1 stated that the GDP has invariably increased from 2008 to 2009. This means that the economic system is turning in Malaysia. Therefore, Malayan building undertakings are needed to give impulse to the economic system to do house on the Construction GDP. When the economic system grows, the criterion of life, chance for the occupations, economic system will increase every bit good.
Whenever things that has a good side, there will be besides a bad side of it. The bad side is that as there are demands of developments in Malaysia, the building wastes produced will besides increase every bit good. The building industry will be known as non-environmental friendly industry due to pollution of air, H2O, sound and land. Other than that, it will besides do natural catastrophes such as implosion therapy, landslides and so on. This is chiefly due to inappropriate building direction and Lack of concern for the environmental effects of big development undertakings.
It is believed that the GDP has increase invariably. This shows that the criterion of life, chance for the occupations, economic system is increasing which mean waste generate by the Malayan building industry will be besides increasing that may take to pollution such as noise, air, H2O and land. This may do to natural catastrophe such as landslides and deluging. Most of the developed states such as Kuala Lumpur, they did non concern about the waste that produced to the environment and they merely concern about the net income they are traveling to gain after the undertaking is done.
The building industry in our state is fast going a large waste generator. The extended edifice and substructure development undertakings have led to a immense addition of building and destruction waste late. With that in head, the authorities introduced EIA ( Environmental Impact Assessment ) in 1987 within the model of the Environmental Quality Act ( EQA ) . Environmental impact appraisal ( HA ) is a legal step to control environmental pollution and ecological devastation at the beginning Environmental reappraisal of undertakings prevents non merely environmental debasement, but besides building mistakes and defective economic analysis ( Yusoff, 2010 ) .
In developed state such as United States, the building industry has already produced tones and tones of building waste on site. Whereas, in under develop state such as Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is expected that legion Numberss of wastes is traveling to bring forth in the Malaysia building industry. The waste produced in Malaysia will be more than United Stage due to there is more development on-going that cause waste decidedly. Recently, the development of edifice and substructures project generates most of the waste due to choping, leveling, mending work. On the other manus, the authorities besides introduce the Environmental Impact Assessment. Environmental impact appraisal is a legal step to halt environmental pollution and ecological devastation at the beginning Environmental reappraisal of undertakings. It is non merely minimising the waste that generated in Malayan building industry but besides environmental debasement.
Harmonizing to Ibrahim ( 2010 ) has stated that the building stuffs wastage has shown that the costs of stuffs have been exceeded 50 per centum of the building cost, depending on the type of building. The chief grounds of doing such material wastage due to hapless puting out mistake, craft, telling of stuffs non run intoing specifications and demand, inordinate usage of stuffs, breakage in hapless handling of stuffs and improper planning of storage ( Ibrahim, 2010 ) .
This shows that in the building industry, the per centum of the building waste produced consist of really high per centum in Malaysia. Therefore it is clip for everyone to take into consideration of implementing several ways to minimise the building waste on site.
Some waste is ineluctable even under perfect conditions of design and building. But inordinate waste is common in the building procedure and has received lack consideration by contractors or the industry. The waste degrees in Malaysia is well high and from the Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2005 we may happen that waste may be generated and treated in many signifiers. “ Based on presentment received by the Department of Environment ( DOE ) , a sum of 548,916.11 metric metric tons of scheduled wastes were generated in 2005 as compared to 469,584.07 metric metric tons in 2004 ( Teoh Su Ping, 2009 ) .
It is surprisingly that the building stuff turned up to be building waste quickly and bit by bit increasing from 2004 to 2005. It is merely within one twelvemonth, the waste that generated has gone up quickly and the volume of the waste is calculated in metric metric tons of wastes which mean the production of waste is really serious in Malaysia. There is a batch of chance to better on waste minimisation in Malaysia.
The dislocation harmonizing to waste classs and industry types are given in ( Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.3 severally ) . Of the entire wastes produced ; 8s5,734.92 metric metric tons ( 15.6 % ) were treated and disposed at Kualiti Alam Sdn. Bhd. , 8,423.26 metric metric tons ( 1.5 % ) were treated and disposed at Trinekens ( Sarawak ) Sdn. Bhd. , 17,650.01 metric metric tons ( 3.2 % ) of clinical wastes were incinerated at accredited off-site installations, 5,224.00 metric metric tons ( 1.0 % ) were exported for recovery intents, 149,569.99 metric metric tons ( 27.2 % ) of scheduled wastes were recovered at off-site installations, an estimated 120,345.25 metric metric tons ( 21.9 % ) were treated on-site and 161,968.68 metric metric tons ( 29.5 % ) were stored onsite at waste generators ‘ premises. Six land farms and 16 on-site waste incinerators had been licensed by DOE to let for on-site intervention and incineration severally. ” ( Malaysia environmental quality study, 2005 ) .
Figure 2.2 Department of energy: Quality of Scheduled Waste Generated by Category, 2005
( Beginnings from Malaysia environmental quality study, 2005 )
Figure 2.3 Department of energy: Quality of Scheduled Waste Generated by Industry, 2005
( Beginnings from Malaysia environmental quality study, 2005 )
2.3 The types of waste produced in Malaya
There are assorted waste generated in Malaysia industry. The waste can be distinguishing as followers:
Construction and destruction waste
Commercial and industrial waste
In this research, it is chiefly focal point on building and destruction waste that generated in Malayan building industry. The building and destruction waste is accounted as the 2nd highest in Malaysia. Although building and destruction waste is non the highest waste that produced in Malaysia but building and destruction is consider rather high in Malaysia.
Figure 2.4 Types of waste produced in Malaya
2.3.1 Construction and Demolition waste
The building industry uses a broad of stuff including timber or wood, concrete, sum, wallboard, masonry merchandises, plastic and metal merchandises. In add-on, risky stuffs such as pigments, dissolvers, and adhesive are used. Many of these stuffs finally become wastes. Typically, up to 10 per centum of the stuffs delivered to a building site become waste ( Magdich, P. 1995 ) .
Harmonizing to Magdich ( 1995 ) , it is apprehensible that the most of the stuff used in building industries are usually wood, concrete, aggregative, metal and so on. The building waste defines as most of these stuffs merely uses 90 per centum in the building and the remainder of the 10 per centum will be stop up wastage on site. The destruction waste defines as waste that generate from the destruction work of the edifices or constructions. The constituent of the building and destruction wastes differ chiefly depend on the mature of the undertaking or activities involved. Table 2.1 shows the major constituents of the Construction and Demolition wastes.
Concrete / Masonry
Concrete / Masonry
Dirt and land-clearing waste
Hazardous waste ( solvent / Oils )
Table 2.1: Major Component of Construction and Demolition wastes
( Beginning from Magdich.P.1995 )
Percent ( % ) By Volume
Masonry and Tile
Plastic and Foam
100The estimated composing of Construction wastes in Malaysia is shown in below Table 2.2 and 2.3.
Table 2.2: Estimated Composition of Construction waste in Malaya
( Beginning from Magdich, P. 1995 )
Percent ( % ) By Volume
Masonry and Tile
Table 2.3: Estimated Composition of Demolition waste in Malaya
( Beginning from Magdich, P. 1995 )
2.4 The categorization of the building waste
In building industry, the waste can be produced in anytime and anyplace on site or off site. There are great possibility of the material waste may be originate when bringings to site is inappropriate handling or stuff on sites have been tick overing for excessively long. This means the wastes can be occurred in any minute and in all phases of building the undertakings. Therefore, stuff should be managing suitably, traveling carefully, hive awaying in the appropriate storage in order to minimise the stuff to go wastage. Material wastes can be classified into four facets such as:
Evitable waste means material waste that can be avoided and controlled in Malayan building industry by the contractors. Therefore, the contractor must seek his best to minimise the waste that produce from site by on site supervising. However, the contractor must seek for an alternate solution to minimise the evitable waste. The contractor besides must engage supervisor to look into the stuff bringing and besides during installing on site. There are an alternate solution is that hire guards on the topographic point where paths and vehicles entree and emersion to forestall the larceny from coming into the site. This is to avoid the larceny damaging the stuff on site. Other than that, a proper storage country is needed to forestall or minimise the stuff from being deteriorate and harm.
Ineluctable waste means material waste on site that can non be controlled by the contractors. The contractor must accept this type of waste that produced during the operation. On the building site, the operators are working in a feverish and sophisticated environment which they are non able to manage the stuffs decently and will be stop up immense possibility of material waste generate on site.
Ineluctable waste must be allowed such as the allowance of material waste including pricing during tendering phase. This should be allowance when the purchase section are fixing the stuff agendas and telling of stuffs.
Most of the stuff that leads to ineluctable waste is “ cutting waste ” . For illustrations, the operator cuts the stuffs such as bricks, lumbers, reinforcement bars and sheeted stuffs to accommodate the dimensions harmonizing to the specification so the remainder of the cutting waste stop up to be waste that ineluctable.
Potential waste means the stuffs of any other constituents delivered to site, all of these stuffs have the possible that may take to blow. All of these stuffs may be harm when handling, traveling, stacking and hive awaying. Materials such as tiles are really delicate which may easy damage if it is non decently stored or handled.
Other than that, the possible waste may originate when there are excessively many stuffs are delivered to the site without equal storage for hive awaying the stuffs. This may take to possible waste if the stuffs tick overing or fresh for excessively long. Largely the site forces will be asked to take it every bit shortly as possible to avoid amendss of stuff. They will be so reassigning these inordinate stuffs to other sites.
2.4.4 Compensating waste
Compensating waste agencies when the stuffs or constituents are ordered to site and these stuffs will be used for its intent other than those specified. For illustration, for counterbalancing waste is known as “ permutation waste ” . It is meant that the specification of the walls should be constructed by concrete blocks, but alternatively of concrete blocks, the operator replaced the concrete block with common bricks. This means there are losingss of money in altering the used of the stuff due to the common bricks are more dearly-won than the concrete blocks.
2.5 The causes of the building waste
There are many factors that contribute to building waste coevals on site. The building waste may do due to individual or a combination of many causes. The building waste can be organized under four stages: ( 1 ) design ; ( 2 ) procurance ; ( 3 ) handling of stuffs ; ( 4 ) operation ( Ekanayake, 2000 ) .
From the statement above, it is stated that the building wastes coevals can be divided into four distinguishable stages such as:
Causes of Waste
Lack of attending paid to dimensional coordination of merchandises
Changes made to the design while building is in advancement
Designer ‘s rawness in method and sequence of building
Lack of information in the drawings
Mistakes in contract paperss
Incomplete contract paperss at beginning of undertaking
Ordering mistakes ( e.g. telling significantly more or less )
Lack of possibilities to order little measures
Purchased merchandises that do non follow with specification
Damagess during transit
Inappropriate storage taking to damage or impairment
Use of whatever stuff which are close to working topographic point
Unfriendly attitudes of undertaking squad and laborers
Mistakes by tradespersons or laborers
Accidents due to negligence
Damage to work done caused by subsequent trades
Use of wrong stuff, therefore necessitating replacing
Required measure ill-defined due to improper planning
Delaies in passing of information to the contractor on types and sizes of merchandises to be used
Table 2.1: Causes of building waste ( Ekanayake, 2000 )
Design Stage can be lead to inordinate film editing of wastes due to carelessness or misidentify done by the interior decorator on site. The interior decorator ‘s rawness in method and sequence of building can impact the building advancement of a undertaking. Other than that, the alterations made to the design while building is in advancement can besides do a batch of waste in constructability and assemblies of the edifice.
In the procurance, one of the chief causes of telling mistake is material order to the site is over-ordering or deficiency of telling. Besides that, the stuff purchased that do non follow with the specification. Last, deficiency of lovingness will ensue to damage of building stuffs during transit that may besides take to waste.
Inappropriate storage of stuff will take to damage or impairment that will do wastage of stuff on site. Besides that, deficiency of confined infinite on site ever cause job for stuffs storage. In the building industry, there are many unfriendly attitudes of undertaking squad and laborers appear on site that manage the stuffs in the bad mode such as bad stacking, harm and ripening of formwork, etc.
Mistakes by tradespersons or laborers will take to damage of stuff on site. This mistakes cause by the tradesperson that damaging the stuff are largely accidents due to negligence. Materials that are wholly constructed to the edifice lead to damage caused by subsequent trades such as usage of wrong stuff or non harmonizing to the specification, therefore destruction and replacing are required. Therefore, this will bring forth a batch of waste during the phase of destruction and replacing of other stuff.
2.6 The impact of building waste
In order to minimise or cut down the building waste in the Malayan Construction Industry, it is of import determine to effects that affect the building waste. This will hopefully forestall the bad practise of being reiterating and go on making building waste in Malayan Construction Industry.
Harmonizing to Teoh ( 2009 ) said that the building industry has changed well in recent old ages, act uponing production rates, building techniques and the entire measure of stuffs used each twelvemonth. The more complicated the undertaking, the larger volume of stuffs is being used. As a consequence, Material Storage Management is so deeded in building industries as shown in the followers:
The building waste in the building site will take to low profitableness of the undertaking. The issue of the company losingss or face low profitableness is chiefly due to the fresh stuff on site bend to blow stuff. Therefore, in every building company shall take into consideration sing the affair stated in order to minimise the building waste and besides to forestall low profitableness of the company.
Construction clip hold
The hold of building work may happen due to incorrect qualities and types of stuffs are used. Furthermore, every bit good as the clip spent for the Reconstruction and replacing for the goods is one of the issue in detaining building clip ( Teoh Su Ping, 2009 ) . The another issue of doing hold can be known as harm, it is occurred during the delivering of stuffs to the site, material deliver to the site excessively early, and improper storage of stuffs, so on. The chief issue of hold in building period is chiefly due to miss of planning in Material Management, the undertaking is non merely delayed but besides will do a batch of waste being generated on site.
One of the ground that lead to low productiveness in the company which is affect by hapless direction in material storage such as improper storages for stuffs, hold stuffs bringing on site, etc. For illustration, the stuff without proper storage in a engorged site that may take to jobs of blockading the operation works. This will impact the low productiveness of the building advancement on site.
High degree of stuffs wastage
This is chiefly due to hapless stuffs storage direction. Most of the stuffs are being wasted due to hapless stuff handling that will probably to be damaged if topographic point on the expose country. This may be occurred because of over-ordering of stuffs supply. Other than that, this will besides do higher lever of stuffs loss, hooliganism and so on.
Poor stuffs storage
The stuffs without proper planning of the topographic point to hive away the stuff, the stuff will be ended up neglect on site and do the handiness of site congested. The location of the material storage should be program sagely in order to hive away the stuff in the right status or topographic point to forestall from stealer and besides workers who work on site. For illustration, if the valuable stuffs stored in an unfastened shop such as door cupboard, tiles, etc which will usually being stolen by foreign workers. Therefore, the stuffs should be kept in the safe topographic point to forestall lost.
Materials deficit or surpluss on site
This is chiefly cause by improper planning of telling and presenting of stuff goods, there is a high inclination of confronting the stuffs shortage on site. Excess of stuffs delivered to the site has the high potency on making batch storage jobs. Besides that, if the building stuffs are delivered on site excessively early, this may be a high per centum of hazard that stuffs being damaged on site ( Teoh Su Ping, 2009 ) .
2.7 The building waste minimisation steps
Construction waste minimisation steps should be implementing to supply minimum waste on site. There are several steps need to be taken in order to minimise the waste on site. The steps such as:
Standardization of design to better buildability and cut down the measure of off-cuts
Standardization has the possible to dramatically cut down the current production of building waste. By planing room countries and ceiling highs in multiples of standard stuff sizes a significant decrease in off-cuts had been achieved ( Andrew R.J. Dainty, 2004 ) .
Stock control measures to avoid the over ordination of stuffs
Over-ordering of stuffs emerged as a peculiarly important country of site direction control taking to stuffs wastage. Tighter stock control measures coupled to the careful monitoring of on-site advancement had helped to cut down the sum of unneeded waste. Merely raising consciousness of this issue amongst site directors had provably shown to cut down waste degrees in several of the instance survey undertakings ( Andrew R.J. Dainty, 2004 ) .
Improved instruction of the work force
All of the sources agreed that the attitudes of secret agents accounted for a important proportion of on-site wastage. “ Toolbox negotiations ” were a scheme used on most of the instance survey undertakings to educate secret agents in the benefits of waste minimization ( Andrew R.J. Dainty, 2004 ) .
Supply concatenation confederations with suppliers/recycling companies
This step aimed at covering with waste in the most effectual mode to cut down the impact produced. Partnerships with providers had led to extra stuffs being removed, reprocessed and in some instances, reused. Such patterns were supported with fiscal inducements for waste minimization ( Andrew R.J. Dainty, 2004 ) .
Provision of waste skips for specific stuffs
Centrally commanding skips for stuffs had helped to advance a civilization of stuff segregation and recycling. Retaining duty for waste direction besides allowed the chief contractor to keep control over remotion of waste and recovering costs through recycling. ( Andrew R.J. Dainty, 2004 ) .
Just-in-time bringing scheme
Reducing the clip that stuffs were stored on site reduced the potency for harm from hapless handling and elements. Adopting a just-in-time bringing scheme had eliminated long-run site storage every bit good as cut downing the possible for over-ordering stuffs on several undertakings ( Andrew R.J. Dainty, 2004 ) .
Execution of a waste decrease model program
The Hong Kong Government launched a Waste Reduction Framework Plan ( WRFP ) in 1998 ( WDO, 2003 ) . The program aims to better public consciousness on waste decrease. The WRFP sets out programmes to avoid and understate waste ; promote recovery, recycling and reuse of waste stuffs ; protract the life of bing landfills and cut down the increasing costs of waste transit, intervention and disposal. The WRFP besides provides suggestions on how different economic sectors can integrate assorted waste decrease steps into their concern patterns. The program is expected to convey a alteration from the traditional attitude of roll uping and transporting waste to the bar and reuse of waste stuffs ( Vivian W.Y. Tam, 2007 ) . WRFP specifies six aims ( WRFP, 1998 ) :
Widening the utile life of the strategic landfills ;
Understating the sum of waste to be disposed ;
Helping conserve the Earth ‘s non-renewable resources ;
Increasing the waste recycling rate ;
Understating the costs of aggregation, intervention and disposal of waste ; and
Bettering institutional agreements ( WRFP, 1998 ) .
Implementing recycling strategy
Whilst waste recycling has been adopted in Hong Kong, the pattern is chiefly promoted among commercial and industrial sectors. Recycling has non been efficaciously promoted among building practicians ( EPD, 2001 ) . To advance recycling in the private building sector, a Demonstration Scheme ( DEMOS ) has been introduced to promote the acceptance of new engineerings in waste minimization and recycling. In order to foster better recycling consciousness, the authorities intends to supply inducements for people to put up recycling workss. Intermediate sorting workss for building waste are being provided as a agency of guaranting that the minimal sum ends up in landfills and that the bulk is recycled or reused for land renewal sites ( Vivian W.Y. Tam, 2007 ) .
The method to minimise the building waste
The 4Rs Concept
The definition of “ 4R ” construct can be mentioning to cut down, reuse, recycle and replace which is well-known and common utilizing in most of the developed states. The significance of 4Rs Concept is that cut downing the usage of stuffs and goods so that the potency of waste on site will be cut down. The following solution will be utilizing the reuse and recycle of the natural stuffs and reclaimable stuffs turn into utile stuffs that can be continue usage in building site. Other than that, replace such as replacing of another stuff that has a longer lifetime. For illustrations, replacing lumber formworks as IBS system formworks that can non be easy turn up to waste.
The 4Rs Concept can be categorise as:
Reduce can be defined as cut down the usage of the building stuffs and goods in order to minimise or cut down waste. This will guarantee that less use of building stuffs and therefore guarantee less waste being bring forth on site. ( Alam, 2012 ) .
Reuse can be defined as usage building stuffs that can be reuse as many clip to avoiding the usage of disposable goods that merely used one time. Use of stuffs that can be reuse and this can hopefully pro-long the usage of stuffs and goods before they degradation into waste ( Alam, 2012 ) .
Recycle can be defined as recycle the reclaimable stuffs into goods that can still be used in the building industry. Unfortunately, non all building waste can be used to recycle but the many of the building industry has started to pattern in United States. When waste stuffs are recycled, these provide industry with an alternate beginning of natural stuffs. This consequences in less demand for virgin stuffs whoseA extraction, conveyance and processing are major beginnings of nursery gas emanations. Recycling non merely reduces nursery gas emanations but besides minimising the building waste every bit good ( Alam, 2012 ) .
Replace can be defined as replacing of an alternate stuff that has a long lifetime which can be used for a long period and barely turn into waste. For illustrations, replacing lumber formworks as IBS system formworks that is lasting plenty to stand for longer period.
The types of recycling building stuffs
Bricks and blocks
The lifetime of the Bricks and blocks can be last for about over 100 old ages. The bricks and blocks that have been antecedently used in the building industries can be used to recycle and recycle.
Most of the beginnings of brick and block turned up to blow chiefly cause by harm during on and off lading, inordinate of over ordination and so on. The waste of brick and block are largely come from walls, column, bing edifice which include of common clay bricks, aerated blocks and precast concrete.
The undamaged brick and block can be reused in the other new undertaking. Other than recycling the brick and block, the brick and block that is harm can besides be used to recycle as ( Business Gateway, n.d. ) :
To do sum for the usage of general fill or main road sub-base in landscape gardening.
To fabricate new bricks and blocks
To do such surface as tennis tribunals and sports paths as works substrate
The spectacless that have been antecedently used in the building industries can be process into a functional stuff. Most of the glass waste can be found in the destruction undertakings such as the broken Fluorescent lighting, Windowss and mirror and besides the Structural spectacless such as the modern offices with high terminal spectacless around the edifice.
The chief causes of glass wastage are over telling of stuffs, breakages during installing and harm during storage ( Business Gateway, n.d. ) . The glass is a really delicate stuff which required careful handling. Therefore, the storage for glass stuffs should be after cleverly and sagely in order to minimise or hopefully to forestall it from broken.
The glass waste in the building industry can be used to recycle and recycle by traveling into a procedure of suppression, testing to take taint, air categorization, and size categorization, rinsing and drying of the glass waste. After the glass has been all of the procedure phases, the glass can be known as cured glass. The cured glass can be used as cosmetic stuffs, filtration medium, insularity, containers and so on.
Most of the forests that have been antecedently used in the building industries can be used to recycle. Most of the wood waste can be found in the assortment of signifiers in the undertakings due to the used of wood as lumber formwork is common used in Malayan building Industries.
The chief causes of wood waste are palettes, crates, beams, window and door frames, doors, floor boards, shuttering, fencing and panels, such as hardboard ( Business Gateway, n.d. ) .
The wood waste that obtained in building industry can be used to recycle by fabricating wood wastes, recyclable and reclaimable wood stuffs from destruction and building, including palettes, the wood is chipped for other utilizations.
Most of the plastic that have been used in the building industries are chiefly organ pipe, window frames, interior adjustments and so on.
The chief causes of fictile waste are over-estimated of telling and disposal of off-cuts and fresh stuffs, over-specified undertaking design, hapless storage and handling and so on.
The scope of fictile waste that obtained in building industry can be used to recycle as polyethylene terephthalate ( PET ) , high denseness polythene ( HDPE ) , low denseness polythene ( LDPE ) , polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) and besides ABS ( a copolymer of propenonitrile, butadiene and cinnamene ) polymers.
Gypsum gypsum board
Most of the gypsum gypsum board is manufactured into gypsum board, plaster and other specializer boards for fire protection.
The causes of gypsum gypsum board waste are damaged due to hapless design, hapless storage and handling, over ordination, disposal of fresh stuffs and off-site film editing ( Business Gateway, n.d. ) . The plasterboard wastage can be generated in the building industry during the installing.
The options for recycling waste gypsum board produced on your building site include ( Business Gateway, n.d. ) :
Sending waste to independent gypsum board recyclers to do into new gypsum board and cement
Sending waste to household waste recycling Centres
Using gypsum as a dirt conditioner
Using gypsum to do bathroom furniture moldings
The insularity that has been antecedently used in the building industries can be used to recycle every bit good. Most of the insularity wastes can be found in the destruction and refurbishment undertakings. Insulation stuffs such as fiberglass, mineral wool, polystyrene, spray froth, polyurethane, fiberboard and so on. These insularity stuffs are really delicate which required careful installing.
The causes of insularity waste chiefly due to over-estimate of telling and harm of fresh stuffs, telling the incorrect specifications or types of insularity, over-designed undertakings, hapless pre-formed design, hapless storage and handling. These are the chief causes of wastage for insularity that Malayan building industry normally faced.
The options for recycling waste insularity produced on your building site include ( Business Gateway, n.d. ) :
Direct reuse of off-cuts
Returning stuffs through take-back strategies offered by makers
Compressed stone wool ceiling tile industry
Reclamation and reprocessing after taking drosss such as prison guards and nails
3.0 The benefits of minimising the building waste
Harmonizing to El-Haggar ( 2007 ) , proper building waste direction will supply economic benefits by diminishing the cost of the undertaking through proper execution of a waste direction program. Apart from economic benefits, waste direction may positively lend to the undermentioned facets ( Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010 ) :
Cost economy and net income maximization
An increased accent on waste decrease, reuse and recycling may bring forth favorable results such as cost economy. Unnecessary purchase of new building stuffs that may be substituted by reused or recycled 1s consequences in extra costs. In add-on, bring forthing less waste from building undertakings consequences in decrease in disposal costs and landfill charges ; finally cutting down the entire undertaking costs. Furthermore, the cost economy, in bend, can maximise net income ( Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010 ) .
Reduced demand for landfill infinites
Minimizing the sum of waste sent to landfills for disposal can take to less demand for landfill and decrease of negative environmental effects such as noise, pollution effects of landfill every bit good as emanation and residues from incinerators ( Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010 ) .
Improved resource direction
Waste direction besides involves be aftering and control of resources committed to undertakings in order to command the sum of waste generated. Therefore, better control of resources may be achieved with decrease in waste every bit good as betterment of full resource direction public presentation ( Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010 ) .
Implementing waste direction as a company policy may let companies to heighten their public images as “ environmental-friendly companies ” heightening their feeling on clients ( Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010 ) .
Productivity and quality betterment
Productiveness can be improved by avoiding holds caused by reordering and buy backing of stuffs that have been wasted one time. By choosing stuff of good quality and lastingness, important sum of waste coevals caused by replacing of hapless choice stuff during the life rhythm of installations can be avoided ( Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010 ) .
In this chapter, the causes and impact of the building waste has been carried out survey to understand what is the causes and impact that the building waste in the Malayan building industry. Therefore, there are several steps has been implemented to minimise the building waste. In this chapter, the 4Rs Concept has been implemented whether it has the potency of to minimise the waste in the Malayan building industry. Other than that, the types of stuffs that can be used to recycle and recycle were identified in this chapter. Last, the benefits of minimising the building waste which besides been discussed. The survey of this research subject is to discourse whether Malayan building industry did practise of the 4Rs Concept or non.