Police organizations are far more complex than any public organization in terms of huge number of human resource, organizational system and organizational dynamics. This organizational dynamics and systems have behavioral orientations that reflect the dominance, police occupational culture, job performance of police officers and organizational self-esteem of police officers. Afolabi and Adesina (2006) suggested that traditional police culture is in need to change operational ineffectiveness via promoting team collaboration and motivating individual police officers job performance. Police culture is commonly characterized as “widely shared attitudes, values, and norms that serve to manage strains created by the nature of police work…and the punitive practices of police management and supervision” (Paoline, 2004, p. 207). Norms, values, and attitudes within policing organizations have been altered by the changes in policing, restructuring the police culture as more fragmented (Paoline, 2004).
The fragmentation of the police culture has led to variations in police style, job performance, job satisfaction and attitudes toward the organization (McKinnon, Jill L. et al., 2003). In general employee job performance is influenced by internal and external factors. Internal factors are the ones coming from within individual self-such as motivation, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Whereas external factor is the ones coming from outside individual self-consisting of leadership, job security and organization culture (Paoline, 2004).
Organizational Culture is one of the external factors that influence employee job performance. This factor consists of values evolving within a particular organization which can be used to direct the behavior of organization members (Paoline, 2004). Not only organizational culture influences the job performance, but also it has a massive connection with the job satisfaction. As Job satisfaction can be defines as a certain pleasurable emotional condition in which employees feel towards their job tasks and responsibilities (McKinnon, Jill L. et al., 2003). The employees job satisfaction will be high should they perceived well towards the organizational culture and vice versa (Sy, Tram, O’Hara, 2006). An employee who are satisfied with his job role and consider his job as something fun to do will tend to have a good job performance. There is another variable that influence the employee job performance besides organizational culture and job satisfaction which is organizational self-esteem.
Self-esteem of individuals clearly influences their behavior and performance both at work and in general life. Researchers have shown that self-esteem is too generic to be used in an organizational context to measure the impact of organization towards employee’s behavior and performance. Organization-Based-Self-Esteem was introduced as a more accurate representation of self-esteem that other self-constructs (Kim, S., Kim, H. and Lee, J., 2015). Organization-Based-Self-Esteem explains the level that employees believe they can satisfy their needs by involving in organizational activities (Pierce, et al, 1989).
Theoretically, empirical studies were generated widespread research concerning its benefits in the workplace, including job performance (Paoline, 2004), job satisfaction (Sy et al. 2006), job stress (Nikolaou and Tsaousis, 2002), and leadership effectiveness (Higgs and Aitken 2003). Furthermore, until present, there is no research has been conducted in the organization itself to investigating the relationship between job satisfaction toward job performance among the employees.
However, most research on police officers’ job performance has been undertaken in relation to individual factors while ignoring the role or contribution of police organizational culture, organizational self-esteem within police organizations. Therefore, one way to explore and describe the contribution of police occupational culture, organizational self-esteem, and police job satisfaction to police work will be to identify commonalities among the variables that police organization most value, and to consider the extent to which all variables are related to these areas.