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    What was the main usefulness of the lateen sail?
    It maximized use of monsoon trade winds.
    The magnetic needle compass was so important because it allowed navigators to:
    sail under cloudy skies on the open seas.
    What led to the growth of Melaka as a cosmopolitan entrepôt?
    Its strategic location between the Indian Ocean and South China Sea
    Which of the following is a reason for the success of Islamic trading firms in the Mediterranean?
    They benefitted from a legal system that promoted a favorable business environment.
    Which of the following accurately describes commerce in Song ports?
    State officials registered, examined, and taxed cargo on ships.
    Which of the following accurately reflects slavery in Islamic society between 1000 and 1300 CE?
    Slaves served as seafarers, soldiers, domestics, and plantation workers
    Which of the following reflects the attitude exhibited by Muslim rulers toward Jews, Christians, and
    Zoroastrians, as long as they accepted Islam’s political rule?
    Non-Muslims were free to choose their own religious leaders and settle internal disputes.
    In the Islamic world circa 1300 CE, which of the following provided unity?
    The Sufi movement offered a unifying force within Islam, despite disapproval from the clerics.
    Which of the following shows the impact of Ibn Rushd’s work outside of the Muslim world?
    He wrote the Shah Nama, which influenced Chinese literature.
    Which of the following contributed to the Sufi’s success in spreading Islam to common people?
    Living in communal brotherhoods and the emotional accessibility of their mystical practices
    Which of the following explains the success enjoyed by Turkish warlords in conquering sections of
    South Asia?
    They introduced their own culture while accepting local practices such as the varna system.
    Which of the following was the most successful Islamic state in India during the thirteenth century?
    The Delhi Sultanate
    Which of the following exemplifies the cultural diversity and blending that took place in the Delhi
    Multiple languages flourished, including Turkic, Persian, and many local Indian languges.
    Turkic rulers in India hastened the absorption of Buddhism into Hinduism by which of the following actions?
    Depriving Buddhism of local spiritual leaders by destroying large monasteries
    The Song dynasty was unable to completely secure its reign because:
    the Song were unable to contain the northern nomadic tribes
    Which of the following made Song iron production in the eleventh century equal to that of Europe in the eighteenth century?
    Using piston-driven bellows
    Which of the following was an effect of the Song economy’s rapid expansion?
    The supply of metal currency could not meet the demand for it, leading to the creation of paper money.
    How did Some Emperors lessen the power of the hereditary aristocracy?
    They increased the number and power of scholar officials in the government bureaucracy.
    Which one of the following accurately characterizes the Song dynasty’s power?
    The Song were relatively weak militarily, despite some of their technological advantages.
    Between 1000 and 1300, which of the following accurately describes Japan’s leaders outside of
    They began to distance themselves from Chinese influence concerning political and social authority.
    By the early 1300s, which of the following new social groups supported regional nobles in their competition for political and cultural power with the emperor in Heian?
    Ambitious samurai
    What led to a fusion of religious and cultural influences in Southeast Asia?
    The Malay Peninsula was home to many entrepôts for a variety of merchants shuttling between India and China.
    What helped crystallize Chinese cultural identity during the Song dynasty?
    A print culture established classical Chinese as the common language among educated classes in East Asia.
    Which of the following was the most important political and social change after the Carolingian
    Empire collapsed?
    The class of knights subjugated previously free peasants, leading to serfdom in much of western Europe.
    Why did the rulers of Kievan Russia reject western European religious and political models?
    Orthodox Christianity spread to Kiev from Constantinople, and Russian trade ties were to the south and east.
    In what ways was Christian Europe changing during the period from 1000 to 1300 CE?
    New religious orders and universities arose, and the number of parish churches increased.
    Which of the following accurately describes Francis of Assisi and his followers?
    They preached that European believers should weep, confess their sins to their local priest, and strive to become better Christians.
    Which of the following accurately reflects the thought of Thomas Aquinas?
    He attempted to prove that Christianity was the only religion that fully met the aspirations of all rational human beings.
    Which of the following best summarizes the effect of the Crusades on the Southwest Asia?
    Muslim feelings hardened against the Franks and the millions of Christians who had previously lived peacefully in Egypt and Syria.
    Which of the following is one of the elements vital to the creation of Europe’s Christian identity?
    The emergence of universities and a class of intellectuals associated with them
    Why were the Spanish conquest of Toledo and the expulsion of Muslim forces from Sicily said to be more important than the Crusades?
    These campaigns marked turning points in relations between Christian and
    Muslim power in the Mediterranean.
    What was the predominant form of social organization in the tropical rain forests of western and central Africa?
    Small-scale farming societies led by local councils
    What allowed the Mande-speaking peoples to become the primary agents for social and economic integration within West Africa?
    Their political organization and expertise in commerce
    What was an effect of Mansa Musa’s hajj on the Muslim world?
    It demonstrated that West Africa was no longer on the isolated periphery of Muslim lands.
    Which of the following describes the importance of Timbuktu in the fourteenth century?
    It was a commercial center in West Africa that was an intellectual center for
    Muslim scholars.
    Which of the following were the most valued commodities shipped from the East African coast?
    Slaves and gold
    Which of the following is an accurate description of the Chimú Empire’s growth in South America?
    It expanded across numerous ecological zones from pastoral highlands to fishing grounds on the Pacific Coast.
    Which of the following is a similarity between the Chimú and the Han and Sui Empires?
    The bureaucracy oversaw the construction and maintenance of irrigation canals.
    Which of the following accurately describes the Toltecs of Mesoamerica?
    They rose to power rapidly because they filled the void left by the decline of the city of Teotihuacán.
    Which of the following is a similarity between Chan Chan, Tula, and Cahokia?
    All three were the hubs of major regional trading networks.
    Which of the following correctly characterizes the Cahokians?
    The Cahokians built, without draft animals or the use of the wheel, large earthen mounds for use in religious ceremonies.
    Which of the following constitutes a reason for the beginning of the Mongol invasions under Chinggis
    The need to find new grazing land for their herds, which were growing too quickly for available resources
    What was one of the reasons for the Mongols’ success in conquering and governing extensive realms?
    They incorporated some of the ways and technology of conquered people.
    In contrast to Kublai Khan’s actions when he captured Hangzhou, what were Hulagu’s actions after he captured Baghdad?
    He permitted his troops to savagely slaughter the city’s population.
    What environmental change is credited with forcing pastoral peoples and plague-bearing rodents into closer contact with settled agricultural villages?
    Drought in the central Asian steppe borderlands
    South Asia was less severely affected by the Black Death than were settlements along the Silk Road and Mediterranean Sea because:
    South Asian societies had escaped the Mongol conquest and were not directly linked to Mongol-controlled trade routes.
    Which of the following is the best description of the economic impact of the Black Death on
    The deaths of many farmers led to food shortages, which in turn led to rapidly rising prices, work stoppages, and unrest.
    Populations in both China and Western Europe succumbed to the plague in large numbers because both had:
    suffered from years of famine and food shortages that had weakened the populations.
    In order to reestablish political order following the crises of the fourteenth century, many dynastic rulers:
    fostered beliefs and rituals that confirmed their legitimacy, such as stating that their power had a divine source.
    Which of the following statements best explains the impact of the Black Death on the influence of the Christian church in Western Europe?
    The Black Death unleashed a wave of popular hostility toward the church.
    Which of the following was the most important factor in the rise of the Ottoman Empire?
    Mongol forays into Anatolia destabilized the region
    The Ottoman Empire conquered and absorbed much of what Christian power?
    The Byzantine Empire
    To consolidate rule over their conquered empire, the Ottoman sultans:
    adopted Byzantine administrative practices while maintaining devotion to Islam.
    Seeing themselves as “the shadow of God” on earth, Ottoman sultans:
    funded construction of elaborate mosques.
    Which of the following statements best describes the Ottoman rulers’ stance toward regional differences within their territory?
    They were flexible and tolerant.
    The janissaries:
    maintained steadfast loyalty to the sultan and limited the autonomy of provincial rulers
    What was the Western European Christian church’s response to challenges to its authority following the plague?
    The church demanded strict obedience and persecuted those who questioned its doctrines.
    In the fourteenth century, political stabilization in southern Europe was aided by:
    economic growth through sea trade with southwest Asia.
    Throughout the fourteenth century, Portuguese Christian rulers attempted to consolidate power by:
    devoting themselves to fighting the Moors.
    The Portuguese monarchs successfully consolidated their political power by:
    granting Atlantic islands to nobles as lucrative hereditary possessions, ensuring the political loyalty of noble families and merchants.
    In Spain, a strong dynasty was created primarily through:
    Which of the following was a major milestone in the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain?
    The last Muslim stronghold in Spain—Granada—fell to Christian forces.
    In the late fifteenth century, Ferdinand and Isabella reacted to the Ottoman expansion by:
    using the Inquisition to create a more homogeneous state.
    Why did Europeans turn for inspiration to the art and learning of classical Greece and Rome as they rebuilt society after the devastation of the plague?
    Renaissance humanism provided more scope for secular individuals to act in an expanding world.
    Identify the primary reason that Renaissance culture spread throughout Europe by the late sixteenth century:
    economic prosperity and competition between political and religious leaders.
    Which of the following was a major consequence of the Renaissance?
    A network of independent, educated people who were not totally reliant on either the state or the church.
    In The Prince, Niccolò Machiavelli argued that:
    the prince should rule based on the principles of modern statecraft instead of moral or religious
    The group that eventually drove the Mongols out of China was known as:
    . the Red Turbans.
    Which of the following statements best describes the early Ming dynasty?
    It had to rebuild a devastated society from the ground up after Mongol rule and plague.
    To project imperial power and grandeur, the Yongle Emperor of the Ming dynasty:
    constructed the Forbidden City.
    Ming rulers strengthened their role in traditional rites and ceremonies to:
    show that the gods favored the Ming.
    Emperor Hongwu, because he distrusted state bureaucrats and wished to be seen as the guardian of his subjects,
    entrusted management of the rural regions to local leaders.
    Ming officials, in contrast to rulers in Portugal and Spain, viewed maritime expansion as:
    a potential source of disorder and instability.
    In what way was the effect of the Forbidden City on the populace similar to that of Topkapi palace?
    Both projected a sense of awe and power.
    The main goal of Zheng He’s voyages was to:
    reestablish trade and collect tribute.
    As a result of the Ming dynasty’s abandoning support for oceanic exploration:
    Chinese maritime power declined and opened the way for newcomers and rivals in the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia.
    Which of the following did the rulers of Ming China, the Ottoman Empire, and Western Europe use to unify their expanded territories?
    Artists and architects, who projected the ruler’s grandeur and power
    Which of the following was a major difference between the rulers of Spain and Portugal and the
    The Spanish and Portuguese rulers expelled or forced the conversion of members of other religions; the Ottomans permitted those with diverse religious beliefs to remain in their territories.
    . Following the crises of the fourteenth century, which of the following was the most resistant to change?
    Religious and cultural systems
    Which of the following factors led to China’s economic expansion in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries?
    Thriving and elaborate internal trade networks
    Why were the Portuguese and other Europeans motivated to find new routes to Asia?
    They were responding to the conquest of Constantinople and the rise of Ottoman power in the Mediterranean.
    Why was China’s demand for silver so high during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?
    Silver was used to pay taxes and as money in internal markets.
    After 1570, why was Japan supplanted as the primary source of silver for China?
    The Spanish took control of the Philippines and used it as a conduit for silver from their colonies in the Americas.
    What actions did Ottoman officials take to assist the caravan trade transporting goods from China to the Ottoman heartland?
    Officials established caravan series for travelers’ refreshment and protection.
    What led Portuguese traders to explore the coast of Africa in the mid-sixteenth century?
    Gold’s value rose dramatically during and after the Black Death, and the Portuguese believed that Africa was a source of precious metals.
    Which of the following attributes made the caravel useful in exploring African coasts?
    The caravel was a method of finding longitude, which allowed Portuguese mariners to locate themselves out of sight of land.
    From where did the Europeans get the model of sugar cane production used in their American colonies?
    West Africa
    What was Portugal’s primary goal in the Indian Ocean trade?
    To take over the trade or tax local merchants
    Which of the following best explains why the Portuguese dominated the Indian Ocean sea lanes in the early sixteenth century?
    The Portuguese mounted small cannons on their vessels to bombard ports and rival ships.
    Which of the following accurately describes Columbus’s first impression of the Taino people?
    He believed that they were childlike primitives.
    Which of the following are reasons that Taino peoples were initially repulsed by Europeans?
    Europeans’ hairiness and bad manners
    What was the benefit to the Spanish crown of an encomienda?
    The crown received special taxes on the extraction of precious metals from the
    Which of the following was essential to the Aztec state’s legitimacy?
    Kinship and clan networks
    In the early sixteenth century, which of the following contributed to the Aztecs’ constant warfare?
    The Aztecs believed that the gods required human hearts and blood, leading to the sacrifice of thousands of war captives.
    Which of the following was the determinative factor in the Spaniards’ conquest of the Aztecs?
    Smallpox spread rapidly among the Aztec warriors and elites.
    Which of the following allowed the Spanish to defeat both the Aztec and Inca Empires?
    Both empires suffered from internal weakness and divisions that were exploited by the Spanish.
    The establishment of colonies in the Americas in the sixteenth century provided Europeans with which of the following advantages in global trade?
    European products that were not esteemed in Afro-Eurasia could be sold in the
    The Columbian Exchange led to which of the following?
    Corn (maize) replaced some traditional crops in China and Africa.
    What percent of the Amerindian population was killed by Afro-Eurasian diseases during the sixteenth century?
    90 percent
    Which of the following characterized Spanish tributary empires?
    The Spanish controlled territory but worked to extract wealth without extensive settlement of Iberian immigrants.
    Which areas of the Americas produced the bulk of the silver that fueled global commerce in the sixteenth century?
    Mesoamerica and the Andes
    What was Europe’s main contribution to the Atlantic system?
    Military technology
    What was the primary reason for the rapid increase in the importation of Africans in sixteenth-century Brazil and the Caribbean?
    Africans were used as labor for sugar plantations.
    Why was it necessary to continue to import large numbers of African slaves to replenish labor on sugar plantations?
    Most of the slaves were men, who suffered high mortality rates due to overwork and poor conditions.
    Which of the following sparked Martin Luther’s challenge to the Catholic Church?
    Luther was disgusted with corrupt church practices such as the selling of indulgences.
    Which of the following beliefs was shared by Luther and Calvin?
    The belief that the source of religious knowledge lay in the scriptures
    The Protestant Reformation encouraged the growth of nationalism in Europe by encouraging people to:
    identify their religion with their local state and language.
    In the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church responded to the challenges posed by the Protestant
    Reformation in which of the following ways?
    The Church sought to reform clerical corruption.
    What circumstance permitted the English and Dutch to expand their trade in Asia and the Americas?
    They took advantage of Spain’s bankruptcy caused by religious and dynastic wars.
    Which of the following was a way in which the spread of Protestant beliefs contributed to protracted warfare in Europe between the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries?
    Some Protestants requested support from the Ottoman Turks, asking them to attack the eastern sections of the Holy Roman Empire.
    In what way was the rule of the Mughals under Akbar different from that of contemporary European monarchs?
    Akbar encouraged discussion between members of different religions instead of attempting to force religious conformity.
    During the sixteenth century, to what use did Mughals put their increased global and local commerce?
    They used the resources to glorify their court’s architecture and art.
    Which of the following accurately describes a change in China’s economy during the Ming dynasty?
    Silver money replaced barter in China’s internal markets.
    In Ming China, where did women find the greatest opportunities to obtain wealth and influence?
    As wives or concubines in the Forbidden City
    What was a similarity between the Ming and the Mughal dynasties?
    Both were able to limit European traders to port cities.
    Which of the following characterized the Portuguese presence in sixteenth-century Macao?
    The Portuguese used Macao as an entry into the lucrative import-export trade with China.
    In what way did the Spanish capture of Manila in 1571 inaugurate the first worldwide trade circuit?
    Manila gave the Spanish a base to trade silver from the Americas to China, and then Chinese goods to Europe.
    What advantage was provided by the English East India Company’s royal charter?
    It gave exclusive rights to import East Indian goods into England.
    During the sixteenth century, what impact did the European presence in the Indian Ocean and South
    China Sea have on Asian dynasties?
    The European presence enhanced Asian rulers’ wealth and might.

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