Trade union Trade union is an organization foresees. It is formed with a view to improve the condition of workers in the organization and in society and also for collective with management. A made union bridges the relationship between workers and workers and also between workers and employers. Trade union is an organization of workers formed to promote, protect and improve through collective action, the social, economic and political interests of its members” Nature of trade unions of Bangladesh: The nature of trade union varies from country to country because the philosophy, mentality, political situation, ideology f trade union leaders and workers etc. Vary widely. Trade unions are subdivided into different parts. Their interval collision forbids them to unite and the The trades unions of Bangladesh are highly politicized. They are subordinated to different political parties. Trade unions in Bangladesh are structurally vary weak. Trade unions take part in different job related movements as well as political movements not related to their jobs. The leaders of trade unions are very much concerned about their own selfish interests rather than the interests Of heir followers. Our trade unions are financially and structurally vary weak to face the united strength of their employers. The leaders of trade unions are autocratic in their behavior. Hardly they to listen to the genuine grievance of workers. There is a death of knowledgeable union leaders. Lack of knowledge about labor laws makes the leaders ineffective to safeguard the interests of workers visit–visit employers. The general workers have little faith in the integrity Of trade unions leaders. Objective of trade union:- To ensure standard wage rate for workers To help determine proper working conditions like working hours, leave, social, security etc for members To ensure job security of the workers, To protect the interests of workers ibis-a-visit the invests of the society. To reduce conflicts between workers and management of the organizations To ensure participation of workers in the profit of the organization. To develop job status of the workers To increase self-confidence and class consciousness of the workers so that they can work with dignity and avoid being exploited. TO bargain with management through ABA for different issues involving workers interests. To ensure participations Of workers in decision making With management in the organization. To remove the financial incapability of the workers and to protect them from autocratic mentality Of management. Trade union Structure in Bangladesh: The trade unions structure of Bangladesh is compared of the following three components: Basic unions: the leaders of such trade unions are elected by the direct vote of the workers. There are more than four thousand registered basic trade unions in Bangladesh. A) General trade union: Any workers or employee Of the respective enterprise, sugarless of the jobs, can be a member of this type of trade union. ) Industrial union: this kind Of trade unions is formed by the workers of an enterprise belonging to a particular industry like jute industry. Footwear industry, garment industry etc. C) Conflict union: this kind Of union is formed by the skilled workers of different industries; each member is skilled in one profession. D) Blue collar union: blue collar union is formed with those workers who are directly related to production. This type of union helps a decisive role in labor movement. ) White collar union: this sort of union is formed with the employers/ staffs of an enterprise who are directly related to production f) Reined union: this kind of union is formed with blue who blue and white collar employees together. The member of such unions is both production workers and office employers of the same organization. G) CAB union: such unions one bargaining agents of workers. They are elected by workers for a definite Industrial federation: Industrial federations are formed with the affiliation of different basic unions belonging to a particular industry.
Industrial federations help solve job related issues of the workers through discussion with the management. This kind of federations of unions cans e embers of different national and industrial federation. National federation: national federation act as co ordinations Of affiliated basic unions and industrial federation. At present many national federation are united under are banner called SKIP but many federations have political affiliation for Which the labor movement cannot reach the desired goal.
Challenge of ‘R: Emerging trends and Issues:- Liberalizing has been forced by globalization. Both phenomena have been facilitated by the significant growth in world mode and foreign direct investment in recent years and why information technology which has facilitated rapid uncial transaction and change in production and service locations around the world. Globalization: there is no preparation to incite. The challenges of globalization the parties involved in the industry behave differently in the new circumstances. Important liberationists: FAD will be discommoded and industrial base would not be enough to sustain the economic growth tooth country. Prevarication: It will benefit management. But the employees have to be skilled and efficient enough to survive in the employment war. Information technology: Industrialization can be possible only through information technology. It ill help to sustain economic growth. Downsizing: Due to increased competition, some firms have become smaller and others have been compelled to downsize their business. Reengineering: it is an inevitable phenomenon of globalization to maintain cost-effectiveness of a firm. Workforce diversity: In this time of global competing, employees any have multidimensional shill so hey can meet the various needs of the fir, at the time of need. Service and productivity movement: it is new trend In the developed world and it is becoming a global standard in the developing country as bevel_ Total quality movement: he current market is a consumer market and the producers and bound to maintain quality Of their goods and services as per the expectation Of consumers. Free flow of manpower: that the employee from different of the world Will move to their preferred place to utilize their shill and earn their just dues inevitable in this age of global competition. Managerial Obsolescence: to face the challenges of ever changing world of equal standard manager must make themselves equipped with the required managerial skills for sunning their forms in a cost effective way. Economic condition and social pressure: the employee s the developing countries suffer from economic conditions it they lose their job failing to improve their efficiency and productivity.
Employee involvement and participation:- Typology of forms: there are a variety of ways in which ‘bridge the gap’ not least. Through joint consolation and collective bargaining and these may be differentiated by reticence to three constituent elements; Method or extent, Direct forms allow employees to be personally and actually involves in the decision making process, indirect forms …. The mans of employees to a relatively passive role and rely on employee representation to carry on the active role of session and deliberating with management on their behalf. Level within the organizational hierarchy: the process can tale place at any level, from the of the employees immediate work situation both broad level. Objective or scope: the managerial function and decisions which provide the content Of the participatory process may be task centre or power centre. Industrial rules: Withdraw Of co-operation: Withdraw Of representative from institution. Excessive of the formal procedures interpretation of any status co provisions. Absence Of flexibility on the part Of employees and their representatives in the resolution of work problems. Work to rule: strictly interpreting the duties specified in the contract of employment, collective agreement, job description or other rules and requiring precise instruction from management regarding the execution of work. Overtime bonus: collective refusal the work outside normal contractual hours of work, thereby affecting the role of production. Go slow: willing without enthusiasm and at a lower lever of performance than normal. Strike: temporary withdrawal of labor and stoppage of work, Work in: occupying the workplace and possibly continuing to work but management access to or contrast of the output.
Industrial action process: The legal framework: at common lava a shrike is both a breach of the individuals contract of employment and a collective restraint of trade. But because it can be regarded as socially necessary industrial action has been given a degree of protection by statute law. Trade dispute: trade dispute contained in the trade disputes act (1906) “any dispute between employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen, which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of employment, or with the conditions of labor of any person.
A dispute between workers and their employer which relates mainly o one or more of the following:- a) Terms and conditions of employment b) Allocation of work or the duties of employment as between workers or group Of workers. C) Matters Of discipline d) Facilities for trade unions e) Engagement or non-engagement or termination or duties Of employment Of one or more workers Dismissal of strikers:- the dismissal of strikers is perhaps the fundamental part of the law relating to industrial action. Limiting measures: a) The power of disrupt the community has, in the main, been exercised with some degree of restraint and strikers have of the offered to maintain essential revise during this disputes. B) It is difficult to establish accept criteria for determining which group of employers should be covered by this restriction. Enforcement to law: An apparent inverses preparedness by same managements to resort of the lava as pert of their strategy for hardly industrial disputes.
Conciliation and arbitration: are means of intervening into the negotiating process whish may assist the two parties to resolves a dispute or failure to agree while conciliation is an assisted continuation of negotiation, arbitration involves the imposition of a binding award, Conciliation and arbitration process: In conciliation that “third apart’ supports the direct bipartite negotiating process by assisting the parties to identify the cause and extent of their differences, to establish alternative solutions and their various implications and to develop and agree an acceptable settlement. In arbitration, the direct negotiation between management and union is replaced with a process of adjudication Which involves the third party in making a decision between the two conflicting positions. The term conciliation may be used in two different ways. First, in the short term resolution of a particular dispute, it may be used o indicate that the third party is more action in assisting the parties going so far as to submit his own proposals settlement.
Second, the third party takes a great degree of in… It is still a fundamental requirement of the process that any settlement must be determined and agreed by the parties themselves. Forms/nature of Conciliation and arbitration: The perceived relationship of these processes to he normal be parties process of direct negotiation between management and union. The processes are to be used by the patties on a voluntary or compulsory basis.
Methods of voluntary: The term voluntary generally implies that management and union have complete dissection to make or not make such permanent arrangements as they consider and appropriate for resolving any impasse that may arise during their negotiating Scope of arbitration: it is often argued and indeed is the practice in the ASSAI, that disputes of right are more suited to arbitration than disputes of interest. Methods of referral: there are three possible methods of referral- I) Unilateral 2) Total 3) Automatic Arbitration body: the agreement should specify how the arbitration is to be conducted. By a single arbitration or a broad Of arbitration on a permanent or on ad hoc basis. Standing of the arbitration award: the parties must agree either when drawing up the procedure or prior to each arbitration Whether the arbitration award is to be binding on them.
Arbitration: ACS officials do not, themselves arbitrate, to do so would be detriment, to the confidentially and impartiality of their conciliation Advisory mediation: ACS has sought to promote advisory mediation as a co-operative and joint problem solving approach which can help prevent disputes occurring tackle underlying issues ND problems develop better solution, encourage an acceptable of changes and can result in more constructive long-term working relationships.
Management: The characteristics whish delicacies management as a group torus other rules in that ,through the formal authority structure of the organization they represent lake decisions and act an behalf of the organization as an entity. Nature of management IR Economic & political pressure Cultural value Organization & MGM. Structure. Negotiation- the term negotiation applies to particular process off dialogue between people to resolve their differences and reaches an agreement n industrial relation this conducted primarily through representative Of management and employees.
Who is negotiator? The negotiator Whether as an industrial or as part Off negotiating team is carrying out a task on behalf of an interest group. Negotiation is the process of dialogue: Dissatisfaction: The nature of the issues to be resolved includes matters of right, which one are concerned with the interpretation and application of enlisting rules. The extent of the dissatisfaction may he confined to an individual employee or be experienced collectively by a group or even all employees. The manager of presentation to management may range from informal presentation to he immediate supervisor by either an individual. Skill and task to negotiation: Tasks: To provide advice to his or her principle. To arrange and conduct interest negotiating meeting. To state explain and depending the group’s case. Investigating the other parties. Influencing other point negotiation Skills: Social in personnel skills. Information dealing space. Discretionary judgment skill.
Determination of Pay: Cost Of living: arguments based on changes in the rattail price index an indication of the individuals “purchasing power are appeals to the equality of maintaining a living wage” It is the minimum Which employees and unions Will consider to be a reasonable increase even in periods of economic recession. Comparability: arguments divided from the equality conducts of responsibility, differentials, comparability and status may be loosely referred to as comparability arguments because they all centre on the relationship in pay different group of employees. Profitability: the profitability of an organization is the most usual method of determining the organizations ability to pay in the riveter sector, the essential problem in this area is how to define profits assures whether the organizations in profitable-pre-tax, in the same way that wages are negotiated or part-tax the amount left for the organization to distribute between labor, share holder and reinvestment. Productivity: the organization’s profitability has improved unions may seek to justify a wage increase on the grounds of an improvement in the overall productivity of the organization.
What is management style? Management styles means the patent by which a company (organization) approaches it’s employee relating activities that relate to policy and philosophy ND management. Describe the different management styles in strategy development and application. I. Commodity staling: The employee in regarded as an individual unit of production to be hired and fined in the light of operational requirements and therefore has low job security, the managerial form is on cool-minimization, the achievement of suppliers value and direct over control Of the employee. . Paternalism: The employee is regarded as a natural subordinate deferential rote where freedom in limited by “Well-meal” regulations, management accept degree of social responsibility to provide nonviolent welfare come for its employees. 3. Resource staling: The employee is regarded as a potential resource to be developed and nurtured, the managerial focus is on communication and employee involvement to scum commitment.
Collective bargaining: is a method of determining terms of employment and regulating the employment relationship, which utilizes the process of negotiation between representatives of management and employees and results in an agreement which may be applied unfurling across a group of employees. Affliction to collective bargaining: Collective bargaining performance three major disagrees to made union activity. (l) Minimal insurance: the provision of friendly society benefits in the rent of sickness, unemployment, industrial action. (2) Negotiation: terms and condition of employment direct with employees on behalf the members of made union. 3) Enhancements: lobbing far legislation supportive of members internet. (a) Marvel function: Determining what term labor will continue to be supply to a company buy its present employee or by newly hired workers. (b) Gobo. Function: It is principally/mainly based on thematic dependency of the parties and the power of each to vat the cilia of the others. C) Decision making functions: means allowing the workers trough their reprehension to participate the indeterminate Of the policies and decision, Which guide and rule their working lines.
Employee involvement participation Definition: The terms involvement and participation are often used in a generalized and interchanged able way to cover all processes and institution Of an employee infamous Within the organization (including joint commutation and collective bargaining). However, it is perhaps greater which in involvement as enhancing suppose and commitment of employees to the objective and values of the organization. Participation is to see as providing employee with job opportunity to enhance and take part in organization division making.
Negotiations encounter: The other Para also hired to do the same as the first part of negotiations. Its called the negotiations encounter. Termination: Successful negotiation result in termination, Pay: Paeans momentary benefit given to employee tar their work. There in another essence to pay and that is called wider sense. The range of financial benefits given to the employees for their work. Working arrangement: Means the way jobs are constructed and labor are used (activity that related to organization deeds.
Describe/ Factory the determining to pay: (1) Squibb policy, (2) Cost of living (3) Compatibility (4) Profitability (S) Productivity (6) Gobo. Policy (7) Trade union. Working arrangement: Productivity bargaining: employees formal changes in a series of often interrelated working arrangements which may hinder the reticent utilization of labor. New technology agreements: Trade unions tried to ensue that the introduction of new technology was subject to collective agreement and that is benefit were reflected both in the terms and conditions Of the employees and in impending employment.
Labor flexibility: The twin concepts of flexibility and core/periphery employees achieved prominence as possible elements Of management’s strategy to become more competitive while at the some time, being reluctant to recruit more full time permanent reemployed. Grievance: The term procedure refers to those organization mechanisms which provide a formal regulatory frameworks for handling specified issues and in so doing define and limit the exercise of managerial authority and power.
Grievance produces: The purpose of a gruesome is to establish the organization climate, objectives and manner in which manger will be expected to respond to any grievance or dispute presented by employees. Grievance process: (l) Industrial love: means that it may be used by employees or union to rename that management complies with the terms any collective agreements or its own policies and decisions. (2) Continuing administration of collective agreement: means that few of its provisions apply autocratically or without some parsons in authoring making decision about the nature of given situation and the making of the agreement. 3)Fractional bargaining: The grievance process may be used to each agreement on issues not ‘overfed by the terms of enlisting collective agreement. (4) Resolution of any failure to agree which arises during negotiation: It is to this accept of its families as a formal part of the main collective bargaining system, that the term dispute may be most appropriately replied. Operations process/ Main consideration in the process g. P. 1. Work satisfaction: The satisfaction which employees seek from work both extrinsic and intrinsic Will vary both between employ and within each employee overtime. . Esoterically system: Increased formal used of the grievance/dispute recess may arise structural feature associated With the relationship Of the employees the their work and management. 3. Change and adoptions: The grievance process allows employees to challenges change obtain assurance that it is necessary and influence the change so that it causes the least disruption to them. 4. Power and authority: A management wishes to satisfy employees by finding a mutually acceptable solution, the grievance process is part of joint regulation within the organization.
Short note: Job redundancy: Where a particular job cases to exist part the recumbent employee are founds alternative work with the organization. Discipline: Discipline means rules and regulation for conducting human life, Discipline in industrial relations is regulated through a pervasive system or both formal and informal assignments intended to ensure that the employees conform to the behavior & performance standards necessary for the achievement of the organization’s business objectives, Medicinal the disciplinary process: Disciplinary process: I _ Legislative phase: 2.
Interpreting phase: Administrative or Judicial phase: (i) Setting standards: Definition of desired standards of performance or behavior. These may be codified in a specific set of disciplinary rules or, more keel in some farm of general organization rules. (ii)performance assessment: Assessment of the employee’s performance or behavior against these standards.. (iii) Action/mechanism: The control mechanism itself to implement corrective action by means of sanctions when the accessed initial performance. Iv) Feedback: On the effectiveness of the corrective action by assessing whither the resultant performance or behavior of the employee now confirms to the designated standards. (v) Disciplinary action: Negative aspects of disciplinary action. Implementing disciplinary actions: 1. Verbal warnings: This is the most frequent and least sense penalty. It is necessary to distinguish between informal verbal warnings, which one not part of the formal disciplinary procedure. He formal verbal varying should be recorded and the employee provided with written confirmation, 2, Written warnings: Should clearly state the offence far which the employee in being disciplined. 3. Suspension: It is important to distinguish between a precautionary suspension pending a disciplinary investigations and a disciplinary suspension without pay as a sanction within the formal disciplinary procedure. 4. Transfer or demotion: The contract of employment unless they are clearly allowed within the contract or management sense the employees consent to any transfer or demotion. 5.
Fine and deductions form pay: In the nineteenth century it was common far the employer to fine the employee far breaches Of the rules. But today this has kinetically ceased. This problem has always been that if the amount of the fine was small them if had little effect, but if it was large it could involve the employees in financial leadership and lead to assessment. 6. Dismissal: A dismissal should only take place when there is no other alternative amiable. In his event the employer should ensure that the dismissal is fair and reasonable and in accordance with both the disciplinary produced and legal framework. . Identify the contains of C. B? The contains of C. B are three brand areas to activities. These are- (i) Substantive area ? Terms & Conditions (a) Related to work in a totality. (ii) procedural area ? Rules & Regulations. Rules & regulations concern with managerial relations. Managerial relations induce exercise of managerial authority and the participation of employee and their representative in organizational decision making. The specific activities are- ) Regulatory framework b) Managing tuition. C) Control of hacker. D) Protection Of employee desired against management. ) Certainty of organizational relationship. (iii) Patterning area ? Working arrangement / Working setup. Working arrangement refers to defining the nature of the work and the way the work is to be done by employees. It is primarily associated the development of bargaining and the organizational level. It’s functions are- a) Productivity ? unit productions in unit time. B) New technology ? Means new devices made out of science. C) Flexibility agreement . Accommodation nature of agreement. . Identify the levels at which C. B take place?
Three levels ? (i) Plant/Factory levels ? Is the basic or micro level unite where negotiations are conducted between the management to the current plant and the collective bargaining agents of that plant, (ii) Industry level Employees are several units in the same industry in the band together and form and association which negotiates which a federation of trade unions, (iii) National level The representative of the trade unions and of the employees at the national level negotiates on arrive at statement. 3. What do you mean by industrial democracy?
The pressure of employee involvement an employee participation in industrial environment. Determine the state of industrial report. It is also called wonders controlled or employees controlled. 4_ What do you mean by employee dissatisfaction? Dissatisfaction means a grave and negative conditions preserving among the employees due to unfulfilled of the expectation. 5. Consideration for implementers disciplinary nations? (i) Representation ? Most procedures allow for the employee to be accompanied by a union representative or fellow employee.
The rule Of the union representative is clear to present the employee’s case and to ensure hat management conducts the interview and disciplinary process in a fair and reasonable manner. (ii) Apparels ? Provision must be made for the employee to be able, within a specified time limit, to appeal against any disciplinary action to a higher level of management. (xiii Wiping ? To move from one level to sanction to the next does not require the employee to commit a further act of indiscipline of a similar nature.