In 1978, Dr. Diana Baumrind was the first to define the four parenting styles. Since then, there have been more styles that utilize different category designs. For Baumrind, her categories were responsiveness and demandingness.
Responsiveness is defined as warmth: a parent’s response to the needs of a child in an accepting and supporting way.
Responsiveness can also be used interchangeable with love. Parents use love as a tool to teach right from wrong, increase a child’s self-esteem, and encourage individualism. In order to portray love, these parents use a combination of communication, negotiation, and reason.
Demandingness, or limits, refers to a parent’s expectation of mature, responsible behavior. Parents use limits and expectations to teach respect and provide a sound structure for their child. Consequently, the use of control and harsh discipline is used.
The differences between the four styles is easily seen and defined in the following chart:
Baumrind’s Four Parenting Styles
Authoritative or democratic parents are considered flexible, using negotiation and communication with control and discipline to allow for give-and-take situations. They are less likely to use physical punishment. These parents encourage a child’s uniqueness and gives love and respect. They offer their support in everything the child does, even when the result is failure. Rather they encourage a healthy rebound.
Authoritarian parents are seen as highly directive individuals who value obedience to maintain order.
They tend to monopolize a child and hold them to, sometimes, unreasonable goals. These parents constantly supervise, give reminders, and instruct their child in every aspect of everyday life. In some extremes and due to external sources, authoritarian parents give excessive amounts of duties and chores upon a child, which would cause a child to miss out on the ;carefree; aspect of childhood. These parents also discourage discussion between them and their children
Permissive or indulgent parents would rather avoid problematic behavior and allow a child a great deal of freedom. They will prefer to submit to a child who throws a temper tantrum and demands to avoid a big confrontation and become unable to say ‘no’.
Uninvolved parents show no interest in the life of the child and may actively reject or neglect the child.
This may be due to a preoccupation with work, poverty, wealth, alcoholism, divorce, or illness.
Children can be influenced by different parenting styles. The following chart summaries the effects that coincide with the different parenting styles.
Parenting StyleResulting Effects on Children
AuthoritativeChild learns to cope easily, not afraid to try and fail.
Self-regulated and responsible
Highest scores on standardized testing
Sees the world as friendly and safe
AuthoritarianHave a multitude of problems
Less individuated and very submissive (docile behavior)
Show lower degree of social skills, ego development
Perform poorly on standardized testing
See parents as restrictive
Tends to be actively rebellious and overtly defiant
Shows passive resistance: dawdling, daydreaming, forgetting
PermissiveLess assertive and initiative
Smart, but less achievement oriented
Show less self-regulation and social responsibility
Likely to use drugs
Sees adults as the providers of pleasure and comfort
UninvolvedAntisocial, Immature, Lack self-regulation
Lack the ability to form close relationships
Have the most internalizing and externalizing problems
Low scores on achievement tests
Reject parents in the position of role models
Most likely to use drugs and alcohol
Feels like he/she is alone in the world
Children will become adults someday. The following chart attempts to predict the children of the various parenting styles and their outlooks on different aspects on adulthood.
Parental styleAdult attitude
Attitude towards lifeAttitude towards othersAttitude towards workAttitude towards sex and marriage
AuthoritativeFeels connected, part of life. Positive attitude. Willing to improve life.Willing to help, share with, contribute to, and cooperate with others.Work useful to others. Does his best to offer value.
Can lead or cooperate on a team.Sex as expression of mature love, caring, and giving. Feels equal to partner.
AuthoritarianExtremely responsible. Hard time letting-go and playing. Anxiety about relaxation.
No mental refreshmentTakes on excessive obligations, often depriving others of their share of responsibility or opportunity.May be resistant to schedules and expectations, or may push self and others unmercifully. Always feels hard-pressed and driven. Fears everything would ;go to hell; if he lets down.Sex and marriage may be seen as duties and be carried out resentfully without satisfaction. Never gets around to carefree times.
Inability to relax.
PermissiveSelf-indulgent, bored, apathetic, restless, no initiative. Very impulsive, hard to set limits, extravagant, has tantrums.Passive expectation of getting from .