Parents are more eager now than ever before, to share the milestones of their children with the world. Social media and social impact overall plays an impact in how parents decide to rear their children, almost competing against one another to have intelligent children. With parents being the child’s first teacher, there are many factors that go into the development of a child, and it all starts at home. Environment and culture seems to be the cornerstone of the foundation on which the development of a child begins. In a study conducted by Lecuver and Swanson, African American mothers may have a higher level of authoritarian parenting style, which results in better self-regulation of the child compared to that of European American mothers. Home literacy also plays a major part in the development of a child’s development. The reading and learning culture in the child’s first learning environment, i.e. the home, plays a part in how they will function in a school setting.Order now
There are three broad categories of which the home environment provides:
- how children interact with adults in reading a writing situations,
- children explore print on their own, and
- where children observe and model the literate behaviors of the adult.
Children are solely the product of their first environment, being that of home. How that environment is sculpted can produce an either negative or positive outcome, but it all depends on how receptive the child is to the culture of its environment. Introduction In the age and time of 2018, there are countless sources of information about effective parenting styles, most of these sources greatly focus on raising intelligent children. Social media is one of the greatest outcomes of those technological advancements. Parents are more eager to share those milestones, thus putting pressure on other parents, almost to the point of competitiveness to raise “smart” children. With parents being the child’s first teacher, there are many factors that go into the development of a child and they all start at home. Among these are environment, culture, different parenting styles, and so many other factors. “Parents can help develop young children’s early literacy skills before formal education through specific shared-reading strategies” (Sim & Berthelsen, 2014)
Authoritarian Parenting Styles
A study by LeCuver and Swanson, showed that African American mothers may have an overall higher level of authoritarian parenting style, compared to European American mothers. Although the study was not specific on the parenting styles of European American mothers, it suggested that (on an authoritarian level,) they were less tenacious and limiting, compared to the style of an African American mother. “Observational data indicated that the African American mothers’ use of an authoritative limit-setting style (firm limits with the context of overall warmth and responsiveness) was associated with their children’s better regulation. (Lecuver & Swanson, 2017).
While the study suggest that ethnicity and cultural background can play a part in the authoritarian level, it also highlights the effects that the authoritarian level plays on the child’s self-regulation. According to LeCuver and Swanson (2017), “parental attitudes can help shape child attitudes and behaviors. The emotional tone that parents set, while interacting with their children and how they shape their child-rearing environment” There are many studies on the effects of authoritarian parenting styles with a focus on home literacy of the child. Bingham et al. (2017) revealed that authoritative parenting style was positively associated with home literacy and formal literacy practices. The study showed that book reading and parental teaching work well with authoritative parenting styles.
In relation, these studies suggest that a child’s language development may positively impact a child’s language development when an authoritarian parenting style is applied through formal literacy program at home. Cultural Difference Opposed to the previous literature identified, Rauf & Ahmed (2017) concluded that “authoritarian parenting style significantly hinders the educational functioning of children”. This result was in contradiction of the results of the study of Bingham et al. (2017) wherein authoritarian parenting styles were proven to be effective among formal literacy and home literacy practices.
Furthermore, Rauf & Ahmed (2017) and Bingham et al. (2017) both agreed that authoritarian parenting style may produce negative results on the language development of the child. Though there were studies identifying authoritarian parenting styles lead to positive results, cultural differences may also be a factor. However, Rauf & Ahmed (2017) cautioned that cultural differences may be a factor on the effect of authoritarian parenting style on the child’s language development. Consistent with Xu, Chin, Reed, & Hutchinson (2014), which reminds us that “children from different cultural/ethnic backgrounds may respond differently in a different context.”
Regardless of the parenting style, the most important factor on developing the language skill of a child is in the creation of a conducive home environment. Child rearing and development starts at home. In the study of Senechal, LeFevre, Thomas, & Daley (1998), it was emphasized that “the home environment is a likely source of experiences that can enhance the development of oral and written language.” Per Teal and Sulzby (1986, as cited by Senechal, et al., 1998), “the home environment can be source of three broad categories of literacy experiences:
- experiences in which children interact with adults in writing and reading situations,
- experiences which children explore print on their own, and
- experiences in which children observe adults modeling literate behaviors (e.g. reading the newspaper).”
It is important that the parents be the role models for the child to look up to, specifically on reading habits. Besides enhance their vivid imagination, storybooks and storytelling also help children develop their language skills. This was backed by the results of the study done by Bingham et al. in 2017; which concluded that “the relation between parenting style and children’s oral language skills is mediated by the home literacy environment.” “Reading together with the child transfers the knowledge from the parent to the child, leading to development of the child’s language skills” (Sim & Berthelsen, 2014).
The gathered related literatures suggest that indeed authoritarian parenting style of mothers may affect the language development of the child. There is evidence that the child’s learning starts in their homes, with the parents as the first teachers. The reading habits of the parents may persuade or dissuade the child from reading. Furthermore, the parenting style of the mother greatly affects how the child will respond to future teachings. The effects of an authoritarian parenting style to the language development of a child depends on several factors. Of these, cultural and ethnic background of the parent is important in identifying the effectiveness of authoritarian style. Previous studies suggest that authoritarian parenting style may provide negative impact on the child’s language development (Rauf & Ahmed, 2017; Bingham, et al., 2017).
However, there is also evidence that the effectiveness of the authoritarian parenting styles may be cultural specific. (LeCuyer & Swanson, 2017; Bingham, et al., 2017), in which the authoritarian parenting style may affect the development of the language skills of a child. Of course, it depends upon other factors to determine the effective of the style. Rauf & Ahmed (2017) reminded that it is important to be aware of the consequences of employing certain parenting style on the child as it may result to different outcomes for the child’s development on various aspects. People often reference the saying that “you are a product of your environment” and after writing this paper, I see how that statement rings true.
Until now, I never really noticed the effects that the child’s environment has on them. However, with their parents being the ones who lay the foundation to their future, I understand why it is so important to ensure that the foundation you lay for your child’s literacy development is the one you want to build their future upon. Between the ages of birth and the time the child goes to school, around three or four, those are crucial times in a child’s development. Cultural background plays a part in the drive of the authoritative parenting. I often wondered why some cultures treat their children a certain way when it comes to learning, compared to others. Some often strict, while others are so relaxed, and yet either way the child’s development could wind up on the good or bad side of the coin.