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    Medicine through time- Medieval and renaissance surgery & anatomy.

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    Surgery- Middle ages.
    Similar to operations by Greek & Romans.
    Superficial procedures; small tumors, cuts, broken bones set etc.
    No effective anesthetics, only opium, mandrake. Didn’t put to sleep- only made drowsy.
    Seen as a profession, learnt through practice as apprentices.
    Gain license from passing tests.
    Anatomy- Middle ages
    Church (RELIGION) refused to allow new ideas.
    Medical surgeons only watched surgeons do procedures whilst Galen was read out. No hands on experience & inaccurate info.
    Frequent wars, skills in demand, lots of practice.
    Suggested Galen’s ideas about holes in the heart were wrong. This was right, but no one built on it until 1600’s.
    Main achievement= proving Galen was wrong.
    Dissection= Jaw bone made of 1 bone not 2.
    No holes in septum= blood can’t flow through it.
    Book= Fabric of human body= detailed diagrams of anatomy. Spread knowledge. 1543.
    Vesalius factors.
    Printing= work spread across Europe.
    Art= Paintings to illustrate work.
    Vesalius good
    Changed attitudes, showed there was more to learn, led the way, spread knowledge.
    Vesalius bad
    Some doctors refused to believe Galen was wrong, made no-one healthier.
    William Harvey.
    Proved how circularity system worked.
    Heart acts as a pump, moving blood around the body.
    Proved body has 1 way system for moving blood.
    Wrote ideas in an anatomical account of the motion of heart and blood. 1628.
    Harvey factors
    technology= inspired by mechanical water pumps.
    religion= church condemned his ideas, and thought heart was center of soul not just muscular pump.
    Individual genius= Careful dissection & observation.
    Harvey good
    laid groundwork for future investigation. Lots of aspects of medicine depend on knowledge of blood.
    Harvey bad.
    Still lots of work to be done, no one was healthier, many ignored his work and thought he was wrong.
    Ambroise Pare.
    Developed surgery.
    From 1536, spent 20 years as an army surgeon. Gave him vast knowledge and experience on different types of wound.
    Before Pare, used cauterizing to seal wounds (PAIN)
    Pare replaced this with egg yolk, turpentine, oil of roses. Helped heal properly, less pain.
    Developed ligatures. Silk thread tied around blood vessels.
    Pare factors.
    War- observe injuries and try ideas
    Chance- ran out of cauterizing oil, tried random combo.
    Barber surgeons
    paid to perform small operations.

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