Leaders within the field of second language education argue that older students are more capable of learning a second language (Ditz-Rice, & Weed, 2006). This is because by the time they reach their early teens and adulthood they are familiar With the basic concepts Of reading, writing, and speaking in their native language. For example if you show a tuned a ball and tell them the name in the new language the student is already familiar with a ball.
However, if the student is younger they may be unfamiliar With the visual aid used to demonstrate the new word in the new language resulting in the student being unable to make this association. This can be a particularly difficult problem for teaching writing skills for second language learners in grades K-3. Now for those who currently teach grades K-3 know that this difficulty is not exclusive to second language learners only and many of the suggestion that will be discussed can be adapted to the general education lassoer as well.Order now
This presentation will examine the methods necessary for adapting language arts curriculum for second language learners in the subject area to writing skills development. The main points that will be covered are; ; General English Language Arts Curriculum Standards ; Languages Other Than English Curriculum Standards ; Adapting Standards for Accommodating Developmental Writing Skills ; Grade 2 Specific Performance Indicators: Writing Literacy Competencies: Writing Second Language Learning Standards for SSL Elementary A Sample Classroom Tasks in SSL by English Proficiency Level
Activities Stools SIC Rubrics/Assessment Practices Web Resources ; Additional No matter where you teach each state provides educators with a set of general curriculum standards or guidelines based upon specific content areas or grade levels identifying the skills each student is required to learn in order to successfully master the content areas material. Every state utilizes several factors in developing their core curriculum standards; Federal and State Laws, Educational Philosophy, Population Demographics, and Performance Indicators, It we examine Table 1 it outlines the basic curriculum standards for general
English language arts in accordance with all Prep-12 grade students within the state to New York. These curriculum guidelines are applied to all grade levels and make no distinction between levels of learning, nor learning ability. ; Federal and State Laws The policies that govern schools are developed through legislation at the federal, state, and local levels. The purpose of this legislation is to develop a sate and orderly environment that is conducive to learning for the students it supports.
This legislation determines the rights, responsibilities, standards, and the uncial support of the educational system (Lap, Hood, & Appear, 1996). An example of educational policy can be seen in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 which covers teacher qualifications and student assessment and performance (DOE). While the policy may be difficult for some to swallow at first, these policies help to establish a balance between students, teachers, and administrators to ensure there is a positive impact on the educational system. Educational Philosophy There are many different styles of educational theories, teachers cannot simply go into a classroom cold and begin teaching, they need to develop and institute n educational philosophy. Teachers need to have a plan for their teaching method just as much as for the curriculum and lessons they develop for their students (Chevalier, & Graves, 2003). This can be a key resource for teachers no matter what their current experience. The same is true for state and local school districts whose educational philosophy can have a direct effect on the educational standards that are adapted based upon the students needs.
For example the State of New York philosophical beliefs (NYSE, 2005) are based on the following criteria: Adulterates with other State Education Department auricular materials, such as The preliminary Draft Framework, The Learning Standards, and The Resource Guide for English Language Arts; The Elementary Literacy Profile; and new assessments at Grades 4, 8, and II C] Recognizes that English Language Arts learners must be exposed to regular and varied opportunities to read (25 books or their equivalent per year), write (1000 words or more per month), listen (daily), and speak (daily) 0 Recognizes that teachers in all content areas share responsibility for the development of reading, writing, listening and speaking competencies C Suggests the recursive nature of language arts development across the continuum from Pre-Kindergarten to Grade 12 Affirms that all students are able to achieve competency in the presence of skilled instruction, adequate time for learning, varied and/or specialized resources, and additional support 0 Recognizes that equity and access to technology and Other resources must be assured at State, regional, and local levels C Reflects an understanding of the developmental needs of students as they work to achieve competency in language arts CLC Focuses on students as active learners, responsible for and knowledgeable about their own learning. ; Population Demographics Many assume that population demographics have very little to do with curriculum adaptation. However, factors such as the language spoken at home, number of SELLER students in the community, and other various factors that identity students and their learning needs can be a determining factor in curriculum adaptation (Wallace, 2004). Without understanding the student background it is impossible to properly develop effective learning strategies. Performance Indicators Performance indicators will include state standardized test scores, local assessments as well as any other identifiable factor that either determines he student’s ability or lack of to achieve mastery of the curriculums material (Undo, Collier, & Combs, 2006). Languages Other Than English Curriculum Standards As stated in Table 2, these curriculum standards are specifically designed to allow for adaptation to language curriculum for content areas outside the normal English instructional classroom such as Spanish and French classes. The purpose is to provide a cultural understanding and exchange in order to develop communication skills Within that language. Adapting Standards for Accommodating Developmental Writing Skills For many educators developing auricular is a two Step process; adaptation, and alignment.
As we see in Tables 3-5 the curriculum standards have been adapted to accommodate Grade 2 students for both the general education and second language learners. Many of the same learning techniques that are applied for native speaking students can be utilized for non-native speakers in early-age learners. Table overview for Grade 2 writing skills ; Specific Performance Indicators: Writing Table 3 outlines skills necessary to develop content mastery based on specific performance indicators. ; Literacy Competencies: Writing Table 4 identifies common literacy competency skills for all four ELLA standards as applied to writing skill development. Second Language Learning Standards for SSL Elementary Table 5 outlines the specific performance indicators based upon the assigned task requirements for grade 2 students in second language instruction. ; Sample Classroom Tasks in SSL by English Proficiency Level Table 6 provides examples of recommended tasks and specific activities common used to teach grade 2 second language learners based upon standards and performance indicators after being adapted to the writing curriculum. Addition Information Activities- Classroom activities should reflect the requirements of the adapted curriculum as well as satisfy the performance indicators in order to develop fundamental writing skills and content knowledge (Chevalier, Pogo, & Short, 2004).
Standard 2: Language for Literary Response and Expression Students will read and listen to oral, written, and electronically produced texts and performances from American and world literature; relate texts and performances to their own lives; and develop an understanding of the diverse social, historical, and cultural dimensions the texts and performances represent As speakers and writers, students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for self-expression and artistic creation. Standard 3: Language for Critical Analysis and Evaluation Students Will listen, speak, read, and write for critical analysis and evaluation.
As listeners and readers, students will analyze experiences, ideas, information, and issues presented by Others using a variety Of established criteria. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to present, from a variety of perspectives, their opinions and judgments on experiences, ideas, information and issues. Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language tort effective social communication with a wide variety of people.