A healthy lifestyle refers to orientation toward prevention of health problems, and maximization of people’s well-being. WHO advocates that consumers should adopt healthier lifestyle behavior, in support of a healthier lifestyle has put international strategies in place that promote healthier eating patterns.
In 2008, 36 million, or 63%, of the 57 million global deaths were due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), principally cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and chronic respiratory diseases (WHO, 2011a), 80% of which occured in low-and middle-income countries. An unhealthy diet is one of the key risk factors for NCDs for example, inadequate consumption of fruit and vegetables increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and several cancers, high salt consumption is a determinant of high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk also increases the risk of stomach cancer as well, consumption of food rich in high amount of saturated fats and trans-fatty acids is linked to heart disease. (Kraak VI, Story, M.A). A range of dietary factors have been linked with diabetes while red and processed meat consumption is linked with some cancers (WHO, 2003; Steyn et al., 2004; WCRF, 2007). However excessive energy intake leads to overweight and obesity, which is linked with a range of health problems, including NCDs (WHO, 2000). Diabetes has particularly strong associations with obesity (Steyn et al., 2004), and evidence shows associations between body fatness and some cancers. According to WHO estimates of 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese (WHO, 2011a). The prevalence of overweight is highest in upper-middle-income countries though very high levels are also reported from some lower-middle income countries in Europe, the Middle East and the Americas, and it is reported to be rising throughout low- and middle-income countries.(William PG, 2005). USA consumers, who followed a healthy lifestyle, were found to average a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables, were largely female, had a higher level of education, and were predominantly older than consumers who adhered to an unhealthy lifestyle. Most of these indicators contribute towards Kraft and Goodell’s idea of wellness-orientated consumers who accept responsibility for their own health through their daily lifestyle practices, including food purchasing choices. (Michaeldou, Hassan LM)
Unhealthy food choices have been a risk for the worldwide increase in obesity.a study in South Africa showed that diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among females and the age group 50-59 years was mostly affected. Nearly 50% of respondents were obese and about 35% of them overweight. Lifestyle modification was understood as a healthy dietary habits only without having awareness of other lifestyle factors like exercises (AE Umeh & L Nkombua, 2017).
Sleep disorders are rarely diagnosed though highly prevalent worldwide. Sleep problems are seen across a wide age spectrum from children to elderly involving a number of specialties in their management. (Rosen RC, et. Al 2001) several studies have shown that sleep disorders affect 20-60% of the population in many countries, and the prevalence increases with age and female gende. Patients attending general practice clinics have a high prevalence of insomnia and require appropriate treatment to be offered by doctors. A study in US shows that majority of primary care physicians had fair to poor knowledge of sleep disorders. A study done in Karachi,Pakistan showed that several of the unhealthy lifestyle choices including lack of sleep may linked to the high level of perceived stress (Rubina A. Sajiwan et al,2009).
In many societies, unmarried, single youths are sexually more active than commonly realized. Even though cultural values in countries like India do not permit this, Adolescents also maintain sexual relationships since sexual behaviors of adolescents depend on their knowledge about sex, attitudes and source of influences. Sexual knowledge refers to the knowledge about sexuality, myths and misconceptions. The studies done in India was covering knowledge about reproduction, pregnancy, masturbation, abortion, fertility, methods of contraceptive use and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and also gender differences in sexual knowledge.
Sexual attitude refers to the attitude one has toward sexuality or sexual behaviors, which could be either liberal or conservative. Both sexual knowledge and attitudes are often studied together. In a study exploring knowledge about reproductive health among married men in five districts of the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, it was reported that very few men had basic knowledge in areas pertaining to fertility, maternal health and STDs. Another study by Kumar and Tiwari assessed the knowledge, attitude and behavior toward premarital sex among youths living in two city slums, it reported that only 17% of the youth population was aware of safe sex and 22% had the prior knowledge that even -time intercourse may lead to pregnancy. According to the study done in India on sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors in urban youth (17-21 years), found that knowledge about physiology of sexual response, conception and pregnancy was less than that about other areas such as masturbation and contraception. Boys reported more liberal attitudes and more frequent sexual behaviors than girls. Studies on sexual behaviors have looked at the kind of practices young adults indulge in such as premarital sex, masturbation, watching pornography and sexual behaviors using mediums such as phone, social networking sites and chatting rooms. An earlier age of initiation of sexual activity has been associated with less frequent condom use, greater number of sexual partners, elevated rates of STDs and unplanned pregnancies. Often they do not take informed decisions about sexual practices and use of contraceptives, resulting in significant risk of experiencing negative consequences (Joshi & Chauhan, 2011).
Exercise is physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive for the purpose of conditioning any part of the bodyused to improve health, maintain fitness and is important as a means of physical rehabilitation. (Moreno, 2006)
Exercise is useful in preventing or treating coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, weakness, diabetes, obesity,depression. Range of motion is one aspect of exercise important for Increasing or maintaining joint function. Wellbalanced exercise program can improve general health, build endurance, and slow many of the effectsof aging. The benefits of exercise not only improve physical health, but also enhance emotional well-being.(WHO,2010) Exercise can also be done at home though some people have a wrong idea that exercise can only be done in a stadium recreational park, or gymnasium, etc. As long as physical activity causes sweating it is considered as exercise (Javadi HR 2014). Regular PA is also highly beneficial in communities and for economies in terms of reduced health care costs, increased productivity, better performance in schools, lower worker absenteeism and turnover, increased productivity and increased participation in sports and recreational activities (Ayanniyi et al, 2012).
According to the study in Nigeria, the knowledge of the sampled population about PA appeared poor, although their attitude positive. There is need for health care givers to be exposed to educative measures that will enrich their knowledge of PA and how to achieve optimal fitness level through PA (Ayanniyi et al, 2012). In study done in Mpumalanga, South Africa it was shown that the majority of the participants though that lifestyle modification was only heathly eating: only a third of them were aware and regularly exercised (AE Umeh & L Nkombua, 2017).
According to the study done in Arusha city, Tanzania showed that exercise plays a role in preventing and controlling hypertension as such it’s important to understand the local conditions allowing for better support for private and public initiatives to increases community awareness.
Outdoor recreation carries significant emotional, mental, and physical benefits, regardless of level, type, duration or intensity (Pretty et. al., 2003, 2005, 2007; Morris, 2003; Pacione, 2003), with nature creating feelings of happiness (Mäler et. al., 2008) emotional wellbeing, mental as well as physical fitness, self-esteem (Pretty et.Al., 2007), a reduction of mental stress, mindfulness and calm (Brymer,Davids&Mallabon,2014), a decreased risk of mental health (de Vries et. al., 2003), less frustration and greater work, outdoor also leads to reductions in anger, confusion, depression and anxiety (Pretty et. al., 2003, 2005), a reduction in mental fatigue, better sleep (Astell-Burt, Feng & Kolt, 2013) in addition to these economic, financial and psychosocial benefits faster recovery from illness even with low-level exposure to nature. Exposure to the nature has even been found to reduce crime and aggression and interestingly, seems to act most powerfully as an intervention for socially disadvantaged groups (Nieuwenhuijsen, Kruize and Gidlow, 2016). In a study by Rogerson et. al. (2015), for example, a single bout of green exercise was found to leads to an 18.4% decrease in stress and 14.2% increase in mood.