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    Italian Renaissance Names

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    francesco petrarch
    lived in florence, an early renaissance humanist, assembled a library of greek and roman manuscripts, also wrote poetry, wrote in the vernacular
    Leonardo da Vinci
    an outstanding painter and sculptor, born in 1452, sketched objects in nature and dissected corpses to learn how bones and muscles work, painted with realism, painted the Mona Lisa, last supper
    a sculptor, engineer, painted, architect and poet. born in 1475, shaped marble into masterpieces such as the pieta, David, also painted on the ceiling of the Sistine chapel, designed the St. Peter’s cathedral in Rome
    studied the works of both Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, his paintings blended Christian and classical styles, created the school of Athens, which includes people such as Aristotle, Socrates, and averroës
    baldassare castiglione
    wrote the book of the courtier, which described manners, skills, learning, and virtues that a member of the court should have
    niccolò Machiavelli
    had served Florence as a diplomat and observed princes and kings. wrote the prince which was published in 1513, which showed rulers how to gain and maintain power,
    proved a realistic look at politics
    albrecht dürer
    German painter and printmaker, made the first of several trips to Italy to study the world and techniques of the Italian masters, took his knowledge of painting and applied it to engraving
    a great Dutch humanist who became a priest in 1492, used his knowledge of classical language to produce a new Greek edition of the New Testament and a much improved Latin translation of the bible, he believes that people should be able to read the bible and make their own translations of it, wrote “praise of the folly”
    sir Thomas more
    an English humanist who pressed for social and economic reforms, wrote “utopia” which described an ideal society in which men and women live in peace
    William Shakespeare
    a large figure in Renaissance literature, an English poet, wrote plays around the world that are still performed today, expressed universal themes in everyday realistic settings,
    Johannes Gutenberg
    printed the entire bible using a printing press with movable metal type. his invention cause printing presses to spring up in Italy Germany the Netherlands and England
    Martin Luther
    A German monk at professor of theology, raised in a middle-class German family, had been slated by his father for career as a lawyer, was outraged at the thought of having to pay for forgiveness of sins, posted the 95 theses to a church door explaining the wrongness of the church
    Charles V
    The Holy Roman Emporer who asked Luther to give up his writings. Declare Lutheran outlaw making it a crime for anyone in the empire to give them food or shelter.
    John Calvin
    lived in Switzerland, had a razor sharp mind, and his ideas had a profound effect on the direction of the Protestant Reformation. published, the institutes of the Christian religion which was widely read, believe that salvation was gained through faith alone, created Calvinism
    Henry VII
    A king who worked to break the Catholic Church, wanted to end Papel control over the English church was awarded the title defender of the Faith, had a child named Mary tudor. Was refused a divorce from his wife so he created his own religion
    Mary tudor
    daughter of Henry V and Catherine of Aragon
    Thomas Cranmer
    was appointed to Archbishop by Henry V, Had annulled the Kings marriage to Catherine
    The daughter of Henry V and his newly wedded wife anne Boleyn
    Ignatius of Loyola
    found the Society of Jesus, the Jesuit order was dedicated to combating Hearsey and spreading the Catholic faith
    teresa of Avila
    experienced Religious renewal, born into a wealthy family, she entered a covent in her youth, set up her own order of nuns who lived in isolation eating and sleeping very little and dedicating themselves to prayer and meditation.
    Nicholas Copernicus
    published on the revolutions of the heavenly spheres, proposed the heliocentric or sun centered model of the universe, the sun at the center of the universe, earth is just one of the several revolving around the sun
    Tycho Brahe
    Danish astronomer who provided evidence to support copernicus’s theory. set up an astronomical Observatory, every night for years he carefully observe the sky accumulating Data about the movement of the heavenly bodies
    Johannes Kepler
    brahes German astronomer and mathematician, use his data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun. his calculation supported the heliocentric view
    Galileo Galilee
    Used New technology to assemble an astronomical telescope, he became the first person to see mountains on the moon, his discoveries caused an uproar, the church condemned him because his ideas challenge the Christian teaching that the heavens were fixed unmoving and perfect
    Francis Bacon
    stressed experimentation and observation, wanted to make life better for people by leading to practical technologies
    René descartes
    emphasize human reasoning as the best road to understanding .wrote discourse on method, explain how he decided to discard all traditional authorities and search for Provable knowledge
    Robert Boyle
    English chemist who explained that all matter was composed of tiny particles that behave in knowable ways ,distinguish between individual elements and chemical compounds, explain the effect of temperature and pressure on gases
    Isaac newton
    A student at Cambridge University in England, devoured the works of the leading scientists of his age, published mathematical principles of natural philosophy, which explains the law of gravity and workings of the universe. discovered all motion in the universe can be measured and described mathematically developed calculus and found out about gravity

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