In the sixteenth century, Italy had many centers of power. In each you could find ambitious rulers, such as the Medic in Florence, the Pope in Rome, or the doge in Venice. 2. Each ruler knew that his success greatly depended on the people who advised him. So rulers surrounded themselves with brilliant courtiers. What was a courtier and what did a courtier do? A courtier was a well-educated person who served in the ruler’s court.
Courtiers’ Jobs included giving advice on how to build a new palace, pair a cathedral, fix a canal, build defensive walls, deliver messages, negotiate a treaty with a neighboring cities, lead troops into war, translate an ancient Greek manuscript,discuss philosophy, astronomy, and mathematics, tell an amusing story, and sings ballad. 3. Who was Balderdash Castigation and why is he famous? Balderdash Castigation was a courtier to Francesco Kananga, the prince of Mantra and the duke of Robin.
He wrote The Book of the Courtier, which was a how-to guide that described how a courtier should act while serving at court and how he could best serve his Euler. 4. Castigation based some of his book on the writings of the ancient Roman statesman Cicero and on the medieval code of chivalry. 5. Why did the education and intelligence of advisors matter in Renaissance times in ways they had not earlier? War fare had changed and needed intellectual strength now. Renaissance princes wanted advisers, good strategists, engineers. 6.
Describe Castigation’s views of the ideal Renaissance courtier. Castigation thought that a good Renaissance courtier still needed some qualities of the chivalrous knight, eke courage, horsemanship, and good swordsmanship for battle. He also thought courtiers should know how to swim, run, and Jump. They should be able to read and write in both Latin and Greek. He should be able to discuss art and philosophy with his ruler, as well as draw, paint, dance, and play some musical instruments. He should be a man of good character and very modest about his talents and skills. . What does it mean to be a “Renaissance man”? To be a person of knowledge and skill. Detest was the wife of Francesco Kananga. She was also an artist, poet, and writer. She advised her husband on many diplomatic matters. When her husband was locked away in prison, she ruled Mantra. She managed to secure her husband’s release when the Venetians imprisoned him. She was a dedicated patron of the arts. She made Mantra a center of learning and art. 9. The two issues always on the minds of princes in Renaissance Italy were politics and war. 10.
Who was Niccole Machiavelli and what did he believe Italy’s princes needed to be able to do? He was a Florentine diplomat who wrote The Prince, a book which analyzed the politics of Renaissance Italy. He is considered the father of modern political science. Machiavelli thought a good ruler should do whatever was necessary to secure and unite his state. 1 1 . What is the main subject of The Prince? The main subject is how to create and maintain a secure state and how to acquire and hold power. 12. What were the main sources of information that Machiavelli used for his book?
He drew on lessons learned in his study of classical history, and the lessons he learned by studying the triumphs and failures of Cesar Barrio and there. 13. How did Machiavellian idea oaf good ruler differ from that of medieval philosophers? Medieval philosophers had stated that a ruler should exercise power virtuously for the common good of his people, and that he should base his actions on Christian principles. Machiavelli argued that a good ruler should do whatever it takes to secure and unite his state. 14. Machiavelli declared that to hold on to power, a prince must act as circumstances required.
A famous saying that expresses his idea is the ends Justifies the means. 5. What was Machiavellian answer to the question “Is it better to be loved or to be feared? ” His reply was that one ought to be both but, as it is difficult for the two to go together, it is much safer to be feared than to be loved. 16. Describe the influence The Prince had on European rulers. The book gave European rulers new ideas some good, some bad about how to govern. The Prince made rulers and their counselors think less about abstract ideals and more about actual human conduct and likely results. The way normal people act.